Python next

Release date: XXXX-XX-XX

Core and Builtins

  • gh-102388: Fix a bug where iso2022_jp_3 and iso2022_jp_2004 codecs read out of bounds


  • gh-109991: Windows builds now use OpenSSL 1.1.1w. Note that OpenSSL 1.1 has reached its end of life and no future fixes will be made, and this version of Python is no longer receiving maintenance fixes and will not be updated to OpenSSL 3.0.


  • gh-109991: Update GitHub CI workflows to use OpenSSL 3.0.11 and multissltests to use 1.1.1w, 3.0.11, and 3.1.3.

Python 3.10.13 final

Release date: 2023-08-24


  • gh-108310: Fixed an issue where instances of ssl.SSLSocket were vulnerable to a bypass of the TLS handshake and included protections (like certificate verification) and treating sent unencrypted data as if it were post-handshake TLS encrypted data. Security issue reported as CVE-2023-40217 by Aapo Oksman. Patch by Gregory P. Smith.


  • gh-107845: tarfile.data_filter() now takes the location of symlinks into account when determining their target, so it will no longer reject some valid tarballs with LinkOutsideDestinationError.


  • gh-107565: Update multissltests and GitHub CI workflows to use OpenSSL 1.1.1v, 3.0.10, and 3.1.2.


Python 3.10.12 final

Release date: 2023-06-06


  • gh-103142: The version of OpenSSL used in our binary builds has been upgraded to 1.1.1u to address several CVEs.

  • gh-99889: Fixed a security in flaw in uu.decode() that could allow for directory traversal based on the input if no out_file was specified.

  • gh-104049: Do not expose the local on-disk location in directory indexes produced by http.client.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler.

  • gh-102153: urllib.parse.urlsplit() now strips leading C0 control and space characters following the specification for URLs defined by WHATWG in response to CVE-2023-24329. Patch by Illia Volochii.




  • gh-103262: Fixes Windows installer build to work with latest compilers.

Python 3.10.11 final

Release date: 2023-04-04


Core and Builtins

  • gh-102416: Do not memoize incorrectly automatically generated loop rules in the parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-102356: Fix a bug that caused a crash when deallocating deeply nested filter objects. Patch by Marta Gómez Macías.

  • gh-102397: Fix segfault from race condition in signal handling during garbage collection. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-102126: Fix deadlock at shutdown when clearing thread states if any finalizer tries to acquire the runtime head lock. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-102027: Fix SSE2 and SSE3 detection in _blake2 internal module. Patch by Max Bachmann.

  • gh-101967: Fix possible segfault in positional_only_passed_as_keyword function, when new list created.

  • gh-101765: Fix SystemError / segmentation fault in iter __reduce__ when internal access of builtins.__dict__ keys mutates the iter object.


  • gh-102947: Improve traceback when dataclasses.fields() is called on a non-dataclass. Patch by Alex Waygood

  • gh-101979: Fix a bug where parentheses in the metavar argument to argparse.ArgumentParser.add_argument() were dropped. Patch by Yeojin Kim.

  • gh-102179: Fix os.dup2() error message for negative fds.

  • gh-101961: For the binary mode, fileinput.hookcompressed() doesn't set the encoding value even if the value is None. Patch by Gihwan Kim.

  • gh-101936: The default value of fp becomes io.BytesIO if HTTPError is initialized without a designated fp parameter. Patch by Long Vo.

  • gh-101566: In zipfile, apply fix for extractall on the underlying zipfile after being wrapped in Path.

  • gh-101997: Upgrade pip wheel bundled with ensurepip (pip 23.0.1)

  • gh-101892: Callable iterators no longer raise SystemError when the callable object exhausts the iterator but forgets to either return a sentinel value or raise StopIteration.

  • gh-97786: Fix potential undefined behaviour in corner cases of floating-point-to-time conversions.

  • gh-101517: Fixed bug where bdb looks up the source line with linecache with a lineno=None, which causes it to fail with an unhandled exception.

  • gh-101673: Fix a pdb bug where ll clears the changes to local variables.

  • gh-96931: Fix incorrect results from ssl.SSLSocket.shared_ciphers()

  • gh-88233: Correctly preserve "extra" fields in zipfile regardless of their ordering relative to a zip64 "extra."

  • gh-95495: When built against OpenSSL 3.0, the ssl module had a bug where it reported unauthenticated EOFs (i.e. without close_notify) as a clean TLS-level EOF. It now raises SSLEOFError, matching the behavior in previous versions of OpenSSL. The options attribute on SSLContext also no longer includes OP_IGNORE_UNEXPECTED_EOF by default. This option may be set to specify the previous OpenSSL 3.0 behavior.

  • gh-94440: Fix a concurrent.futures.process bug where ProcessPoolExecutor shutdown could hang after a future has been quickly submitted and canceled.



  • gh-102980: Improve test coverage on pdb.

  • gh-102537: Adjust the error handling strategy in test_zoneinfo.TzPathTest.python_tzpath_context. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • gh-101377: Improved test_locale_calendar_formatweekday of calendar.


  • gh-102711: Fix -Wstrict-prototypes compiler warnings.


  • gh-101759: Update Windows installer to SQLite 3.40.1.

  • gh-101614: Correctly handle extensions built against debug binaries that reference python3_d.dll.


  • gh-103207: Add instructions to the macOS installer welcome display on how to workaround the macOS 13 Ventura “The installer encountered an error” failure.

  • gh-101759: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.40.1.

  • gh-87235: On macOS python3 /dev/fd/9 9</path/to/ failed for any script longer than a couple of bytes.

Python 3.10.10 final

Release date: 2023-02-07

Core and Builtins

  • gh-101400: Fix wrong lineno in exception message on continue or break which are not in a loop. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • gh-101372: Fix is_normalized() to properly handle the UCD 3.2.0 cases. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • gh-101046: Fix a possible memory leak in the parser when raising MemoryError. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-100942: Fixed segfault in property.getter/setter/deleter that occurred when a property subclass overrode the __new__ method to return a non-property instance.

  • gh-100892: Fix race while iterating over thread states in clearing threading.local. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-100776: Fix misleading default value in input()'s __text_signature__.

  • gh-100374: Fix incorrect result and delay in socket.getfqdn(). Patch by Dominic Socular.

  • gh-100050: Honor existing errors obtained when searching for mismatching parentheses in the tokenizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-32782: ctypes arrays of length 0 now report a correct itemsize when a memoryview is constructed from them, rather than always giving a value of 0.




  • gh-101334: test_tarfile has been updated to pass when run as a high UID.

  • gh-96002: Add functional test for Argument Clinic.


  • gh-101522: Allow overriding Windows dependencies versions and paths using MSBuild properties.


  • gh-82052: Fixed an issue where writing more than 32K of Unicode output to the console screen in one go can result in mojibake.

  • gh-100180: Update Windows installer to OpenSSL 1.1.1s

  • bpo-43984: winreg.SetValueEx() now leaves the target value untouched in the case of conversion errors. Previously, -1 would be written in case of such errors.


  • gh-100180: Update macOS installer to OpenSSL 1.1.1s


  • gh-99240: In argument parsing, after deallocating newly allocated memory, reset its pointer to NULL.

Python 3.10.9 final

Release date: 2022-12-06


  • gh-100001: python -m http.server no longer allows terminal control characters sent within a garbage request to be printed to the stderr server log.

    This is done by changing the http.server BaseHTTPRequestHandler .log_message method to replace control characters with a \xHH hex escape before printing.

  • gh-87604: Avoid publishing list of active per-interpreter audit hooks via the gc module

  • gh-98433: The IDNA codec decoder used on DNS hostnames by socket or asyncio related name resolution functions no longer involves a quadratic algorithm. This prevents a potential CPU denial of service if an out-of-spec excessive length hostname involving bidirectional characters were decoded. Some protocols such as urllib http 3xx redirects potentially allow for an attacker to supply such a name.

  • gh-98739: Update bundled libexpat to 2.5.0

  • gh-98517: Port XKCP's fix for the buffer overflows in SHA-3 (CVE-2022-37454).

  • gh-97514: On Linux the multiprocessing module returns to using filesystem backed unix domain sockets for communication with the forkserver process instead of the Linux abstract socket namespace. Only code that chooses to use the "forkserver" start method is affected.

    Abstract sockets have no permissions and could allow any user on the system in the same network namespace (often the whole system) to inject code into the multiprocessing forkserver process. This was a potential privilege escalation. Filesystem based socket permissions restrict this to the forkserver process user as was the default in Python 3.8 and earlier.

    This prevents Linux CVE-2022-42919.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-99578: Fix a reference bug in _imp.create_builtin() after the creation of the first sub-interpreter for modules builtins and sys. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-99581: Fixed a bug that was causing a buffer overflow if the tokenizer copies a line missing the newline caracter from a file that is as long as the available tokenizer buffer. Patch by Pablo galindo

  • gh-96055: Update faulthandler to emit an error message with the proper unexpected signal number. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • gh-98852: Fix subscription of types.GenericAlias instances containing bare generic types: for example tuple[A, T][int], where A is a generic type, and T is a type variable.

  • gh-98415: Fix detection of MAC addresses for uuid on certain OSs. Patch by Chaim Sanders

  • gh-92119: Print exception class name instead of its string representation when raising errors from ctypes calls.

  • gh-93696: Allow pdb to locate source for frozen modules in the standard library.

  • bpo-31718: Raise ValueError instead of SystemError when methods of uninitialized io.IncrementalNewlineDecoder objects are called. Patch by Oren Milman.

  • bpo-38031: Fix a possible assertion failure in io.FileIO when the opener returns an invalid file descriptor.


  • gh-100001: Also escape s in the http.server BaseHTTPRequestHandler.log_message so that it is technically possible to parse the line and reconstruct what the original data was. Without this a xHH is ambiguious as to if it is a hex replacement we put in or the characters r"x" came through in the original request line.

  • gh-93453: asyncio.get_event_loop() now only emits a deprecation warning when a new event loop was created implicitly. It no longer emits a deprecation warning if the current event loop was set.

  • gh-51524: Fix bug when calling trace.CoverageResults with valid infile.

  • gh-99645: Fix a bug in handling class cleanups in unittest.TestCase. Now addClassCleanup() uses separate lists for different TestCase subclasses, and doClassCleanups() only cleans up the particular class.

  • gh-97001: Release the GIL when calling termios APIs to avoid blocking threads.

  • gh-99341: Fix ast.increment_lineno() to also cover ast.TypeIgnore when changing line numbers.

  • gh-74044: Fixed bug where inspect.signature() reported incorrect arguments for decorated methods.

  • gh-99275: Fix SystemError in ctypes when exception was not set during __initsubclass__.

  • gh-99155: Fix statistics.NormalDist pickle with 0 and 1 protocols.

  • gh-99134: Update the bundled copy of pip to version 22.3.1.

  • gh-99130: Apply bugfixes from importlib_metadata 4.11.4, namely: In PathDistribution._name_from_stem, avoid including parts of the extension in the result. In PathDistribution._normalized_name, ensure names loaded from the stem of the filename are also normalized, ensuring duplicate entry points by packages varying only by non-normalized name are hidden.

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleak on failed module initialisation in _zoneinfo

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleaks on failed module initialisation in in _pickle

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleak on failed module initialisation in _io.

  • gh-98897: Fix memory leak in math.dist() when both points don't have the same dimension. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-98793: Fix argument typechecks in _overlapped.WSAConnect() and _overlapped.Overlapped.WSASendTo() functions.

  • gh-98740: Fix internal error in the re module which in very rare circumstances prevented compilation of a regular expression containing a conditional expression without the "else" branch.

  • gh-98703: Fix asyncio.StreamWriter.drain() to call protocol.connection_lost callback only once on Windows.

  • gh-98624: Add a mutex to unittest.mock.NonCallableMock to protect concurrent access to mock attributes.

  • gh-89237: Fix hang on Windows in subprocess.wait_closed() in asyncio with ProactorEventLoop. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-98458: Fix infinite loop in unittest when a self-referencing chained exception is raised

  • gh-97928: tkinter.Text.count() raises now an exception for options starting with "-" instead of silently ignoring them.

  • gh-97966: On uname_result, restored expectation that _fields and _asdict would include all six properties including processor.

  • gh-98331: Update the bundled copies of pip and setuptools to versions 22.3 and 65.5.0 respectively.

  • gh-96035: Fix bug in urllib.parse.urlparse() that causes certain port numbers containing whitespace, underscores, plus and minus signs, or non-ASCII digits to be incorrectly accepted.

  • gh-98251: Allow venv to pass along PYTHON* variables to ensurepip and pip when they do not impact path resolution

  • gh-98178: On macOS, fix a crash in syslog.syslog() in multi-threaded applications. On macOS, the libc syslog() function is not thread-safe, so syslog.syslog() no longer releases the GIL to call it. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96151: Allow BUILTINS to be a valid field name for frozen dataclasses.

  • gh-98086: Make sure patch.dict() can be applied on async functions.

  • gh-88863: To avoid apparent memory leaks when asyncio.open_connection() raises, break reference cycles generated by local exception and future instances (which has exception instance as its member var). Patch by Dong Uk, Kang.

  • gh-93858: Prevent error when activating venv in nested fish instances.

  • bpo-46364: Restrict use of sockets instead of pipes for stdin of subprocesses created by asyncio to AIX platform only.

  • bpo-38523: shutil.copytree() now applies the ignore_dangling_symlinks argument recursively.

  • bpo-36267: Fix IndexError in argparse.ArgumentParser when a store_true action is given an explicit argument.


  • gh-92892: Document that calling variadic functions with ctypes requires special care on macOS/arm64 (and possibly other platforms).


  • gh-99892: Skip test_normalization() of test_unicodedata if it fails to download NormalizationTest.txt file from Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-34272: Some C API tests were moved into the new Lib/test/test_capi/ directory.


  • gh-99086: Fix -Wimplicit-int, -Wstrict-prototypes, and -Wimplicit-function-declaration compiler warnings in configure checks.

  • gh-99086: Fix -Wimplicit-int compiler warning in configure check for PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM.

  • gh-97731: Specify the full path to the source location for make docclean (needed for cross-builds).

  • gh-98671: Fix NO_MISALIGNED_ACCESSES being not defined for the SHA3 extension when HAVE_ALIGNED_REQUIRED is set. Allowing builds on hardware that unaligned memory accesses are not allowed.


  • gh-99345: Use faster initialization functions to detect install location for Windows Store package

  • gh-98689: Update Windows builds to zlib v1.2.13. v1.2.12 has CVE-2022-37434, but the vulnerable inflateGetHeader API is not used by Python.

  • gh-94328: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.39.4.

  • bpo-40882: Fix a memory leak in multiprocessing.shared_memory.SharedMemory on Windows.


  • gh-94328: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.39.4.


  • gh-97527: Fix a bug in the previous bugfix that caused IDLE to not start when run with 3.10.8, 3.12.0a1, and at least Microsoft Python 3.10.2288.0 installed without the Lib/test package. 3.11.0 was never affected.


  • gh-95731: Fix handling of module docstrings in Tools/i18n/

Python 3.10.8 final

Release date: 2022-10-11


  • gh-97616: Fix multiplying a list by an integer (list *= int): detect the integer overflow when the new allocated length is close to the maximum size. Issue reported by Jordan Limor. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-97612: Fix a shell code injection vulnerability in the example script. The script no longer uses a shell to run openssl commands. Issue reported and initial fix by Caleb Shortt. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-68966: The deprecated mailcap module now refuses to inject unsafe text (filenames, MIME types, parameters) into shell commands. Instead of using such text, it will warn and act as if a match was not found (or for test commands, as if the test failed).

Core and Builtins

  • gh-96078: os.sched_yield() now release the GIL while calling sched_yield(2). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • gh-97943: Bugfix: PyFunction_GetAnnotations() should return a borrowed reference. It was returning a new reference.

  • gh-97591: Fixed a missing incref/decref pair in Exception.__setstate__(). Patch by Ofey Chan.

  • gh-96848: Fix command line parsing: reject -X int_max_str_digits option with no value (invalid) when the PYTHONINTMAXSTRDIGITS environment variable is set to a valid limit. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-95921: Fix overly-broad source position information for chained comparisons used as branching conditions.

  • gh-96821: Fix undefined behaviour in _testcapimodule.c.

  • gh-95778: When ValueError is raised if an integer is larger than the limit, mention the sys.set_int_max_str_digits() function in the error message. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96387: At Python exit, sometimes a thread holding the GIL can wait forever for a thread (usually a daemon thread) which requested to drop the GIL, whereas the thread already exited. To fix the race condition, the thread which requested the GIL drop now resets its request before exiting. Issue discovered and analyzed by Mingliang ZHAO. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96864: Fix a possible assertion failure, fatal error, or SystemError if a line tracing event raises an exception while opcode tracing is enabled.

  • gh-96678: Fix undefined behaviour in C code of null pointer arithmetic.

  • gh-96641: Do not expose KeyWrapper in _functools.

  • gh-96611: When loading a file with invalid UTF-8 inside a multi-line string, a correct SyntaxError is emitted.

  • gh-95196: Disable incorrect pickling of the C implemented classmethod descriptors.

  • gh-96352: Fix AttributeError missing name and obj attributes in object.__getattribute__(). Patch by Philip Georgi.

  • bpo-42316: Document some places where an assignment expression needs parentheses.


  • gh-87730: Wrap network errors consistently in urllib FTP support, so the test suite doesn't fail when a network is available but the public internet is not reachable.

  • gh-97825: Fixes AttributeError when subprocess.check_output() is used with argument input=None and either of the arguments encoding or errors are used.

  • gh-96827: Avoid spurious tracebacks from asyncio when default executor cleanup is delayed until after the event loop is closed (e.g. as the result of a keyboard interrupt).

  • gh-97592: Avoid a crash in the C version of asyncio.Future.remove_done_callback() when an evil argument is passed.

  • gh-97639: Remove tokenize.NL check from tabnanny.

  • gh-97545: Make Semaphore run faster.

  • gh-73588: Fix generation of the default name of tkinter.Checkbutton. Previously, checkbuttons in different parent widgets could have the same short name and share the same state if arguments "name" and "variable" are not specified. Now they are globally unique.

  • gh-97005: Update bundled libexpat to 2.4.9

  • gh-85760: Fix race condition in asyncio where process_exited() called before the pipe_data_received() leading to inconsistent output. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-96819: Fixed check in multiprocessing.resource_tracker that guarantees that the length of a write to a pipe is not greater than PIPE_BUF.

  • gh-96741: Corrected type annotation for dataclass attribute pstats.FunctionProfile.ncalls to be str.

  • gh-96652: Fix the faulthandler implementation of faulthandler.register(signal, chain=True) if the sigaction() function is not available: don't call the previous signal handler if it's NULL. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96073: In inspect, fix overeager replacement of "typing." in formatting annotations.

  • gh-90467: Fix asyncio.streams.StreamReaderProtocol to keep a strong reference to the created task, so that it's not garbage collected

  • gh-96052: Fix handling compiler warnings (SyntaxWarning and DeprecationWarning) in codeop.compile_command() when checking for incomplete input. Previously it emitted warnings and raised a SyntaxError. Now it always returns None for incomplete input without emitting any warnings.

  • gh-91212: Fixed flickering of the turtle window when the tracer is turned off. Patch by Shin-myoung-serp.

  • gh-74116: Allow asyncio.StreamWriter.drain() to be awaited concurrently by multiple tasks. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-90155: Fix broken asyncio.Semaphore when acquire is cancelled.

  • gh-92986: Fix ast.unparse() when ImportFrom.level is None

  • gh-91539: Improve performance of urllib.request.getproxies_environment when there are many environment variables


  • gh-97741: Fix ! in c domain ref target syntax via a patch, so it works as intended to disable ref target resolution.

  • gh-95588: Clarified the conflicting advice given in the ast documentation about ast.literal_eval() being "safe" for use on untrusted input while at the same time warning that it can crash the process. The latter statement is true and is deemed unfixable without a large amount of work unsuitable for a bugfix. So we keep the warning and no longer claim that literal_eval is safe.

  • gh-93031: Update tutorial introduction output to use 3.10+ SyntaxError invalid range.


  • gh-96729: Ensure that Windows releases built with Tools\msi\buildrelease.bat are upgradable to and from official Python releases.


  • gh-97728: Fix possible crashes caused by the use of uninitialized variables when pass invalid arguments in os.system() on Windows and in Windows-specific modules (like winreg).

  • gh-90989: Clarify some text in the Windows installer.

  • gh-96577: Fixes a potential buffer overrun in msilib.


  • gh-97897: The macOS 13 SDK includes support for the mkfifoat and mknodat system calls. Using the dir_fd option with either os.mkfifo() or os.mknod() could result in a segfault if cpython is built with the macOS 13 SDK but run on an earlier version of macOS. Prevent this by adding runtime support for detection of these system calls ("weaklinking") as is done for other newer syscalls on macOS.

Python 3.10.7 final

Release date: 2022-09-05


  • gh-95778: Converting between int and str in bases other than 2 (binary), 4, 8 (octal), 16 (hexadecimal), or 32 such as base 10 (decimal) now raises a ValueError if the number of digits in string form is above a limit to avoid potential denial of service attacks due to the algorithmic complexity. This is a mitigation for CVE-2020-10735.

    This new limit can be configured or disabled by environment variable, command line flag, or sys APIs. See the integer string conversion length limitation documentation. The default limit is 4300 digits in string form.

    Patch by Gregory P. Smith [Google] and Christian Heimes [Red Hat] with feedback from Victor Stinner, Thomas Wouters, Steve Dower, Ned Deily, and Mark Dickinson.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-96187: Fixed a bug that caused _PyCode_GetExtra to return garbage for negative indexes. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-95876: Fix format string in _PyPegen_raise_error_known_location that can lead to memory corruption on some 64bit systems. The function was building a tuple with i (int) instead of n (Py_ssize_t) for Py_ssize_t arguments.

  • gh-95605: Fix misleading contents of error message when converting an all-whitespace string to float.

  • gh-93592: coroutine.throw() now properly initializes the frame.f_back when resuming a stack of coroutines. This allows e.g. traceback.print_stack() to work correctly when an exception (such as CancelledError) is thrown into a coroutine.

  • gh-94996: ast.parse() will no longer parse function definitions with positional-only params when passed feature_version less than (3, 8). Patch by Shantanu Jain.


  • gh-68163: Correct conversion of numbers.Rational's to float.

  • gh-96159: Fix a performance regression in logging TimedRotatingFileHandler. Only check for special files when the rollover time has passed.

  • gh-96175: Fix unused localName parameter in the Attr class in xml.dom.minidom.

  • gh-95609: Update bundled pip to 22.2.2.

  • gh-95231: Fail gracefully if EPERM or ENOSYS is raised when loading crypt methods. This may happen when trying to load MD5 on a Linux kernel with FIPS enabled.


  • gh-96098: Improve discoverability of the higher level concurrent.futures module by providing clearer links from the lower level threading and multiprocessing modules.

  • gh-95789: Update the default RFC base URL from deprecated to

  • gh-91207: Fix stylesheet not working in Windows CHM htmlhelp docs. Contributed by C.A.M. Gerlach.

  • bpo-47115: The documentation now lists which members of C structs are part of the Limited API/Stable ABI.


  • gh-95243: Mitigate the inherent race condition from using find_unused_port() in testSockName() by trying to find an unused port a few times before failing. Patch by Ross Burton.


  • gh-94682: Build and test with OpenSSL 1.1.1q


  • gh-65802: Document handling of extensions in Save As dialogs.

  • gh-95191: Include prompts when saving Shell (interactive input and output).

Python 3.10.6 final

Release date: 2022-08-01


  • gh-87389: http.server: Fix an open redirection vulnerability in the HTTP server when an URI path starts with //. Vulnerability discovered, and initial fix proposed, by Hamza Avvan.

  • gh-92888: Fix memoryview use after free when accessing the backing buffer in certain cases.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-95355: _PyPegen_Parser_New now properly detects token memory allocation errors. Patch by Honglin Zhu.

  • gh-94938: Fix error detection in some builtin functions when keyword argument name is an instance of a str subclass with overloaded __eq__ and __hash__. Previously it could cause SystemError or other undesired behavior.

  • gh-94949: ast.parse() will no longer parse parenthesized context managers when passed feature_version less than (3, 9). Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-94947: ast.parse() will no longer parse assignment expressions when passed feature_version less than (3, 8). Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-94869: Fix the column offsets for some expressions in multi-line f-strings ast nodes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-91153: Fix an issue where a bytearray item assignment could crash if it's resized by the new value's __index__() method.

  • gh-94329: Compile and run code with unpacking of extremely large sequences (1000s of elements). Such code failed to compile. It now compiles and runs correctly.

  • gh-94360: Fixed a tokenizer crash when reading encoded files with syntax errors from stdin with non utf-8 encoded text. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-94192: Fix error for dictionary literals with invalid expression as value.

  • gh-93964: Strengthened compiler overflow checks to prevent crashes when compiling very large source files.

  • gh-93671: Fix some exponential backtrace case happening with deeply nested sequence patterns in match statements. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-93021: Fix the __text_signature__ for __get__() methods implemented in C. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-92930: Fixed a crash in _pickle.c from mutating collections during __reduce__ or persistent_id.

  • gh-92914: Always round the allocated size for lists up to the nearest even number.

  • gh-92858: Improve error message for some suites with syntax error before ':'




  • gh-95280: Fix problem with test_ssl test_get_ciphers on systems that require perfect forward secrecy (PFS) ciphers.

  • gh-95212: Make multiprocessing test case test_shared_memory_recreate parallel-safe.

  • gh-91330: Added more tests for dataclasses to cover behavior with data descriptor-based fields.

  • gh-94208: test_ssl is now checking for supported TLS version and protocols in more tests.

  • gh-93951: In test_bdb.StateTestCase.test_skip, avoid including auxiliary importers.

  • gh-93957: Provide nicer error reporting from subprocesses in test_venv.EnsurePipTest.test_with_pip.

  • gh-57539: Increase calendar test coverage for calendar.LocaleTextCalendar.formatweekday().

  • gh-92886: Fixing tests that fail when running with optimizations (-O) in

  • bpo-47016: Create a GitHub Actions workflow for verifying bundled pip and setuptools. Patch by Illia Volochii and Adam Turner.


  • gh-94841: Fix the possible performance regression of PyObject_Free() compiled with MSVC version 1932.

  • bpo-45816: Python now supports building with Visual Studio 2022 (MSVC v143, VS Version 17.0). Patch by Jeremiah Vivian.


  • gh-90844: Allow virtual environments to correctly launch when they have spaces in the path.

  • gh-92841: asyncio no longer throws RuntimeError: Event loop is closed on interpreter exit after asynchronous socket activity. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-42658: Support native Windows case-insensitive path comparisons by using LCMapStringEx instead of str.lower() in ntpath.normcase(). Add LCMapStringEx to the _winapi module.


  • gh-95511: Fix the Shell context menu copy-with-prompts bug of copying an extra line when one selects whole lines.

  • gh-95471: In the Edit menu, move Select All and add a new separator.

  • gh-95411: Enable using IDLE's module browser with .pyw files.

  • gh-89610: Add .pyi as a recognized extension for IDLE on macOS. This allows opening stub files by double clicking on them in the Finder.


  • gh-94538: Fix Argument Clinic output to custom file destinations. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-94430: Allow parameters named module and self with custom C names in Argument Clinic. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland


  • gh-94930: Fix SystemError raised when PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() is used with # in (...) but without PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN defined.

  • gh-94864: Fix PyArg_Parse* with deprecated format units "u" and "Z". It returned 1 (success) when warnings are turned into exceptions.

Python 3.10.5 final

Release date: 2022-06-06

Core and Builtins

  • gh-93418: Fixed an assert where an f-string has an equal sign '=' following an expression, but there's no trailing brace. For example, f"{i=".

  • gh-91924: Fix __ltrace__ debug feature if the stdout encoding is not UTF-8. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-93061: Backward jumps after async for loops are no longer given dubious line numbers.

  • gh-93065: Fix contextvars HAMT implementation to handle iteration over deep trees.

    The bug was discovered and fixed by Eli Libman. See MagicStack/immutables#84 for more details.

  • gh-92311: Fixed a bug where setting frame.f_lineno to jump over a list comprehension could misbehave or crash.

  • gh-92112: Fix crash triggered by an evil custom mro() on a metaclass.

  • gh-92036: Fix a crash in subinterpreters related to the garbage collector. When a subinterpreter is deleted, untrack all objects tracked by its GC. To prevent a crash in deallocator functions expecting objects to be tracked by the GC, leak a strong reference to these objects on purpose, so they are never deleted and their deallocator functions are not called. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91421: Fix a potential integer overflow in _Py_DecodeUTF8Ex.

  • bpo-47212: Raise IndentationError instead of SyntaxError for a bare except with no following indent. Improve SyntaxError locations for an un-parenthesized generator used as arguments. Patch by Matthieu Dartiailh.

  • bpo-47182: Fix a crash when using a named unicode character like "\N{digit nine}" after the main interpreter has been initialized a second time.

  • bpo-46775: Some Windows system error codes(>= 10000) are now mapped into the correct errno and may now raise a subclass of OSError. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-47117: Fix a crash if we fail to decode characters in interactive mode if the tokenizer buffers are uninitialized. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39829: Removed the __len__() call when initializing a list and moved initializing to list_extend. Patch by Jeremiah Pascual.

  • bpo-46962: Classes and functions that unconditionally declared their docstrings ignoring the --without-doc-strings compilation flag no longer do so.

    The classes affected are ctypes.UnionType, pickle.PickleBuffer, testcapi.RecursingInfinitelyError, and types.GenericAlias.

    The functions affected are 24 methods in ctypes.

    Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-36819: Fix crashes in built-in encoders with error handlers that return position less or equal than the starting position of non-encodable characters.


  • gh-93156: Accessing the pathlib.PurePath.parents sequence of an absolute path using negative index values produced incorrect results.

  • gh-89973: Fix re.error raised in fnmatch if the pattern contains a character range with upper bound lower than lower bound (e.g. [c-a]). Now such ranges are interpreted as empty ranges.

  • gh-93010: In a very special case, the email package tried to append the nonexistent InvalidHeaderError to the defect list. It should have been InvalidHeaderDefect.

  • gh-92839: Fixed crash resulting from calling bisect.insort() or bisect.insort_left() with the key argument not equal to None.

  • gh-91581: utcfromtimestamp() no longer attempts to resolve fold in the pure Python implementation, since the fold is never 1 in UTC. In addition to being slightly faster in the common case, this also prevents some errors when the timestamp is close to datetime.min. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • gh-92530: Fix an issue that occurred after interrupting threading.Condition.notify().

  • gh-92049: Forbid pickling constants re._constants.SUCCESS etc. Previously, pickling did not fail, but the result could not be unpickled.

  • bpo-47029: Always close the read end of the pipe used by multiprocessing.Queue after the last write of buffered data to the write end of the pipe to avoid BrokenPipeError at garbage collection and at multiprocessing.Queue.close() calls. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • gh-91401: Provide a fail-safe way to disable subprocess use of vfork() via a private subprocess._USE_VFORK attribute. While there is currently no known need for this, if you find a need please only set it to False. File a CPython issue as to why you needed it and link to that from a comment in your code. This attribute is documented as a footnote in 3.11.

  • gh-91910: Add missing f prefix to f-strings in error messages from the multiprocessing and asyncio modules.

  • gh-91810: ElementTree method write() and function tostring() now use the text file's encoding ("UTF-8" if not available) instead of locale encoding in XML declaration when encoding="unicode" is specified.

  • gh-91832: Add required attribute to argparse.Action repr output.

  • gh-91734: Fix OSS audio support on Solaris.

  • gh-91700: Compilation of regular expression containing a conditional expression (?(group)...) now raises an appropriate re.error if the group number refers to not defined group. Previously an internal RuntimeError was raised.

  • gh-91676: Fix unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase to shutdown the per test event loop executor before returning from its run method so that a not yet stopped or garbage collected executor state does not persist beyond the test.

  • gh-90568: Parsing \N escapes of Unicode Named Character Sequences in a regular expression raises now re.error instead of TypeError.

  • gh-91595: Fix the comparison of character and integer inside Tools.gdb.libpython.write_repr(). Patch by Yu Liu.

  • gh-90622: Worker processes for concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor are no longer spawned on demand (a feature added in 3.9) when the multiprocessing context start method is "fork" as that can lead to deadlocks in the child processes due to a fork happening while threads are running.

  • gh-91575: Update case-insensitive matching in the re module to the latest Unicode version.

  • gh-91581: Remove an unhandled error case in the C implementation of calls to datetime.fromtimestamp with no time zone (i.e. getting a local time from an epoch timestamp). This should have no user-facing effect other than giving a possibly more accurate error message when called with timestamps that fall on 10000-01-01 in the local time. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-47260: Fix os.closerange() potentially being a no-op in a Linux seccomp sandbox.

  • bpo-39064: zipfile.ZipFile now raises zipfile.BadZipFile instead of ValueError when reading a corrupt zip file in which the central directory offset is negative.

  • bpo-47151: When subprocess tries to use vfork, it now falls back to fork if vfork returns an error. This allows use in situations where vfork isn't allowed by the OS kernel.

  • bpo-27929: Fix asyncio.loop.sock_connect() to only resolve names for socket.AF_INET or socket.AF_INET6 families. Resolution may not make sense for other families, like socket.AF_BLUETOOTH and socket.AF_UNIX.

  • bpo-43323: Fix errors in the email module if the charset itself contains undecodable/unencodable characters.

  • bpo-47101: hashlib.algorithms_available now lists only algorithms that are provided by activated crypto providers on OpenSSL 3.0. Legacy algorithms are not listed unless the legacy provider has been loaded into the default OSSL context.

  • bpo-46787: Fix concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor exception memory leak

  • bpo-45393: Fix the formatting for await x and not x in the operator precedence table when using the help() system.

  • bpo-46415: Fix ipaddress.ip_{address,interface,network} raising TypeError instead of ValueError if given invalid tuple as address parameter.

  • bpo-28249: Set doctest.DocTest.lineno to None when object does not have __doc__.

  • bpo-45138: Fix a regression in the sqlite3 trace callback where bound parameters were not expanded in the passed statement string. The regression was introduced in Python 3.10 by bpo-40318. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44493: Add missing terminated NUL in sockaddr_un's length

    This was potentially observable when using non-abstract AF_UNIX datagram sockets to processes written in another programming language.

  • bpo-42627: Fix incorrect parsing of Windows registry proxy settings

  • bpo-36073: Raise ProgrammingError instead of segfaulting on recursive usage of cursors in sqlite3 converters. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.




  • bpo-47103: Windows PGInstrument builds now copy a required DLL into the output directory, making it easier to run the profile stage of a PGO build.


  • gh-92984: Explicitly disable incremental linking for non-Debug builds

  • bpo-47194: Update zlib to v1.2.12 to resolve CVE-2018-25032.

  • bpo-46785: Fix race condition between os.stat() and unlinking a file on Windows, by using errors codes returned by FindFirstFileW() when appropriate in win32_xstat_impl.

  • bpo-40859: Update Windows build to use xz-5.2.5


  • gh-91583: Fix regression in the code generated by Argument Clinic for functions with the defining_class parameter.

Python 3.10.4 final

Release date: 2022-03-23

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46968: Check for the existence of the "sys/auxv.h" header in faulthandler to avoid compilation problems in systems where this header doesn't exist. Patch by Pablo Galindo


  • bpo-23691: Protect the re.finditer() iterator from re-entering.

  • bpo-42369: Fix thread safety of zipfile._SharedFile.tell() to avoid a "zipfile.BadZipFile: Bad CRC-32 for file" exception when reading a ZipFile from multiple threads.

  • bpo-38256: Fix binascii.crc32() when it is compiled to use zlib'c crc32 to work properly on inputs 4+GiB in length instead of returning the wrong result. The workaround prior to this was to always feed the function data in increments smaller than 4GiB or to just call the zlib module function.

  • bpo-39394: A warning about inline flags not at the start of the regular expression now contains the position of the flag.

  • bpo-47061: Deprecate the various modules listed by PEP 594:

    aifc, asynchat, asyncore, audioop, cgi, cgitb, chunk, crypt, imghdr, msilib, nntplib, nis, ossaudiodev, pipes, smtpd, sndhdr, spwd, sunau, telnetlib, uu, xdrlib

  • bpo-2604: Fix bug where doctests using globals would fail when run multiple times.

  • bpo-45997: Fix asyncio.Semaphore re-aquiring FIFO order.

  • bpo-47022: The asynchat, asyncore and smtpd modules have been deprecated since at least Python 3.6. Their documentation and deprecation warnings and have now been updated to note they will removed in Python 3.12 (PEP 594).

  • bpo-46421: Fix a unittest issue where if the command was invoked as python -m unittest and the filename(s) began with a dot (.), a ValueError is returned.

  • bpo-40296: Fix supporting generic aliases in pydoc.

Python 3.10.3 final

Release date: 2022-03-16

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46940: Avoid overriding AttributeError metadata information for nested attribute access calls. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46852: Rename the private undocumented float.__set_format__() method to float.__setformat__() to fix a typo introduced in Python 3.7. The method is only used by test_float. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46794: Bump up the libexpat version into 2.4.6

  • bpo-46820: Fix parsing a numeric literal immediately (without spaces) followed by "not in" keywords, like in 1not in x. Now the parser only emits a warning, not a syntax error.

  • bpo-46762: Fix an assert failure in debug builds when a '<', '>', or '=' is the last character in an f-string that's missing a closing right brace.

  • bpo-46724: Make sure that all backwards jumps use the JUMP_ABSOLUTE instruction, rather than JUMP_FORWARD with an argument of (2**32)+offset.

  • bpo-46732: Correct the docstring for the __bool__() method. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-46707: Avoid potential exponential backtracking when producing some syntax errors involving lots of brackets. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40479: Add a missing call to va_end() in Modules/_hashopenssl.c.

  • bpo-46615: When iterating over sets internally in setobject.c, acquire strong references to the resulting items from the set. This prevents crashes in corner-cases of various set operations where the set gets mutated.

  • bpo-45773: Remove two invalid "peephole" optimizations from the bytecode compiler.

  • bpo-43721: Fix docstrings of getter, setter, and deleter to clarify that they create a new copy of the property.

  • bpo-46503: Fix an assert when parsing some invalid N escape sequences in f-strings.

  • bpo-46417: Fix a race condition on setting a type __bases__ attribute: the internal function add_subclass() now gets the PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses member after calling PyWeakref_NewRef() which can trigger a garbage collection which can indirectly modify PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46383: Fix invalid signature of _zoneinfo's module_free function to resolve a crash on wasm32-emscripten platform.

  • bpo-46070: Py_EndInterpreter() now explicitly untracks all objects currently tracked by the GC. Previously, if an object was used later by another interpreter, calling PyObject_GC_UnTrack() on the object crashed if the previous or the next object of the PyGC_Head structure became a dangling pointer. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46339: Fix a crash in the parser when retrieving the error text for multi-line f-strings expressions that do not start in the first line of the string. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46240: Correct the error message for unclosed parentheses when the tokenizer doesn't reach the end of the source when the error is reported. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46091: Correctly calculate indentation levels for lines with whitespace character that are ended by line continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo


  • bpo-43253: Fix a crash when closing transports where the underlying socket handle is already invalid on the Proactor event loop.

  • bpo-47004: Apply bugfixes from importlib_metadata 4.11.3, including bugfix for EntryPoint.extras, which was returning match objects and not the extras strings.

  • bpo-46985: Upgrade pip wheel bundled with ensurepip (pip 22.0.4)

  • bpo-46968: faulthandler: On Linux 5.14 and newer, dynamically determine size of signal handler stack size CPython allocates using getauxval(AT_MINSIGSTKSZ). This changes allows for Python extension's request to Linux kernel to use AMX_TILE instruction set on Sapphire Rapids Xeon processor to succeed, unblocking use of the ISA in frameworks.

  • bpo-46955: Expose asyncio.base_events.Server as asyncio.Server. Patch by Stefan Zabka.

  • bpo-23325: The signal module no longer assumes that SIG_IGN and SIG_DFL are small int singletons.

  • bpo-46932: Update bundled libexpat to 2.4.7

  • bpo-25707: Fixed a file leak in xml.etree.ElementTree.iterparse() when the iterator is not exhausted. Patch by Jacob Walls.

  • bpo-44886: Inherit asyncio proactor datagram transport from asyncio.DatagramTransport.

  • bpo-46827: Support UDP sockets in asyncio.loop.sock_connect() for selector-based event loops. Patch by Thomas Grainger.

  • bpo-46811: Make test suite support Expat >=2.4.5

  • bpo-46252: Raise TypeError if ssl.SSLSocket is passed to transport-based APIs.

  • bpo-46784: Fix libexpat symbols collisions with user dynamically loaded or statically linked libexpat in embedded Python.

  • bpo-39327: shutil.rmtree() can now work with VirtualBox shared folders when running from the guest operating-system.

  • bpo-46756: Fix a bug in urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgr.find_user_password() and urllib.request.HTTPPasswordMgrWithPriorAuth.is_authenticated() which allowed to bypass authorization. For example, access to URI was allowed if the user was authorized for URI

  • bpo-46643: In typing.get_type_hints(), support evaluating stringified ParamSpecArgs and ParamSpecKwargs annotations. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-45863: When the tarfile module creates a pax format archive, it will put an integer representation of timestamps in the ustar header (if possible) for the benefit of older unarchivers, in addition to the existing full-precision timestamps in the pax extended header.

  • bpo-46676: Make typing.ParamSpec args and kwargs equal to themselves. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46672: Fix NameError in asyncio.gather() when initial type check fails.

  • bpo-46655: In typing.get_type_hints(), support evaluating bare stringified TypeAlias annotations. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-45948: Fixed a discrepancy in the C implementation of the xml.etree.ElementTree module. Now, instantiating an xml.etree.ElementTree.XMLParser with a target=None keyword provides a default xml.etree.ElementTree.TreeBuilder target as the Python implementation does.

  • bpo-46521: Fix a bug in the codeop module that was incorrectly identifying invalid code involving string quotes as valid code.

  • bpo-46581: Brings ParamSpec propagation for GenericAlias in line with Concatenate (and others).

  • bpo-46591: Make the IDLE doc URL on the About IDLE dialog clickable.

  • bpo-46400: expat: Update libexpat from 2.4.1 to 2.4.4

  • bpo-46487: Add the get_write_buffer_limits method to asyncio.transports.WriteTransport and to the SSL transport.

  • bpo-45173: Note the configparser deprecations will be removed in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-46539: In typing.get_type_hints(), support evaluating stringified ClassVar and Final annotations inside Annotated. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46491: Allow typing.Annotated to wrap typing.Final and typing.ClassVar. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46436: Fix command-line option -d/--directory in module http.server which is ignored when combined with command-line option --cgi. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-41403: Make mock.patch() raise a TypeError with a relevant error message on invalid arg. Previously it allowed a cryptic AttributeError to escape.

  • bpo-46474: In importlib.metadata.EntryPoint.pattern, avoid potential REDoS by limiting ambiguity in consecutive whitespace.

  • bpo-46469: asyncio generic classes now return types.GenericAlias in __class_getitem__ instead of the same class.

  • bpo-46434: pdb now gracefully handles help when __doc__ is missing, for example when run with pregenerated optimized .pyc files.

  • bpo-46333: The __eq__() and __hash__() methods of typing.ForwardRef now honor the module parameter of typing.ForwardRef. Forward references from different modules are now differentiated.

  • bpo-46246: Add missing __slots__ to importlib.metadata.DeprecatedList. Patch by Arie Bovenberg.

  • bpo-46266: Improve day constants in calendar.

    Now all constants (MONDAY ... SUNDAY) are documented, tested, and added to __all__.

  • bpo-46232: The ssl module now handles certificates with bit strings in DN correctly.

  • bpo-43118: Fix a bug in inspect.signature() that was causing it to fail on some subclasses of classes with a __text_signature__ referencing module globals. Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-26552: Fixed case where failing asyncio.ensure_future() did not close the coroutine. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-21987: Fix an issue with tarfile.TarFile.getmember() getting a directory name with a trailing slash.

  • bpo-20392: Fix inconsistency with uppercase file extensions in MimeTypes.guess_type(). Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46080: Fix exception in argparse help text generation if a argparse.BooleanOptionalAction argument's default is argparse.SUPPRESS and it has help specified. Patch by Felix Fontein.

  • bpo-44439: Fix .write() method of a member file in ZipFile, when the input data is an object that supports the buffer protocol, the file length may be wrong.

  • bpo-45703: When a namespace package is imported before another module from the same namespace is created/installed in a different sys.path location while the program is running, calling the importlib.invalidate_caches() function will now also guarantee the new module is noticed.

  • bpo-24959: Fix bug where unittest sometimes drops frames from tracebacks of exceptions raised in tests.

  • bpo-44791: Fix substitution of ParamSpec in Concatenate with different parameter expressions. Substitution with a list of types returns now a tuple of types. Substitution with Concatenate returns now a Concatenate with concatenated lists of arguments.

  • bpo-14156: argparse.FileType now supports an argument of '-' in binary mode, returning the .buffer attribute of sys.stdin/sys.stdout as appropriate. Modes including 'x' and 'a' are treated equivalently to 'w' when argument is '-'. Patch contributed by Josh Rosenberg


  • bpo-46463: Fixes script used when building the CHM documentation file


  • bpo-46913: Fix test_faulthandler.test_sigfpe() if Python is built with undefined behavior sanitizer (UBSAN): disable UBSAN on the faulthandler_sigfpe() function. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46708: Prevent default asyncio event loop policy modification warning after test_asyncio execution.

  • bpo-46678: The function make_legacy_pyc in Lib/test/support/ no longer fails when PYTHONPYCACHEPREFIX is set to a directory on a different device from where tempfiles are stored.

  • bpo-46616: Ensures test_importlib.test_windows cleans up registry keys after completion.

  • bpo-44359: test_ftplib now silently ignores socket errors to prevent logging unhandled threading exceptions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46542: Fix a Python crash in test_lib2to3 when using Python built in debug mode: limit the recursion limit. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46576: test_peg_generator now disables compiler optimization when testing compilation of its own C extensions to significantly speed up the testing on non-debug builds of CPython.

  • bpo-46542: Fix test_json tests checking for RecursionError: modify these tests to use support.infinite_recursion(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-13886: Skip test_builtin PTY tests on non-ASCII characters if the readline module is loaded. The readline module changes input() behavior, but test_builtin is not intented to test the readline module. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • bpo-47032: Ensure Windows install builds fail correctly with a non-zero exit code when part of the build fails.

  • bpo-47024: Update OpenSSL to 1.1.1n for macOS installers and all Windows builds.

  • bpo-38472: Fix GCC detection in when cross-compiling. The C compiler is now run with LC_ALL=C. Previously, the detection failed with a German locale.

  • bpo-46513: configure no longer uses AC_C_CHAR_UNSIGNED macro and pyconfig.h no longer defines reserved symbol __CHAR_UNSIGNED__.

  • bpo-45925: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.37.2.


  • bpo-44549: Update bzip2 to 1.0.8 in Windows builds to mitigate CVE-2016-3189 and CVE-2019-12900

  • bpo-46948: Prevent CVE-2022-26488 by ensuring the Add to PATH option in the Windows installer uses the correct path when being repaired.

  • bpo-46638: Ensures registry virtualization is consistently disabled. For 3.10 and earlier, it remains enabled (some registry writes are protected), while for 3.11 and later it is disabled (registry modifications affect all applications).


  • bpo-45925: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.37.2.


  • bpo-46630: Make query dialogs on Windows start with a cursor in the entry box.

  • bpo-45296: Clarify close, quit, and exit in IDLE. In the File menu, 'Close' and 'Exit' are now 'Close Window' (the current one) and 'Exit' is now 'Exit IDLE' (by closing all windows). In Shell, 'quit()' and 'exit()' mean 'close Shell'. If there are no other windows, this also exits IDLE.

  • bpo-45447: Apply IDLE syntax highlighting to pyi files. Patch by Alex Waygood and Terry Jan Reedy.


  • bpo-46433: The internal function _PyType_GetModuleByDef now correctly handles inheritance patterns involving static types.

  • bpo-14916: Fixed bug in the tokenizer that prevented PyRun_InteractiveOne from parsing from the provided FD.

Python 3.10.2 final

Release date: 2022-01-13

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46347: Fix memory leak in PyEval_EvalCodeEx.

  • bpo-46289: ASDL declaration of FormattedValue has changed to reflect conversion field is not optional.

  • bpo-46237: Fix the line number of tokenizer errors inside f-strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46006: Fix a regression when a type method like __init__() is modified in a subinterpreter. Fix a regression in _PyUnicode_EqualToASCIIId() and type update_slot(). Revert the change which made the Unicode dictionary of interned strings compatible with subinterpreters: the internal interned dictionary is shared again by all interpreters. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46085: Fix iterator cache mechanism of OrderedDict.

  • bpo-46110: Add a maximum recursion check to the PEG parser to avoid stack overflow. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46054: Fix parser error when parsing non-utf8 characters in source files. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46042: Improve the location of the caret in SyntaxError exceptions emitted by the symbol table. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46025: Fix a crash in the atexit module involving functions that unregister themselves before raising exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46009: Restore behavior from 3.9 and earlier when sending non-None to newly started generator. In 3.9 this did not affect the state of the generator. In 3.10.0 and 3.10.1 gen_func().send(0) is equivalent to gen_func().throw(TypeError(...) which exhausts the generator. In 3.10.2 onward, the behavior has been reverted to that of 3.9.

  • bpo-46000: Improve compatibility of the curses module with NetBSD curses.

  • bpo-46004: Fix the SyntaxError location for errors involving for loops with invalid targets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-42918: Fix bug where the built-in compile() function did not always raise a SyntaxError when passed multiple statements in 'single' mode. Patch by Weipeng Hong.


  • bpo-40479: Fix hashlib usedforsecurity option to work correctly with OpenSSL 3.0.0 in FIPS mode.

  • bpo-46070: Fix possible segfault when importing the asyncio module from different sub-interpreters in parallel. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-46278: Reflect context argument in AbstractEventLoop.call_*() methods. Loop implementations already support it.

  • bpo-46239: Improve error message when importing asyncio.windows_events on non-Windows.

  • bpo-20369: concurrent.futures.wait() no longer blocks forever when given duplicate Futures. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46105: Honor spec when generating requirement specs with urls and extras (importlib_metadata 4.8.3).

  • bpo-26952: argparse raises ValueError with clear message when trying to render usage for an empty mutually-exclusive group. Previously it raised a cryptic IndexError.

  • bpo-27718: Fix help for the signal module. Some functions (e.g. signal() and getsignal()) were omitted.

  • bpo-46032: The registry() method of functools.singledispatch() functions checks now the first argument or the first parameter annotation and raises a TypeError if it is not supported. Previously unsupported "types" were ignored (e.g. typing.List[int]) or caused an error at calling time (e.g. list[int]).

  • bpo-46018: Ensure that math.expm1() does not raise on underflow.

  • bpo-45755: typing generic aliases now reveal the class attributes of the original generic class when passed to dir(). This was the behavior up to Python 3.6, but was changed in 3.7-3.9.

  • bpo-13236: unittest.TextTestResult and unittest.TextTestRunner flush now the output stream more often.

  • bpo-42378: Fixes the issue with log file being overwritten when logging.FileHandler is used in atexit with filemode set to 'w'. Note this will cause the message in atexit not being logged if the log stream is already closed due to shutdown of logging.


  • bpo-46120: State that | is preferred for readability over Union in the typing docs.

  • bpo-46040: Fix removal Python version for @asyncio.coroutine, the correct value is 3.11.

  • bpo-19737: Update the documentation for the globals() function.

  • bpo-45840: Improve cross-references in the documentation for the data model.


  • bpo-46205: Fix hang in runtest_mp due to race condition

  • bpo-46263: Fix test_capi on FreeBSD 14-dev: instruct jemalloc to not fill freed memory with junk byte.

  • bpo-46150: Now fakename in test_pathlib.PosixPathTest.test_expanduser is checked to be non-existent.

  • bpo-46129: Rewrite asyncio.locks tests with unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase usage.

  • bpo-46114: Fix test case for OpenSSL 3.0.1 version. OpenSSL 3.0 uses 0xMNN00PP0L.


  • bpo-46263: configure no longer sets MULTIARCH on FreeBSD platforms.

  • bpo-46106: Updated OpenSSL to 1.1.1m in Windows builds, macOS installer builds, and CI. Patch by Kumar Aditya.


  • bpo-40477: The Python Launcher app for macOS now properly launches scripts and, if necessary, the Terminal app when running on recent macOS releases.


Python 3.10.1 final

Release date: 2021-12-06

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42268: Fail the configure step if the selected compiler doesn't support memory sanitizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45727: Refine the custom syntax error that suggests that a comma may be missing to trigger only when the expressions are detected between parentheses or brackets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45614: Fix traceback display for exceptions with invalid module name.

  • bpo-45848: Allow the parser to obtain error lines directly from encoded files. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45826: Fixed a crash when calling .with_traceback(None) on NameError. This occurs internally in unittest.TestCase.assertRaises().

  • bpo-45822: Fixed a bug in the parser that was causing it to not respect PEP 263 coding cookies when no flags are provided. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45820: Fix a segfault when the parser fails without reading any input. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-42540: Fix crash when os.fork() is called with an active non-default memory allocator.

  • bpo-45738: Fix computation of error location for invalid continuation characters in the parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45773: Fix a compiler hang when attempting to optimize certain jump patterns.

  • bpo-45716: Improve the SyntaxError message when using True, None or False as keywords in a function call. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45688: sys.stdlib_module_names now contains the macOS-specific module _scproxy.

  • bpo-30570: Fixed a crash in issubclass() from infinite recursion when searching pathological __bases__ tuples.

  • bpo-45521: Fix a bug in the obmalloc radix tree code. On 64-bit machines, the bug causes the tree to hold 46-bits of virtual addresses, rather than the intended 48-bits.

  • bpo-45494: Fix parser crash when reporting errors involving invalid continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45408: Fix a crash in the parser when reporting tokenizer errors that occur at the same time unclosed parentheses are detected. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45385: Fix reference leak from descr_check. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-45167: Fix deepcopying of types.GenericAlias objects.

  • bpo-44219: Release the GIL while performing isatty system calls on arbitrary file descriptors. In particular, this affects os.isatty(), os.device_encoding() and io.TextIOWrapper. By extension, in text mode is also affected. This change solves a deadlock in os.isatty(). Patch by Vincent Michel in bpo-44219.

  • bpo-44959: Added fallback to extension modules with '.sl' suffix on HP-UX

  • bpo-44050: Extensions that indicate they use global state (by setting m_size to -1) can again be used in multiple interpreters. This reverts to behavior of Python 3.8.

  • bpo-45121: Fix issue where Protocol.__init__ raises RecursionError when it's called directly or via super(). Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-45083: When the interpreter renders an exception, its name now has a complete qualname. Previously only the class name was concatenated to the module name, which sometimes resulted in an incorrect full name being displayed.

    (This issue impacted only the C code exception rendering, the traceback module was using qualname already).

  • bpo-45056: Compiler now removes trailing unused constants from co_consts.


  • bpo-27946: Fix possible crash when getting an attribute of class:xml.etree.ElementTree.Element simultaneously with replacing the attrib dict.

  • bpo-37658: Fix issue when on certain conditions asyncio.wait_for() may allow a coroutine to complete successfully, but fail to return the result, potentially causing memory leaks or other issues.

  • bpo-44649: Handle dataclass(slots=True) with a field that has default a default value, but for which init=False.

  • bpo-45803: Added missing kw_only parameter to dataclasses.make_dataclass().

  • bpo-45831: faulthandler can now write ASCII-only strings (like filenames and function names) with a single write() syscall when dumping a traceback. It reduces the risk of getting an unreadable dump when two threads or two processes dump a traceback to the same file (like stderr) at the same time. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41735: Fix thread lock in zlib.Decompress.flush() method before PyObject_GetBuffer.

  • bpo-45235: Reverted an argparse bugfix that caused regression in the handling of default arguments for subparsers. This prevented leaf level arguments from taking precedence over root level arguments.

  • bpo-45765: In importlib.metadata, fix distribution discovery for an empty path.

  • bpo-45757: Fix bug where dis produced an incorrect oparg when EXTENDED_ARG is followed by an opcode that does not use its argument.

  • bpo-45644: In-place JSON file formatting using python3 -m json.tool infile infile now works correctly, previously it left the file empty. Patch by Chris Wesseling.

  • bpo-45679: Fix caching of multi-value typing.Literal. Literal[True, 2] is no longer equal to Literal[1, 2].

  • bpo-45664: Fix types.resolve_bases() and types.new_class() for types.GenericAlias instance as a base.

  • bpo-45663: Fix dataclasses.is_dataclass() for dataclasses which are subclasses of types.GenericAlias.

  • bpo-45662: Fix the repr of dataclasses.InitVar with a type alias to the built-in class, e.g. InitVar[list[int]].

  • bpo-45438: Fix typing.Signature string representation for generic builtin types.

  • bpo-45574: Fix warning about print_escape being unused.

  • bpo-45581: sqlite3.connect() now correctly raises MemoryError if the underlying SQLite API signals memory error. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45557: pprint.pprint() now handles underscore_numbers correctly. Previously it was always setting it to False.

  • bpo-45515: Add references to zoneinfo in the datetime documentation, mostly replacing outdated references to Change by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-45475: Reverted optimization of iterating gzip.GzipFile, bz2.BZ2File, and lzma.LZMAFile (see bpo-43787) because it caused regression when user iterate them without having reference of them. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-45428: Fix a regression in py_compile when reading filenames from standard input.

  • bpo-45467: Fix incremental decoder and stream reader in the "raw-unicode-escape" codec. Previously they failed if the escape sequence was split.

  • bpo-45461: Fix incremental decoder and stream reader in the "unicode-escape" codec. Previously they failed if the escape sequence was split.

  • bpo-45239: Fixed email.utils.parsedate_tz() crashing with UnboundLocalError on certain invalid input instead of returning None. Patch by Ben Hoyt.

  • bpo-45249: Fix the behaviour of traceback.print_exc() when displaying the caret when the end_offset in the exception is set to 0. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45416: Fix use of asyncio.Condition with explicit asyncio.Lock objects, which was a regression due to removal of explicit loop arguments. Patch by Joongi Kim.

  • bpo-45419: Correct interfaces on DegenerateFiles.Path.

  • bpo-44904: Fix bug in the doctest module that caused it to fail if a docstring included an example with a classmethod property. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45406: Make inspect.getmodule() catch FileNotFoundError raised by :'func:inspect.getabsfile, and return None to indicate that the module could not be determined.

  • bpo-45262: Prevent use-after-free in asyncio. Make sure the cached running loop holder gets cleared on dealloc to prevent use-after-free in get_running_loop

  • bpo-45386: Make xmlrpc.client more robust to C runtimes where the underlying C strftime function results in a ValueError when testing for year formatting options.

  • bpo-45371: Fix clang rpath issue in distutils. The UnixCCompiler now uses correct clang option to add a runtime library directory (rpath) to a shared library.

  • bpo-20028: Improve error message of csv.Dialect when initializing. Patch by Vajrasky Kok and Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-45343: Update bundled pip to 21.2.4 and setuptools to 58.1.0

  • bpo-45329: Fix freed memory access in pyexpat.xmlparser when building it with an installed expat library <= 2.2.0.

  • bpo-41710: On Unix, if the sem_clockwait() function is available in the C library (glibc 2.30 and newer), the threading.Lock.acquire() method now uses the monotonic clock (time.CLOCK_MONOTONIC) for the timeout, rather than using the system clock (time.CLOCK_REALTIME), to not be affected by system clock changes. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45328: Fixed http.client.HTTPConnection to work properly in OSs that don't support the TCP_NODELAY socket option.

  • bpo-1596321: Fix the threading._shutdown() function when the threading module was imported first from a thread different than the main thread: no longer log an error at Python exit.

  • bpo-45274: Fix a race condition in the Thread.join() method of the threading module. If the function is interrupted by a signal and the signal handler raises an exception, make sure that the thread remains in a consistent state to prevent a deadlock. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45238: Fix unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase.debug(): it runs now asynchronous methods and callbacks.

  • bpo-36674: unittest.TestCase.debug() raises now a unittest.SkipTest if the class or the test method are decorated with the skipping decorator.

  • bpo-45235: Fix an issue where argparse would not preserve values in a provided namespace when using a subparser with defaults.

  • bpo-45183: Have zipimport.zipimporter.find_spec() not raise an exception when the underlying zip file has been deleted and the internal cache has been reset via invalidate_cache().

  • bpo-45234: Fixed a regression in copyfile(), copy(), copy2() raising FileNotFoundError when source is a directory, which should raise IsADirectoryError

  • bpo-45228: Fix stack buffer overflow in parsing J1939 network address.

  • bpo-45192: Fix the tempfile._infer_return_type function so that the dir argument of the tempfile functions accepts an object implementing the os.PathLike protocol.

    Patch by Kyungmin Lee.

  • bpo-42135: Fix typo: importlib.find_loader is really slated for removal in Python 3.12 not 3.10, like the others in PR 25169.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-45160: When tracing a tkinter variable used by a ttk OptionMenu, callbacks are no longer made twice.

  • bpo-35474: Calling mimetypes.guess_all_extensions() with strict=False no longer affects the result of the following call with strict=True. Also, mutating the returned list no longer affects the global state.

  • bpo-45166: typing.get_type_hints() now works with Final wrapped in ForwardRef.

  • bpo-20499: Improve the speed and accuracy of statistics.pvariance().

  • bpo-24444: Fixed an error raised in argparse help display when help for an option is set to 1+ blank spaces or when choices arg is an empty container.

  • bpo-45021: Fix a potential deadlock at shutdown of forked children when using concurrent.futures module

  • bpo-39039: raises ReadError when a zlib error occurs during file extraction.

  • bpo-44594: Fix an edge case of ExitStack and AsyncExitStack exception chaining. They will now match with block behavior when __context__ is explicitly set to None when the exception is in flight.

  • bpo-44295: Ensure deprecation warning from assertDictContainsSubset() points at calling code - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-43498: Avoid a possible "RuntimeError: dictionary changed size during iteration" when adjusting the process count of ProcessPoolExecutor.


  • bpo-45640: Properly marked-up grammar tokens in the documentation are now clickable and take you to the definition of a given piece of grammar. Patch by Arthur Milchior.

  • bpo-45788: Link doc for sys.prefix to sysconfig doc on installation paths.

  • bpo-45772: socket.socket documentation is corrected to a class from a function.

  • bpo-45392: Update the docstring of the type built-in to remove a redundant line and to mention keyword arguments for the constructor.

  • bpo-45726: Improve documentation for functools.singledispatch() and functools.singledispatchmethod.

  • bpo-45680: Amend the docs on GenericAlias objects to clarify that non-container classes can also implement __class_getitem__. Patch contributed by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45655: Add a new "relevant PEPs" section to the top of the documentation for the typing module. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45604: Add level argument to multiprocessing.log_to_stderr function docs.

  • bpo-45250: Update the documentation to note that CPython does not consistently require iterators to define __iter__.

  • bpo-45464: Mention in the documentation of Built-in Exceptions that inheriting from multiple exception types in a single subclass is not recommended due to possible memory layout incompatibility.

  • bpo-45449: Add note about PEP 585 in

  • bpo-45516: Add protocol description to the documentation.

  • bpo-20692: Add Programming FAQ entry explaining that int literal attribute access requires either a space after or parentheses around the literal.

  • bpo-45216: Remove extra documentation listing methods in difflib. It was rendering twice in pydoc and was outdated in some places.

  • bpo-45024: documentation has been expanded to explicitly cover how instance and subclass checks work, with additional doctest examples and an exhaustive list of ABCs which test membership purely by presence of the right special methods. Patch by Raymond Hettinger.

  • bpo-25381: In the extending chapter of the extending doc, update a paragraph about the global variables containing exception information.

  • bpo-43905: Expanded astuple() and asdict() docs, warning about deepcopy being applied and providing a workaround.


  • bpo-19460: Add new Test for email.mime.nonmultipart.MIMENonMultipart.

  • bpo-45835: Fix race condition in test_queue tests with multiple "feeder" threads.

  • bpo-45678: Add tests for scenarios in which functools.singledispatchmethod is stacked on top of a method that has already been wrapped by two other decorators. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45578: Add tests for dis.distb()

  • bpo-45678: Add tests to ensure that functools.singledispatchmethod correctly wraps the attributes of the target function.

  • bpo-45577: Add subtests for all pickle protocols in test_zoneinfo.

  • bpo-45566: Fix test_frozen_pickle in test_dataclasses to check all pickle versions.

  • bpo-43592: test.libregrtest now raises the soft resource limit for the maximum number of file descriptors when the default is too low for our test suite as was often the case on macOS.

  • bpo-39679: Add more test cases for @functools.singledispatchmethod when combined with @classmethod or @staticmethod.

  • bpo-45400: Fix test_name_error_suggestions_do_not_trigger_for_too_many_locals() of test_exceptions if a directory name contains "a1" (like "Python-3.11.0a1"): use a stricter regular expression. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40173: Fix

  • bpo-45280: Add a test case for empty typing.NamedTuple.

  • bpo-45269: Cover case when invalid markers type is supplied to c_make_encoder.

  • bpo-45128: Fix test_multiprocessing_fork failure due to test_logging and sys.modules manipulation.

  • bpo-45209: Fix UserWarning: resource_tracker warning in _test_multiprocessing._TestSharedMemory.test_shared_memory_cleaned_after_process_termination

  • bpo-45195: Fix test_readline.test_nonascii(): sometimes, the newline character is not written at the end, so don't expect it in the output. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45156: Fixes infinite loop on unittest.mock.seal() of mocks created by create_autospec().

  • bpo-45125: Improves pickling tests and docs of SharedMemory and SharableList objects.

  • bpo-44860: Update test_sysconfig.test_user_similar() for the posix_user scheme: platlib doesn't use sys.platlibdir. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-25130: Add calls of gc.collect() in tests to support PyPy.


  • bpo-44035: CI now verifies that autoconf files have been regenerated with a current and unpatched autoconf package.

  • bpo-33393: Update config.guess to 2021-06-03 and config.sub to 2021-08-14. Makefile now has an update-config target to make updating more convenient.

  • bpo-45866: make regen-all now produces the same output when run from a directory other than the source tree: when building Python out of the source tree. pegen now strips directory of the "generated by pygen from <FILENAME>" header Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41498: Python now compiles on platforms without sigset_t. Several functions in signal are not available when sigset_t is missing.

    Based on patch by Roman Yurchak for pyodide.

  • bpo-45881: now uses CC from environment first to discover multiarch and cross compile paths.

  • bpo-43158: now uses values from configure script to build the _uuid extension module. Configure now detects util-linux's libuuid, too.

  • bpo-45571: Modules/Setup now use PY_CFLAGS_NODIST instead of PY_CFLAGS to compile shared modules.

  • bpo-45561: Run tool from $(srcdir).

  • bpo-45532: Update sys.version to use main as fallback information. Patch by Jeong YunWon.

  • bpo-45536: The configure script now checks whether OpenSSL headers and libraries provide required APIs. Most common APIs are verified. The check detects outdated or missing OpenSSL. Failures do not stop configure.

  • bpo-45221: Fixed regression in handling of LDFLAGS and CPPFLAGS options where argparse.parse_known_args() could interpret an option as one of the built-in command line argument, for example -h for help.

  • bpo-45405: Prevent internal configure error when running configure with recent versions of non-Apple clang. Patch by David Bohman.

  • bpo-45220: Avoid building with the Windows 11 SDK previews automatically. This may be overridden by setting the DefaultWindowsSDKVersion environment variable before building.

  • bpo-45067: The ncurses function extended_color_content was introduced in 2017

    ( The

    ncurses-devel package in CentOS 7 had a older version ncurses resulted in compilation error. For compiling ncurses with extended color support, we verify the version of the ncurses library >= 20170401.


  • bpo-45901: When installed through the Microsoft Store and set as the default app for *.py files, command line arguments will now be passed to Python when invoking a script without explicitly launching Python (that is, args rather than python args).

  • bpo-45616: Fix Python Launcher's ability to distinguish between versions 3.1 and 3.10 when either one is explicitly requested. Previously, 3.1 would be used if 3.10 was requested but not installed, and 3.10 would be used if 3.1 was requested but 3.10 was installed.

  • bpo-45732: Updates bundled Tcl/Tk to 8.6.12.

  • bpo-45720: Internal reference to shlwapi.dll was dropped to help improve startup time. This DLL will no longer be loaded at the start of every Python process.

  • bpo-43652: Update Tcl/Tk to 8.6.11, actually this time. The previous update incorrectly included 8.6.10.

  • bpo-45337: venv now warns when the created environment may need to be accessed at a different path, due to redirections, links or junctions. It also now correctly installs or upgrades components when the alternate path is required.


  • bpo-45732: Update macOS installer to use Tcl/Tk 8.6.12.

  • bpo-44828: Avoid tkinter file dialog failure on macOS 12 Monterey when using the Tk 8.6.11 provided by macOS installers. Patch by Marc Culler of the Tk project.

  • bpo-34602: When building CPython on macOS with ./configure --with-undefined-behavior-sanitizer --with-pydebug, the stack size is now quadrupled to allow for the entire test suite to pass.


  • bpo-45495: Add context keywords 'case' and 'match' to completions list.

  • bpo-45296: On Windows, change exit/quit message to suggest Ctrl-D, which works, instead of <Ctrl-Z Return>, which does not work in IDLE.

  • bpo-45193: Make completion boxes appear on Ubuntu again.


  • bpo-44786: Fix a warning in regular expression in the c-analyzer script.


  • bpo-39026: Fix Python.h to build C extensions with Xcode: remove a relative include from Include/cpython/pystate.h.

  • bpo-45307: Restore the private C API function _PyImport_FindExtensionObject(). It will be removed in Python 3.11.

  • bpo-44687: BufferedReader.peek() no longer raises ValueError when the entire file has already been buffered.

  • bpo-44751: Remove crypt.h include from the public Python.h header.

Python 3.10.0 final

Release date: 2021-10-04

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-45121: Fix issue where Protocol.__init__ raises RecursionError when it's called directly or via super(). Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.



  • bpo-45216: Remove extra documentation listing methods in difflib. It was rendering twice in pydoc and was outdated in some places.

  • bpo-45024: documentation has been expanded to explicitly cover how instance and subclass checks work, with additional doctest examples and an exhaustive list of ABCs which test membership purely by presence of the right special methods. Patch by Raymond Hettinger.


  • bpo-45128: Fix test_multiprocessing_fork failure due to test_logging and sys.modules manipulation.

  • bpo-44860: Update test_sysconfig.test_user_similar() for the posix_user scheme: platlib doesn't use sys.platlibdir. Patch by Victor Stinner.



  • bpo-45193: Make completion boxes appear on Ubuntu again.


  • bpo-45307: Restore the private C API function _PyImport_FindExtensionObject(). It will be removed in Python 3.11.

Python 3.10.0 release candidate 2

Release date: 2021-09-07


  • bpo-42278: Replaced usage of tempfile.mktemp() with TemporaryDirectory to avoid a potential race condition.

  • bpo-44394: Update the vendored copy of libexpat to 2.4.1 (from 2.2.8) to get the fix for the CVE-2013-0340 "Billion Laughs" vulnerability. This copy is most used on Windows and macOS.

  • bpo-43124: Made the internal putcmd function in smtplib sanitize input for presence of \r and \n characters to avoid (unlikely) command injection.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-45123: Fix PyAiter_Check to only check for the __anext__ presence (not for __aiter__). Rename PyAiter_Check to PyAIter_Check, PyObject_GetAiter -> PyObject_GetAIter.

  • bpo-45018: Fixed pickling of range iterators that iterated for over 2**32 times.

  • bpo-45000: A SyntaxError is now raised when trying to delete __debug__. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-44963: Implement send() and throw() methods for anext_awaitable objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44962: Fix a race in WeakKeyDictionary, WeakValueDictionary and WeakSet when two threads attempt to commit the last pending removal. This fixes asyncio.create_task and fixes a data loss in where shutdown_asyncgens is not run

  • bpo-44954: Fixed a corner case bug where the result of float.fromhex('0x.8p-1074') was rounded the wrong way.

  • bpo-44947: Refine the syntax error for trailing commas in import statements. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44698: Restore behaviour of complex exponentiation with integer-valued exponent of type float or complex.

  • bpo-44885: Correct the ast locations of f-strings with format specs and repeated expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44872: Use new trashcan macros (Py_TRASHCAN_BEGIN/END) in frameobject.c instead of the old ones (Py_TRASHCAN_SAFE_BEGIN/END).

  • bpo-33930: Fix segmentation fault with deep recursion when cleaning method objects. Patch by Augusto Goulart and Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-25782: Fix bug where PyErr_SetObject hangs when the current exception has a cycle in its context chain.

  • bpo-44856: Fix reference leaks in the error paths of update_bases() and __build_class__. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44838: Fixed a bug that was causing the parser to raise an incorrect custom SyntaxError for invalid 'if' expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44584: The threading debug (PYTHONTHREADDEBUG environment variable) is deprecated in Python 3.10 and will be removed in Python 3.12. This feature requires a debug build of Python. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-39091: Fix crash when using passing a non-exception to a generator's throw() method. Patch by Noah Oxer


  • bpo-45081: Fix issue when dataclasses that inherit from typing.Protocol subclasses have wrong __init__. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-41620: run() now always return a TestResult instance. Previously it returned None if the test class or method was decorated with a skipping decorator.

  • bpo-43913: Fix bugs in cleaning up classes and modules in unittest:

    • Functions registered with addModuleCleanup() were not called unless the user defines tearDownModule() in their test module.

    • Functions registered with addClassCleanup() were not called if tearDownClass is set to None.

    • Buffering in TestResult did not work with functions registered with addClassCleanup() and addModuleCleanup().

    • Errors in functions registered with addClassCleanup() and addModuleCleanup() were not handled correctly in buffered and debug modes.

    • Errors in setUpModule() and functions registered with addModuleCleanup() were reported in wrong order.

    • And several lesser bugs.

  • bpo-45030: Fix integer overflow in pickling and copying the range iterator.

  • bpo-45001: Made email date parsing more robust against malformed input, namely a whitespace-only Date: header. Patch by Wouter Bolsterlee.

  • bpo-44449: Fix a crash in the signal handler of the faulthandler module: no longer modify the reference count of frame objects. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44955: Method stopTestRun() is now always called in pair with method startTestRun() for TestResult objects implicitly created in run(). Previously it was not called for test methods and classes decorated with a skipping decorator.

  • bpo-44935: subprocess on Solaris now also uses os.posix_spawn() for better performance.

  • bpo-44911: IsolatedAsyncioTestCase will no longer throw an exception while cancelling leaked tasks. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-44524: Make exception message more useful when subclass from typing special form alias. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-38956: argparse.BooleanOptionalAction's default value is no longer printed twice when used with argparse.ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter.

  • bpo-44860: Fix the posix_user scheme in sysconfig to not depend on sys.platlibdir.

  • bpo-44581: Upgrade bundled pip to 21.2.3 and setuptools to 57.4.0

  • bpo-44849: Fix the os.set_inheritable() function on FreeBSD 14 for file descriptor opened with the O_PATH flag: ignore the EBADF error on ioctl(), fallback on the fcntl() implementation. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44605: The @functools.total_ordering() decorator now works with metaclasses.

  • bpo-44524: Fixed an issue wherein the __name__ and __qualname__ attributes of subscribed specialforms could be None.

  • bpo-44822: sqlite3 user-defined functions and aggregators returning strings with embedded NUL characters are no longer truncated. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44801: Ensure that the ParamSpec variable in Callable can only be substituted with a parameters expression (a list of types, an ellipsis, ParamSpec or Concatenate).

  • bpo-27334: The sqlite3 context manager now performs a rollback (thus releasing the database lock) if commit failed. Patch by Luca Citi and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41402: Fix email.message.EmailMessage.set_content() when called with binary data and 7bit content transfer encoding.

  • bpo-32695: The compresslevel and preset keyword arguments of are now both documented and tested.

  • bpo-34990: Fixed a Y2k38 bug in the compileall module where it would fail to compile files with a modification time after the year 2038.

  • bpo-38840: Fix test___all__ on platforms lacking a shared memory implementation.

  • bpo-26228: pty.spawn no longer hangs on FreeBSD, macOS, and Solaris.

  • bpo-33349: lib2to3 now recognizes async generators everywhere.


  • bpo-44957: Promote PEP 604 union syntax by using it where possible. Also, mention X | Y more prominently in section about Union and mention X | None at all in section about Optional.

  • bpo-44903: Removed the othergui.rst file, any references to it, and the list of GUI frameworks in the FAQ. In their place I've added links to the Python Wiki page on GUI frameworks.

  • bpo-33479: Tkinter documentation has been greatly expanded with new "Architecture" and "Threading model" sections.

  • bpo-36700: base64 RFC references were updated to point to RFC 4648; a section was added to point users to the new "security considerations" section of the RFC.

  • bpo-44756: Reverted automated virtual environment creation on make html when building documentation. It turned out to be disruptive for downstream distributors.

  • bpo-42958: Updated the docstring and docs of filecmp.cmp() to be more accurate and less confusing especially in respect to shallow arg.

  • bpo-43066: Added a warning to zipfile docs: filename arg with a leading slash may cause archive to be un-openable on Windows systems.

  • bpo-39452: Rewrote Doc/library/__main__.rst. Broadened scope of the document to explicitly discuss and differentiate between in packages versus the __name__ == '__main__' expression (and the idioms that surround it).

  • bpo-27752: Documentation of csv.Dialect is more descriptive.

  • bpo-41576: document BaseException in favor of bare except

  • bpo-39498: Add a "Security Considerations" index which links to standard library modules that have explicitly documented security considerations.

  • bpo-33479: Remove the unqualified claim that tkinter is threadsafe. It has not been true for several years and likely never was. An explanation of what is true may be added later, after more discussion, and possibly after patching _tkinter.c,


  • bpo-45052: WithProcessesTestSharedMemory.test_shared_memory_basics test was ignored, because self.assertEqual(sms.size, sms2.size) line was failing. It is now removed and test is unskipped.

    The main motivation for this line to be removed from the test is that the size of SharedMemory is not ever guaranteed to be the same. It is decided by the platform.

  • bpo-45042: Fixes that test classes decorated with @hashlib_helper.requires_hashdigest were skipped all the time.

  • bpo-45011: Made tests relying on the _asyncio C extension module optional to allow running on alternative Python implementations. Patch by Serhiy Storchaka.

  • bpo-44949: Fix auto history tests of test_readline: sometimes, the newline character is not written at the end, so don't expect it in the output.

  • bpo-44891: Tests were added to clarify id() is preserved when obj * 1 is used on str and bytes objects. Patch by Nikita Sobolev.

  • bpo-44852: Add ability to wholesale silence DeprecationWarnings while running the regression test suite.

  • bpo-40928: Notify users running test_decimal regression tests on macOS of potential harmless "malloc can't allocate region" messages spewed by test_decimal.


  • bpo-45007: Update to OpenSSL 1.1.1l in Windows build


  • bpo-45007: Update macOS installer builds to use OpenSSL 1.1.1l.

  • bpo-44689: ctypes.util.find_library() now works correctly on macOS 11 Big Sur even if Python is built on an older version of macOS. Previously, when built on older macOS systems, find_library was not able to find macOS system libraries when running on Big Sur due to changes in how system libraries are stored.

Python 3.10.0 release candidate 1

Release date: 2021-08-02


  • bpo-44600: Fix incorrect line numbers while tracing some failed patterns in match statements. Patch by Charles Burkland.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-44792: Improve syntax errors for if expressions. Patch by Miguel Brito

  • bpo-34013: Generalize the invalid legacy statement custom error message (like the one generated when "print" is called without parentheses) to include more generic expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44732: Rename types.Union to types.UnionType.

  • bpo-44698: Fix undefined behaviour in complex object exponentiation.

  • bpo-44653: Support typing types in parameter substitution in the union type.

  • bpo-44676: Add ability to serialise types.Union objects. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44633: Parameter substitution of the union type with wrong types now raises TypeError instead of returning NotImplemented.

  • bpo-44662: Add __module__ to types.Union. This also fixes types.Union issues with typing.Annotated. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44655: Include the name of the type in unset __slots__ attribute errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44655: Don't include a missing attribute with the same name as the failing one when offering suggestions for missing attributes. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44646: Fix the hash of the union type: it no longer depends on the order of arguments.

  • bpo-44636: Collapse union of equal types. E.g. the result of int | int is now int. Fix comparison of the union type with non-hashable objects. E.g. int | str == {} no longer raises a TypeError.

  • bpo-44635: Convert None to type(None) in the union type constructor.

  • bpo-44589: Mapping patterns in match statements with two or more equal literal keys will now raise a SyntaxError at compile-time.

  • bpo-44606: Fix __instancecheck__ and __subclasscheck__ for the union type.

  • bpo-42073: The @classmethod decorator can now wrap other classmethod-like descriptors.

  • bpo-44490: typing now searches for type parameters in types.Union objects. get_type_hints will also properly resolve annotations with nested types.Union objects. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44490: Add __parameters__ attribute and __getitem__ operator to types.Union. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44472: Fix ltrace functionality when exceptions are raised. Patch by Pablo Galindo


  • bpo-44806: Non-protocol subclasses of typing.Protocol ignore now the __init__ method inherited from protocol base classes.

  • bpo-44793: Fix checking the number of arguments when subscribe a generic type with ParamSpec parameter.

  • bpo-44784: In importlib.metadata tests, override warnings behavior under expected DeprecationWarnings (importlib_metadata 4.6.3).

  • bpo-44667: The tokenize.tokenize() doesn't incorrectly generate a NEWLINE token if the source doesn't end with a new line character but the last line is a comment, as the function is already generating a NL token. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44752: rcompleter does not call getattr() on property objects to avoid the side-effect of evaluating the corresponding method.

  • bpo-44720: weakref.proxy objects referencing non-iterators now raise TypeError rather than dereferencing the null tp_iternext slot and crashing.

  • bpo-44704: The implementation of now matches that of frozenset.__hash__().

  • bpo-44666: Fixed issue in compileall.compile_file() when sys.stdout is redirected. Patch by Stefan Hölzl.

  • bpo-42854: Fixed a bug in the _ssl module that was throwing OverflowError when using _ssl._SSLSocket.write() and for a big value of the len parameter. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44353: Refactor typing.NewType from function into callable class. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44524: Add missing __name__ and __qualname__ attributes to typing module classes. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-40897: Give priority to using the current class constructor in inspect.signature(). Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-44648: Fixed wrong error being thrown by inspect.getsource() when examining a class in the interactive session. Instead of TypeError, it should be OSError with appropriate error message.

  • bpo-44608: Fix memory leak in _tkinter._flatten() if it is called with a sequence or set, but not list or tuple.

  • bpo-44559: [Enum] module reverted to 3.9; 3.10 changes pushed until 3.11

  • bpo-41928: Update shutil.copyfile() to raise FileNotFoundError instead of confusing IsADirectoryError when a path ending with a os.path.sep does not exist; shutil.copy() and shutil.copy2() are also affected.

  • bpo-44566: handle StopIteration subclass raised from @contextlib.contextmanager generator

  • bpo-41249: Fixes TypedDict to work with typing.get_type_hints() and postponed evaluation of annotations across modules.

  • bpo-44461: Fix bug with pdb's handling of import error due to a package which does not have a __main__ module

  • bpo-43625: Fix a bug in the detection of CSV file headers by csv.Sniffer.has_header() and improve documentation of same.

  • bpo-42892: Fixed an exception thrown while parsing a malformed multipart email by email.message.EmailMessage.

  • bpo-27827: pathlib.PureWindowsPath.is_reserved() now identifies a greater range of reserved filenames, including those with trailing spaces or colons.

  • bpo-38741: configparser: using ']' inside a section header will no longer cut the section name short at the ']'

  • bpo-27513: email.utils.getaddresses() now accepts email.header.Header objects along with string values. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-29298: Fix TypeError when required subparsers without dest do not receive arguments. Patch by Anthony Sottile.


  • bpo-44740: Replaced occurences of uppercase "Web" and "Internet" with lowercase versions per the 2016 revised Associated Press Style Book.

  • bpo-44693: Update the definition of __future__ in the glossary by replacing the confusing word "pseudo-module" with a more accurate description.

  • bpo-35183: Add typical examples to os.path.splitext docs

  • bpo-30511: Clarify that shutil.make_archive() is not thread-safe due to reliance on changing the current working directory.

  • bpo-44561: Update of three expired hyperlinks in Doc/distributing/index.rst: "Project structure", "Building and packaging the project", and "Uploading the project to the Python Packaging Index".

  • bpo-44613: importlib.metadata is no longer provisional.

  • bpo-44544: List all kwargs for textwrap.wrap(), textwrap.fill(), and textwrap.shorten(). Now, there are nav links to attributes of TextWrap, which makes navigation much easier while minimizing duplication in the documentation.

  • bpo-44453: Fix documentation for the return type of sysconfig.get_path().


  • bpo-44734: Fixed floating point precision issue in turtle tests.

  • bpo-44708: Regression tests, when run with -w, are now re-running only the affected test methods instead of re-running the entire test file.

  • bpo-44647: Added a permanent Unicode-valued environment variable to regression tests to ensure they handle this use case in the future. If your test environment breaks because of that, report a bug to us, and temporarily set PYTHONREGRTEST_UNICODE_GUARD=0 in your test environment.

  • bpo-44515: Adjust recently added contextlib tests to avoid assuming the use of a refcounted GC



  • bpo-41972: The framework build's user header path in sysconfig is changed to add a 'pythonX.Y' component to match distutils's behavior.

  • bpo-34932: Add socket.TCP_KEEPALIVE support for macOS. Patch by Shane Harvey.


  • bpo-44756: In the Makefile for documentation (Doc/Makefile), the build rule is dependent on the venv rule. Therefore, html, latex, and other build-dependent rules are also now dependent on venv. The venv rule only performs an action if $(VENVDIR) does not exist. Doc/README.rst was updated; most users now only need to type make html.


  • bpo-41103: Reverts removal of the old buffer protocol because they are part of stable ABI.

  • bpo-42747: The Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VERSION_TAG type flag now does nothing. The Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_AM_SEND flag (which was added in 3.10) is removed. Both were unnecessary because it is not possible to have type objects with the relevant fields missing.

Python 3.10.0 beta 4

Release date: 2021-07-10


  • bpo-41180: Add auditing events to the marshal module, and stop raising code.__init__ events for every unmarshalled code object. Directly instantiated code objects will continue to raise an event, and audit event handlers should inspect or collect the raw marshal data. This reduces a significant performance overhead when loading from .pyc files.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-44562: Remove uses of PyObject_GC_Del() in error path when initializing types.GenericAlias.

  • bpo-41486: Fix a memory consumption and copying performance regression in earlier 3.10 beta releases if someone used an output buffer larger than 4GiB with zlib.decompress on input data that expands that large.

  • bpo-44553: Implement GC methods for types.Union to break reference cycles and prevent memory leaks.

  • bpo-44523: Remove the pass-through for hash() of weakref.proxy objects to prevent unintended consequences when the original referred object dies while the proxy is part of a hashable object. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44483: Fix a crash in types.Union objects when creating a union of an object with bad __module__ field.

  • bpo-44297: Make sure that the line number is set when entering a comprehension scope. Ensures that backtraces inclusing generator expressions show the correct line number.

  • bpo-44456: Improve the syntax error when mixing positional and keyword patterns. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44368: Improve syntax errors for invalid "as" targets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44317: Improve tokenizer error with improved locations. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43667: Improve Unicode support in non-UTF locales on Oracle Solaris. This issue does not affect other Solaris systems.


  • bpo-44558: Make the implementation consistency of indexOf() between C and Python versions. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-34798: Break up paragraph about pprint.PrettyPrinter construction parameters to make it easier to read.

  • bpo-44516: Update vendored pip to 21.1.3

  • bpo-44468: typing.get_type_hints() now finds annotations in classes and base classes with unexpected __module__. Previously, it skipped those MRO elements.

  • bpo-43977: Set the proper Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING and Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE flags for subclasses created before a parent has been registered as a or

  • bpo-44482: Fix very unlikely resource leak in glob in alternate Python implementations.

  • bpo-44466: The faulthandler module now detects if a fatal error occurs during a garbage collector collection. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44404: tkinter's after() method now supports callables without the __name__ attribute.

  • bpo-44458: BUFFER_BLOCK_SIZE is now declared static, to avoid linking collisions when bz2, lmza or zlib are statically linked.

  • bpo-44464: Remove exception for flake8 in deprecated importlib.metadata interfaces. Sync with importlib_metadata 4.6.

  • bpo-44446: Take into account that lineno might be None in traceback.FrameSummary.

  • bpo-44439: Fix in bz2.BZ2File.write() / lzma.LZMAFile.write() methods, when the input data is an object that supports the buffer protocol, the file length may be wrong.

  • bpo-44434: _thread.start_new_thread() no longer calls PyThread_exit_thread() explicitly at the thread exit, the call was redundant. On Linux with the glibc, pthread_exit() aborts the whole process if dlopen() fails to open file (ex: EMFILE error). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44395: Fix as_string() to pass unixfrom properly. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-34266: Handle exceptions from parsing the arg of pdb's run/restart command.

  • bpo-44077: It's now possible to receive the type of service (ToS), a.k.a. differentiated services (DS), a.k.a. differenciated services code point (DSCP) and excplicit congestion notification (ECN) IP header fields with socket.IP_RECVTOS.

  • bpo-43024: Improve the help signature of traceback.print_exception(), traceback.format_exception() and traceback.format_exception_only().

  • bpo-30256: Pass multiprocessing BaseProxy argument manager_owned through AutoProxy.


  • bpo-44558: Match the docstring and python implementation of countOf() to the behavior of its c implementation.

  • bpo-38062: Clarify that atexit uses equality comparisons internally.

  • bpo-40620: Convert examples in tutorial controlflow.rst section 4.3 to be interpreter-demo style.

  • bpo-13814: In the Design FAQ, answer "Why don't generators support the with statement?"

  • bpo-41621: Document that collections.defaultdict parameter default_factory defaults to None and is positional-only.


  • bpo-44287: Fix asyncio test_popen() of test_windows_utils by using a longer timeout. Use military grade battle-tested timeout rather than a hardcoded timeout of 10 seconds: it's 30 seconds by default, but it is made longer on slow buildbots. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44451: Reset DeprecationWarning filters in test.test_importlib.test_metadata_api.APITests.test_entry_points_by_index to avoid StopIteration error if DeprecationWarnings are ignored.

  • bpo-30256: Add test for nested queues when using multiprocessing shared objects AutoProxy[Queue] inside ListProxy and DictProxy


  • bpo-44535: Enable building using a Visual Studio 2022 install on Windows.

  • bpo-43298: Improved error message when building without a Windows SDK installed.



Python 3.10.0 beta 3

Release date: 2021-06-17

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-44409: Fix error location information for tokenizer errors raised on initialization of the tokenizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44396: Fix a possible crash in the tokenizer when raising syntax errors for unclosed strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44349: Fix an edge case when displaying text from files with encoding in syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44335: Fix a regression when identifying incorrect characters in syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44304: Fix a crash in the sqlite3 module that happened when the garbage collector clears sqlite.Statement objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44305: Improve error message for try blocks without except or finally blocks. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43833: Emit a deprecation warning if the numeric literal is immediately followed by one of keywords: and, else, for, if, in, is, or. Raise a syntax error with more informative message if it is immediately followed by other keyword or identifier.

  • bpo-11105: When compiling ast.AST objects with recursive references through compile(), the interpreter doesn't crash anymore instead it raises a RecursionError.


  • bpo-42972: The _thread.RLock type now fully implement the GC protocol: add a traverse function and the Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC flag. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44422: The threading.enumerate() function now uses a reentrant lock to prevent a hang on reentrant call. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44389: Fix deprecation of ssl.OP_NO_TLSv1_3

  • bpo-44362: Improve ssl module's deprecation messages, error reporting, and documentation for deprecations.

  • bpo-44342: [Enum] Change pickling from by-value to by-name.

  • bpo-44356: [Enum] Allow multiple data-type mixins if they are all the same.

  • bpo-44351: Restore back parse_makefile() in distutils.sysconfig because it behaves differently than the similar implementation in sysconfig.

  • bpo-44242: Remove missing flag check from Enum creation and move into a verify decorator.

  • bpo-44246: In importlib.metadata, restore compatibility in the result from Distribution.entry_points (EntryPoints) to honor expectations in older implementations and issuing deprecation warnings for these cases: A. EntryPoints objects are once again mutable, allowing for sort() and other list-based mutation operations. Avoid deprecation warnings by casting to a mutable sequence (e.g. list(dist.entry_points).sort()). B. EntryPoints results once again allow for access by index. To avoid deprecation warnings, cast the result to a Sequence first (e.g. tuple(dist.entry_points)[0]).

  • bpo-44246: In importlib.metadata.entry_points, de-duplication of distributions no longer requires loading the full metadata for PathDistribution objects, improving entry point loading performance by ~10x.

  • bpo-43853: Improved string handling for sqlite3 user-defined functions and aggregates:

    • It is now possible to pass strings with embedded null characters to UDFs

    • Conversion failures now correctly raise MemoryError

    Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43318: Fix a bug where pdb does not always echo cleared breakpoints.

  • bpo-37022: pdb now displays exceptions from repr() with its p and pp commands.


  • bpo-44392: Added a new section in the C API documentation for types used in type hinting. Documented Py_GenericAlias and Py_GenericAliasType.

  • bpo-38291: Mark and as deprecated since Python 3.8 in the documentation. They were never properly supported by type checkers.

  • bpo-44322: Document that SyntaxError args have a details tuple and that details are adjusted for errors in f-string field replacement expressions.


  • bpo-44363: Account for address sanitizer in test_capi. test_capi now passes when run GCC address sanitizer.

  • bpo-43921: Fix test_ssl.test_wrong_cert_tls13(): use suppress_ragged_eofs=False, since read() can raise ssl.SSLEOFError on Windows. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43921: Fix test_pha_required_nocert() of test_ssl: catch two more EOF cases (when the recv() method returns an empty string). Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • bpo-44381: The Windows build now accepts EnableControlFlowGuard set to guard to enable CFG.


  • bpo-40128: Mostly fix completions on macOS when not using tcl/tk 8.6.11 (as with 3.9). The added update_idletask call should be harmless and possibly helpful otherwise.

  • bpo-33962: Move the indent space setting from the Font tab to the new Windows tab. Patch by Mark Roseman and Terry Jan Reedy.

  • bpo-40468: Split the settings dialog General tab into Windows and Shell/ED tabs. Move help sources, which extend the Help menu, to the Extensions tab. Make space for new options and shorten the dialog. The latter makes the dialog better fit small screens.


Python 3.10.0 beta 2

Release date: 2021-05-31


  • bpo-44022: mod:http.client now avoids infinitely reading potential HTTP headers after a 100 Continue status response from the server.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-43667: Improve Unicode support in non-UTF locales on Oracle Solaris. This issue does not affect other Solaris systems.

  • bpo-44232: Fix a regression in type() when a metaclass raises an exception. The C function type_new() must properly report the exception when a metaclass constructor raises an exception and the winner class is not the metaclass. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44201: Avoid side effects of checking for specialized syntax errors in the REPL that was causing it to ask for extra tokens after a syntax error had been detected. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44184: Fix a crash at Python exit when a deallocator function removes the last strong reference to a heap type. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44180: The parser doesn't report generic syntax errors that happen in a position further away that the one it reached in the first pass. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44168: Fix error message in the parser involving keyword arguments with invalid expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44143: Fixed a crash in the parser that manifest when raising tokenizer errors when an existing exception was present. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44114: Fix incorrect dictkeys_reversed and dictitems_reversed function signatures in C code, which broke webassembly builds.

  • bpo-43149: Corrent the syntax error message regarding multiple exception types to not refer to "exception groups". Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44056: Syntax errors when default except is not the last except are reported with the correct location. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-43822: The parser will prioritize tokenizer errors over custom syntax errors when raising exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-28146: Fix a confusing error message in str.format().


  • bpo-44254: On Mac, give turtledemo button text a color that works on both light or dark background. Programmers cannot control the latter.

  • bpo-38693: Prefer f-strings to .format in importlib.resources.

  • bpo-33693: Importlib.metadata now prefers f-strings to .format.

  • bpo-44241: Incorporate minor tweaks from importlib_metadata 4.1: SimplePath protocol, support for Metadata 2.2.

  • bpo-44210: Make importlib.metadata._meta.PackageMetadata public.

  • bpo-43643: Declare as a property per the spec.

  • bpo-33433: For IPv4 mapped IPv6 addresses (RFC 4291 Section, the ipaddress.IPv6Address.is_private check is deferred to the mapped IPv4 address. This solves a bug where public mapped IPv4 addresses were considered private by the IPv6 check.

  • bpo-44145: hmac computations were not releasing the GIL while calling the OpenSSL HMAC_Update C API (a new feature in 3.9). This unintentionally prevented parallel computation as other hashlib algorithms support.

  • bpo-37788: Fix a reference leak when a Thread object is never joined.

  • bpo-38908: Subclasses of typing.Protocol which only have data variables declared will now raise a TypeError when checked with isinstance unless they are decorated with runtime_checkable(). Previously, these checks passed silently. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44098: typing.ParamSpec will no longer be found in the __parameters__ of most typing generics except in valid use locations specified by PEP 612. This prevents incorrect usage like typing.List[P][int]. This change means incorrect usage which may have passed silently in 3.10 beta 1 and earlier will now error.

  • bpo-44089: Allow subclassing csv.Error in 3.10 (it was allowed in 3.9 and earlier but was disallowed in early versions of 3.10).

  • bpo-44059: Register the SerenityOS Browser in the webbrowser module.

  • bpo-36515: The hashlib module no longer does unaligned memory accesses when compiled for ARM platforms.

  • bpo-44018: random.seed() no longer mutates bytearray inputs.

  • bpo-38352: Add IO, BinaryIO, TextIO, Match, and Pattern to typing.__all__. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-43972: When http.server.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler sends a 301 (Moved Permanently) for a directory path not ending with /, add a Content-Length: 0 header. This improves the behavior for certain clients.

  • bpo-28528: Fix a bug in pdb where checkline() raises AttributeError if it is called after reset().

  • bpo-43650: Fix MemoryError in shutil.unpack_archive() which fails inside shutil._unpack_zipfile() on large files. Patch by Igor Bolshakov.

  • bpo-41730: DeprecationWarning is now raised when importing tkinter.tix, which has been deprecated in documentation since Python 3.6.


  • bpo-42392: Document the deprecation and removal of the loop parameter for many functions and classes in asyncio.

  • bpo-44195: Corrected references to TraversableResources in docs. There is no TraversableReader.

  • bpo-41963: Document that ConfigParser strips off comments when reading configuration files.

  • bpo-44072: Correct where in the numeric ABC hierarchy ** support is added, i.e., in numbers.Complex, not numbers.Integral.

  • bpo-43558: Add the remark to dataclasses documentation that the __init__() of any base class has to be called in __post_init__(), along with a code example.

  • bpo-44025: Clarify when '_' in match statements is a keyword, and when not.


  • bpo-31904: Ignore error string case in test_py_compile test_file_not_exists().

  • bpo-42083: Add test to check that PyStructSequence_NewType accepts a PyStructSequence_Desc with doc field set to NULL.

  • bpo-35753: Fix crash in doctest when doctest parses modules that include unwrappable functions by skipping those functions.


  • bpo-41282: Fix broken make install that caused standard library extension modules to be unnecessarily and incorrectly rebuilt during the install phase of cpython.


  • bpo-42686: Build sqlite3 with math functions enabled. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.


  • bpo-43109: Allow --with-lto configure option to work with Apple-supplied Xcode or Command Line Tools.


  • bpo-41611: Avoid uncaught exceptions in AutoCompleteWindow.winconfig_event().

  • bpo-41611: Fix IDLE sometimes freezing upon tab-completion on macOS.

  • bpo-44010: Highlight the new match statement's soft keywords: match, case, and _. However, this highlighting is not perfect and will be incorrect in some rare cases, including some _-s in case patterns.

  • bpo-44026: Include interpreter's typo fix suggestions in message line for NameErrors and AttributeErrors. Patch by E. Paine.


  • bpo-44074: Make patchcheck automatically detect the correct base branch name (previously it was hardcoded to 'master')


Python 3.10.0 beta 1

Release date: 2021-05-03


  • bpo-43434: Creating sqlite3.Connection objects now also produces sqlite3.connect and sqlite3.connect/handle auditing events. Previously these events were only produced by sqlite3.connect() calls. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43998: The ssl module sets more secure cipher suites defaults. Ciphers without forward secrecy and with SHA-1 MAC are disabled by default. Security level 2 prohibits weak RSA, DH, and ECC keys with less than 112 bits of security. SSLContext defaults to minimum protocol version TLS 1.2. Settings are based on Hynek Schlawack's research.

  • bpo-43882: The presence of newline or tab characters in parts of a URL could allow some forms of attacks.

    Following the controlling specification for URLs defined by WHATWG urllib.parse() now removes ASCII newlines and tabs from URLs, preventing such attacks.

  • bpo-43472: Ensures interpreter-level audit hooks receive the cpython.PyInterpreterState_New event when called through the _xxsubinterpreters module.

  • bpo-43362: Fix invalid free in _sha3 module. The issue was introduced in 3.10.0a1. Python 3.9 and earlier are not affected.

  • bpo-43762: Add audit events for sqlite3.connect/handle(), sqlite3.Connection.enable_load_extension(), and sqlite3.Connection.load_extension(). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43756: Add new audit event glob.glob/2 to incorporate the new root_dir and dir_fd arguments added to glob.glob() and glob.iglob().

  • bpo-36384: ipaddress module no longer accepts any leading zeros in IPv4 address strings. Leading zeros are ambiguous and interpreted as octal notation by some libraries. For example the legacy function socket.inet_aton() treats leading zeros as octal notatation. glibc implementation of modern inet_pton() does not accept any leading zeros. For a while the ipaddress module used to accept ambiguous leading zeros.

  • bpo-43075: Fix Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) vulnerability in urllib.request.AbstractBasicAuthHandler. The ReDoS-vulnerable regex has quadratic worst-case complexity and it allows cause a denial of service when identifying crafted invalid RFCs. This ReDoS issue is on the client side and needs remote attackers to control the HTTP server.

  • bpo-42800: Audit hooks are now fired for frame.f_code, traceback.tb_frame, and generator code/frame attribute access.

  • bpo-37363: Add audit events to the http.client module.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-43977: Prevent classes being both a sequence and a mapping when pattern matching.

  • bpo-43977: Use tp_flags on the class object to determine if the subject is a sequence or mapping when pattern matching. Avoids the need to import when pattern matching.

  • bpo-43892: Restore proper validation of complex literal value patterns when parsing match blocks.

  • bpo-43933: Set frame.f_lineno to the line number of the 'with' kweyword when executing the call to __exit__.

  • bpo-43933: If the current position in a frame has no line number then set the f_lineno attribute to None, instead of -1, to conform to PEP 626. This should not normally be possible, but might occur in some unusual circumstances.

  • bpo-43963: Importing the _signal module in a subinterpreter has no longer side effects.

  • bpo-42739: The internal representation of line number tables is changed to not use sentinels, and an explicit length parameter is added to the out of process API function PyLineTable_InitAddressRange. This makes the handling of line number tables more robust in some circumstances.

  • bpo-43908: Make re types immutable. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43908: Make the array.array type immutable. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43901: Change class and module objects to lazy-create empty annotations dicts on demand. The annotations dicts are stored in the object's __dict__ for backwards compatibility.

  • bpo-43892: Match patterns now use new dedicated AST nodes (MatchValue, MatchSingleton, MatchSequence, MatchStar, MatchMapping, MatchClass) rather than reusing expression AST nodes. MatchAs and MatchOr are now defined as pattern nodes rather than as expression nodes. Patch by Nick Coghlan.

  • bpo-42725: Usage of await/yield/yield from and named expressions within an annotation is now forbidden when PEP 563 is activated.

  • bpo-43754: When performing structural pattern matching (PEP 634), captured names are now left unbound until the entire pattern has matched successfully.

  • bpo-42737: Annotations for complex targets (everything beside simple names) no longer cause any runtime effects with from __future__ import annotations.

  • bpo-43914: SyntaxError exceptions raised by the interpreter will highlight the full error range of the expression that consistutes the syntax error itself, instead of just where the problem is detected. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38605: Revert making from __future__ import annotations the default. This follows the Steering Council decision to postpone PEP 563 changes to at least Python 3.11. See the original email for more information regarding the decision: Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43475: Hashes of NaN values now depend on object identity. Formerly, they always hashed to 0 even though NaN values are not equal to one another. Having the same hash for unequal values caused pile-ups in hash tables.

  • bpo-43859: Improve the error message for IndentationError exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-41323: Constant tuple folding in bytecode optimizer now reuses tuple in constant table.

  • bpo-43846: Data stack usage is much reduced for large literal and call expressions.

  • bpo-38530: When printing NameError raised by the interpreter, PyErr_Display() will offer suggestions of similar variable names in the function that the exception was raised from. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43823: Improve syntax errors for invalid dictionary literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43822: Improve syntax errors in the parser for missing commas between expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43798: ast.alias nodes now include source location metadata attributes e.g. lineno, col_offset.

  • bpo-43797: Improve SyntaxError error messages for invalid comparisons. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43760: Move the flag for checking whether tracing is enabled to the C stack, from the heap. Should speed up dispatch in the interpreter.

  • bpo-43682: Static methods (@staticmethod) and class methods (@classmethod) now inherit the method attributes (__module__, __name__, __qualname__, __doc__, __annotations__) and have a new __wrapped__ attribute. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43751: Fixed a bug where anext(ait, default) would erroneously return None.

  • bpo-42128: __match_args__ is no longer allowed to be a list.

  • bpo-43683: Add GEN_START opcode. Marks start of generator, including async, or coroutine and handles sending values to a newly created generator or coroutine.

  • bpo-43105: Importlib now resolves relative paths when creating module spec objects from file locations.

  • bpo-43682: Static methods (@staticmethod) are now callable as regular functions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42609: Prevented crashes in the AST validator and optimizer when compiling some absurdly long expressions like "+0"*1000000. RecursionError is now raised instead.

  • bpo-38530: When printing AttributeError, PyErr_Display() will offer suggestions of similar attribute names in the object that the exception was raised from. Patch by Pablo Galindo


  • bpo-44015: In @dataclass(), raise a TypeError if KW_ONLY is specified more than once.

  • bpo-25478: Added a total() method to collections.Counter() to compute the sum of the counts.

  • bpo-43733: Change netrc.netrc to use UTF-8 encoding before using locale encoding.

  • bpo-43979: Removed an unnecessary list comprehension before looping from urllib.parse.parse_qsl(). Patch by Christoph Zwerschke and Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-43993: Update bundled pip to 21.1.1.

  • bpo-43957: [Enum] Deprecate TypeError when non-member is used in a containment check; In 3.12 True or False will be returned instead, and containment will return True if the value is either a member of that enum or one of its members' value.

  • bpo-42904: For backwards compatibility with previous minor versions of Python, if typing.get_type_hints() receives no namespace dictionary arguments, typing.get_type_hints() will search through the global then local namespaces during evaluation of stringized type annotations (string forward references) inside a class.

  • bpo-43945: [Enum] Deprecate non-standard mixin format() behavior: in 3.12 the enum member, not the member's value, will be used for format() calls.

  • bpo-41139: Deprecate undocumented cgi.log() API.

  • bpo-43937: Fixed the turtle module working with non-default root window.

  • bpo-43930: Update bundled pip to 21.1 and setuptools to 56.0.0

  • bpo-43907: Fix a bug in the pure-Python pickle implementation when using protocol 5, where bytearray instances that occur several time in the pickled object graph would incorrectly unpickle into repeated copies of the bytearray object.

  • bpo-43926: In importlib.metadata, provide a uniform interface to Description, allow for any field to be encoded with multiline values, remove continuation lines from multiline values, and add a .json property for easy access to the PEP 566 JSON-compatible form. Sync with importlib_metadata 4.0.

  • bpo-43920: OpenSSL 3.0.0: load_verify_locations() now returns a consistent error message when cadata contains no valid certificate.

  • bpo-43607: urllib can now convert Windows paths with \\?\ prefixes into URL paths.

  • bpo-43817: Add inspect.get_annotations(), which safely computes the annotations defined on an object. It works around the quirks of accessing the annotations from various types of objects, and makes very few assumptions about the object passed in. inspect.get_annotations() can also correctly un-stringize stringized annotations.

    inspect.signature(), inspect.from_callable(), and inspect.from_function() now call inspect.get_annotations() to retrieve annotations. This means inspect.signature() and inspect.from_callable() can now un-stringize stringized annotations, too.

  • bpo-43284: platform.win32_ver derives the windows version from sys.getwindowsversion().platform_version which in turn derives the version from kernel32.dll (which can be of a different version than Windows itself). Therefore change the platform.win32_ver to determine the version using the platform module's _syscmd_ver private function to return an accurate version.

  • bpo-42854: The ssl module now uses SSL_read_ex and SSL_write_ex internally. The functions support reading and writing of data larger than 2 GB. Writing zero-length data no longer fails with a protocol violation error.

  • bpo-42333: Port _ssl extension module to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-43880: ssl now raises DeprecationWarning for OP_NO_SSL/TLS* options, old TLS versions, old protocols, and other features that have been deprecated since Python 3.6, 3.7, or OpenSSL 1.1.0.

  • bpo-41559: PEP 612 is now implemented purely in Python; builtin types.GenericAlias objects no longer include typing.ParamSpec in __parameters__ (with the exception of's GenericAlias). This means previously invalid uses of ParamSpec (such as list[P]) which worked in earlier versions of Python 3.10 alpha, will now raise TypeError during substitution.

  • bpo-43867: The multiprocessing Server class now explicitly catches SystemExit and closes the client connection in this case. It happens when the Server.serve_client() method reaches the end of file (EOF).

  • bpo-40443: Remove unused imports: pyclbr no longer uses copy, and typing no longer uses ast. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43820: Remove an unneeded copy of the namespace passed to dataclasses.make_dataclass().

  • bpo-43787: Add __iter__() method to bz2.BZ2File, gzip.GzipFile, and lzma.LZMAFile. It makes iterating them about 2x faster. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-43680: Deprecate io.OpenWrapper and _pyio.OpenWrapper: use and instead. Until Python 3.9, was not a static method and was set to OpenWrapper to not become a bound method when set to a class variable. is a built-in function whereas is a Python function. In Python 3.10, is now a static method, and is now

  • bpo-43680: The Python function becomes a static method to behave as built-in function: don't become a bound method when stored as a class variable. It becomes possible since static methods are now callable in Python 3.10. Moreover, _pyio.OpenWrapper() becomes a simple alias to Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41515: Fix KeyError raised in typing.get_type_hints() due to synthetic modules that don't appear in sys.modules.

  • bpo-43776: When subprocess.Popen args are provided as a string or as pathlib.Path, the Popen instance repr now shows the right thing.

  • bpo-42248: [Enum] ensure exceptions raised in _missing__ are released

  • bpo-43744: fix issue with enum member name matching the start of a private variable name

  • bpo-43772: Fixed the return value of TypeVar.__ror__. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-43764: Add match_args parameter to @dataclass decorator to allow suppression of __match_args__ generation.

  • bpo-43799: OpenSSL 3.0.0: define OPENSSL_API_COMPAT 1.1.1 to suppress deprecation warnings. Python requires OpenSSL 1.1.1 APIs.

  • bpo-43478: Mocks can no longer be used as the specs for other Mocks. As a result, an already-mocked object cannot have an attribute mocked using autospec=True or be the subject of a create_autospec(...) call. This can uncover bugs in tests since these Mock-derived Mocks will always pass certain tests (e.g. isinstance()) and builtin assert functions (e.g. assert_called_once_with) will unconditionally pass.

  • bpo-43794: Add ssl.OP_IGNORE_UNEXPECTED_EOF constants (OpenSSL 3.0.0)

  • bpo-43785: Improve bz2.BZ2File performance by removing the RLock from BZ2File. This makes BZ2File thread unsafe in the face of multiple simultaneous readers or writers, just like its equivalent classes in gzip and lzma have always been. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-43789: OpenSSL 3.0.0: Don't call the password callback function a second time when first call has signaled an error condition.

  • bpo-43788: The header files for ssl error codes are now OpenSSL version-specific. Exceptions will now show correct reason and library codes. The script has been rewritten to use OpenSSL's text file with error codes.

  • bpo-43766: Implement PEP 647 in the typing module by adding TypeGuard.

  • bpo-25264: os.path.realpath() now accepts a strict keyword-only argument. When set to True, OSError is raised if a path doesn't exist or a symlink loop is encountered.

  • bpo-43780: In importlib.metadata, incorporate changes from importlib_metadata 3.10: Add mtime-based caching during distribution discovery. Flagged use of dict result from entry_points() as deprecated.

  • The P.args and P.kwargs attributes of typing.ParamSpec are now instances of the new classes typing.ParamSpecArgs and typing.ParamSpecKwargs, which enables a more useful repr(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-43731: Add an encoding parameter logging.fileConfig().

  • bpo-43712: Add encoding and errors parameters to fileinput.input() and fileinput.FileInput.

  • bpo-38659: A simple_enum decorator is added to the enum module to convert a normal class into an Enum. test_simple_enum added to test simple enums against a corresponding normal Enum. Standard library modules updated to use simple_enum.

  • bpo-43764: Fix an issue where __match_args__ generation could fail for some dataclasses.

  • bpo-43752: Fix sqlite3 regression for zero-sized blobs with converters, where b"" was returned instead of None. The regression was introduced by PR 24723. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43655: tkinter dialog windows are now recognized as dialogs by window managers on macOS and X Window.

  • bpo-43723: The following threading methods are now deprecated and should be replaced:

    Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-2135: Deprecate find_module() and find_loader() implementations in importlib and zipimport.

  • bpo-43534: turtle.textinput() and turtle.numinput() create now a transient window working on behalf of the canvas window.

  • bpo-43532: Add the ability to specify keyword-only fields to dataclasses. These fields will become keyword-only arguments to the generated __init__.

  • bpo-43522: Fix problem with hostname_checks_common_name. OpenSSL does not copy hostflags from struct SSL_CTX to struct SSL.

  • bpo-8978: Improve error message for when lzma / bz2 are unavailable. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-42967: Allow bytes separator argument in urllib.parse.parse_qs and urllib.parse.parse_qsl when parsing str query strings. Previously, this raised a TypeError.

  • bpo-43296: Improve sqlite3 error handling: sqlite3_value_blob() errors that set SQLITE_NOMEM now raise MemoryError. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43312: New functions sysconfig.get_preferred_scheme() and sysconfig.get_default_scheme() are added to query a platform for its preferred "user", "home", and "prefix" (default) scheme names.

  • bpo-43265: Improve sqlite3.Connection.backup() error handling. The error message for non-existent target database names is now unknown database <database name> instead of SQL logic error. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41282: Install schemes in distutils.command.install are now loaded from sysconfig.

  • bpo-41282: distutils.sysconfig has been merged to sysconfig.

  • bpo-43176: Fixed processing of a dataclass that inherits from a frozen dataclass with no fields. It is now correctly detected as an error.

  • bpo-43080: pprint now has support for dataclasses.dataclass. Patch by Lewis Gaul.

  • bpo-39950: Add pathlib.Path.hardlink_to() method that supersedes link_to(). The new method has the same argument order as symlink_to().

  • bpo-42904: typing.get_type_hints() now checks the local namespace of a class when evaluating PEP 563 annotations inside said class.

  • bpo-42269: Add slots parameter to dataclasses.dataclass decorator to automatically generate __slots__ for class. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-39529: Deprecated use of asyncio.get_event_loop() without running event loop. Emit deprecation warning for asyncio functions which implicitly create a Future or Task objects if there is no running event loop and no explicit loop argument is passed: ensure_future(), wrap_future(), gather(), shield(), as_completed() and constructors of Future, Task, StreamReader, StreamReaderProtocol.

  • bpo-18369: Certificate and PrivateKey classes were added to the ssl module. Certificates and keys can now be loaded from memory buffer, too.

  • bpo-41486: Use a new output buffer management code for bz2 / lzma / zlib modules, and add .readall() function to _compression.DecompressReader class. These bring some performance improvements. Patch by Ma Lin.

  • bpo-31870: The ssl.get_server_certificate() function now has a timeout parameter.

  • bpo-41735: Fix thread locks in zlib module may go wrong in rare case. Patch by Ma Lin.

  • bpo-36470: Fix dataclasses with InitVars and replace(). Patch by Claudiu Popa.

  • bpo-40849: Expose X509_V_FLAG_PARTIAL_CHAIN ssl flag

  • bpo-35114: ssl.RAND_status() now returns a boolean value (as documented) instead of 1 or 0.

  • bpo-39906: pathlib.Path.stat() and chmod() now accept a follow_symlinks keyword-only argument for consistency with corresponding functions in the os module.

  • bpo-39899: os.path.expanduser() now refuses to guess Windows home directories if the basename of current user's home directory does not match their username.

    pathlib.Path.expanduser() and home() now consistently raise RuntimeError exception when a home directory cannot be resolved. Previously a KeyError exception could be raised on Windows when the "USERNAME" environment variable was unset.

  • bpo-36076: Added SNI support to ssl.get_server_certificate().

  • bpo-38490: Covariance, Pearson's correlation, and simple linear regression functionality was added to statistics module. Patch by Tymoteusz Wołodźko.

  • bpo-33731: Provide a locale.localize() function, which converts a normalized number string into a locale format.

  • bpo-32745: Fix a regression in the handling of ctypes' ctypes.c_wchar_p type: embedded null characters would cause a ValueError to be raised. Patch by Zackery Spytz.


  • bpo-43987: Add "Annotations Best Practices" document as a new HOWTO.

  • bpo-43977: Document the new Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING and Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE type flags.

  • bpo-43959: The documentation on the PyContextVar C-API was clarified.

  • bpo-43938: Update dataclasses documentation to express that FrozenInstanceError is derived from AttributeError.

  • bpo-43778: Fix the Sphinx glossary_search extension: create the _static/ sub-directory if it doesn't exist.

  • bpo-43755: Update documentation to reflect that unparenthesized lambda expressions can no longer be the expression part in an if clause in comprehensions and generator expressions since Python 3.9.

  • bpo-43739: Fixing the example code in Doc/extending/extending.rst to declare and initialize the pmodule variable to be of the right type.


  • bpo-43961: Fix test_logging.test_namer_rotator_inheritance() on Windows: use os.replace() rather than os.rename(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43842: Fix a race condition in the SMTP test of test_logging. Don't close a file descriptor (socket) from a different thread while asyncore.loop() is polling the file descriptor. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43843: test.libregrtest now marks a test as ENV_CHANGED (altered the execution environment) if a thread raises an exception but does not catch it. It sets a hook on threading.excepthook(). Use --fail-env-changed option to mark the test as failed. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43811: Tests multiple OpenSSL versions on GitHub Actions. Use ccache to speed up testing.

  • bpo-43791: OpenSSL 3.0.0: Disable testing of legacy protocols TLS 1.0 and 1.1. Tests are failing with TLSV1_ALERT_INTERNAL_ERROR.


  • bpo-43567: Improved generated code refresh (AST/tokens/opcodes/keywords) on Windows.

  • bpo-43669: Implement PEP 644. Python now requires OpenSSL 1.1.1 or newer.


  • bpo-35306: Adds additional arguments to os.startfile() function.

  • bpo-43538: Avoid raising errors from pathlib.Path.exists() when passed an invalid filename.

  • bpo-38822: Fixed os.stat() failing on inaccessible directories with a trailing slash, rather than falling back to the parent directory's metadata. This implicitly affected os.path.exists() and os.path.isdir().

  • bpo-26227: Fixed decoding of host names in socket.gethostbyaddr() and socket.gethostbyname_ex().

  • bpo-40432: Updated pegen regeneration script on Windows to find and use Python 3.8 or higher. Prior to this, pegen regeneration already required 3.8 or higher, but the script may have used lower versions of Python.

  • bpo-43745: Actually updates Windows release to OpenSSL 1.1.1k. Earlier releases were mislabelled and actually included 1.1.1i again.

  • bpo-43652: Update Tcl and Tk to 8.6.11 in Windows installer.

  • bpo-43492: Upgrade Windows installer to use SQLite 3.35.5.

  • bpo-30555: Fix WindowsConsoleIO errors in the presence of fd redirection. Patch by Segev Finer.


  • bpo-42119: Fix check for macOS SDK paths when building Python. Narrow search to match contents of SDKs, namely only files in /System/Library, /System/IOSSupport, and /usr other than /usr/local. Previously, anything under /System was assumed to be in an SDK which causes problems with the new file system layout in 10.15+ where user file systems may appear to be mounted under /System. Paths in /Library were also incorrectly treated as SDK locations.

  • bpo-43568: Drop support for MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET < 10.3

  • bpo-44009: Provide "python3.x-intel64" executable to allow reliably forcing macOS universal2 framework builds to run under Rosetta 2 Intel-64 emulation on Apple Silicon Macs. This can be useful for testing or when universal2 wheels are not yet available.

  • bpo-43851: Build SQLite with SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT on macOS. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43492: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.35.4.

  • bpo-42235: Mac/BuildScript/ will now use "--enable-optimizations" and --with-lto when building on macOS 10.15 or later.


  • bpo-37903: Add mouse actions to the shell sidebar. Left click and optional drag selects one or more lines, as with the editor line number sidebar. Right click after selecting raises a context menu with 'copy with prompts'. This zips together prompts from the sidebar with lines from the selected text.

  • bpo-43981: Fix reference leak in test_sidebar and test_squeezer. Patches by Terry Jan Reedy and Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-37892: Indent IDLE Shell input with spaces instead of tabs

  • bpo-43655: IDLE dialog windows are now recognized as dialogs by window managers on macOS and X Window.

  • bpo-37903: IDLE's shell now shows prompts in a separate side-bar.


  • bpo-43916: Add a new Py_TPFLAGS_DISALLOW_INSTANTIATION type flag to disallow creating type instances. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43774: Remove the now unused PYMALLOC_DEBUG macro. Debug hooks on memory allocators are now installed by default if Python is built in debug mode (if Py_DEBUG macro is defined). Moreover, they can now be used on Python build in release mode (ex: using PYTHONMALLOC=debug environment variable).

  • bpo-43962: _PyInterpreterState_IDIncref() now calls _PyInterpreterState_IDInitref() and always increments id_refcount. Previously, calling _xxsubinterpreters.get_current() could create an id_refcount inconsistency when a _xxsubinterpreters.InterpreterID object was deallocated. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-28254: Add new C-API functions to control the state of the garbage collector: PyGC_Enable(), PyGC_Disable(), PyGC_IsEnabled(), corresponding to the functions in the gc module.

  • bpo-43908: Introduce Py_TPFLAGS_IMMUTABLETYPE flag for immutable type objects, and modify PyType_Ready() to set it for static types. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43795: PyMem_Calloc() is now available in the limited C API (Py_LIMITED_API).

  • bpo-43868: PyOS_ReadlineFunctionPointer() is no longer exported by limited C API headers and by python3.dll on Windows. Like any function that takes FILE*, it is not part of the stable ABI.

  • bpo-43795: Stable ABI and limited API definitions are generated from a central manifest (PEP 652).

  • bpo-43753: Add the Py_Is(x, y) function to test if the x object is the y object, the same as x is y in Python. Add also the Py_IsNone(), Py_IsTrue(), Py_IsFalse() functions to test if an object is, respectively, the None singleton, the True singleton or the False singleton. Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 7

Release date: 2021-04-05


  • bpo-42988: CVE-2021-3426: Remove the getfile feature of the pydoc module which could be abused to read arbitrary files on the disk (directory traversal vulnerability). Moreover, even source code of Python modules can contain sensitive data like passwords. Vulnerability reported by David Schwörer.

  • bpo-43285: ftplib no longer trusts the IP address value returned from the server in response to the PASV command by default. This prevents a malicious FTP server from using the response to probe IPv4 address and port combinations on the client network.

    Code that requires the former vulnerable behavior may set a trust_server_pasv_ipv4_address attribute on their ftplib.FTP instances to True to re-enable it.

  • bpo-43439: Add audit hooks for gc.get_objects(), gc.get_referrers() and gc.get_referents(). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-27129: Update CPython bytecode magic number.

  • bpo-43672: Raise ImportWarning when calling find_loader().

  • bpo-43660: Fix crash that happens when replacing sys.stderr with a callable that can remove the object while an exception is being printed. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-27129: The bytecode interpreter uses instruction, rather byte, offsets internally. This reduces the number of EXTENDED_ARG instructions needed and streamlines instruction dispatch a bit.

  • bpo-40645: Fix reference leak in the _hashopenssl extension. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42134: Calls to find_module() by the import system now raise ImportWarning.

  • bpo-41064: Improve the syntax error for invalid usage of double starred elements ('**') in f-strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43575: Speed up calls to map() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-42137: The import system now prefers using __spec__ for ModuleType.__repr__ over module_repr().

  • bpo-43452: Added micro-optimizations to _PyType_Lookup() to improve cache lookup performance in the common case of cache hits.

  • bpo-43555: Report the column offset for SyntaxError for invalid line continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43517: Fix misdetection of circular imports when using from pkg.mod import attr, which caused false positives in non-trivial multi-threaded code.

  • bpo-43497: Emit SyntaxWarnings for assertions with tuple constants, this is a regression introduced in python3.7

  • bpo-39316: Tracing now has correct line numbers for attribute accesses when the the attribute is on a different line from the object. Improves debugging and profiling for multi-line method chains.

  • bpo-35883: Python no longer fails at startup with a fatal error if a command line argument contains an invalid Unicode character. The Py_DecodeLocale() function now escapes byte sequences which would be decoded as Unicode characters outside the [U+0000; U+10ffff] range.

  • bpo-43410: Fix a bug that was causing the parser to crash when emitting syntax errors when reading input from stdin. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43406: Fix a possible race condition where PyErr_CheckSignals tries to execute a non-Python signal handler.

  • bpo-42128: Add __match_args__ to structsequence based classes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43390: CPython now sets the SA_ONSTACK flag in PyOS_setsig for the VM's default signal handlers. This is friendlier to other in-process code that an extension module or embedding use could pull in (such as Golang's cgo) where tiny thread stacks are the norm and sigaltstack() has been used to provide for signal handlers. This is a no-op change for the vast majority of processes that don't use sigaltstack.

  • bpo-43287: Speed up calls to filter() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37448: Add a radix tree based memory map to track in-use obmalloc arenas. Use to replace the old implementation of address_in_range(). The radix tree approach makes it easy to increase pool sizes beyond the OS page size. Boosting the pool and arena size allows obmalloc to handle a significantly higher percentage of requests from its ultra-fast paths.

    It also has the advantage of eliminating the memory unsanitary behavior of the previous address_in_range(). The old address_in_range() was marked with the annotations _Py_NO_SANITIZE_ADDRESS, _Py_NO_SANITIZE_THREAD, and _Py_NO_SANITIZE_MEMORY. Those annotations are no longer needed.

    To disable the radix tree map, set a preprocessor flag as follows: -DWITH_PYMALLOC_RADIX_TREE=0.

    Co-authored-by: Tim Peters <>

  • bpo-29988: Only handle asynchronous exceptions and requests to drop the GIL when returning from a call or on the back edges of loops. Makes sure that __exit__() is always called in with statements, even for interrupts.


  • bpo-43720: Document various stdlib deprecations in imp, pkgutil, and importlib.util for removal in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-43433: xmlrpc.client.ServerProxy no longer ignores query and fragment in the URL of the server.

  • bpo-31956: The index() method of array.array now has optional start and stop parameters.

  • bpo-40066: Enum: adjust repr() to show only enum and member name (not value, nor angle brackets) and str() to show only member name. Update and improve documentation to match.

  • bpo-42136: Deprecate all module_repr() methods found in importlib as their use is being phased out by Python 3.12.

  • bpo-35930: Raising an exception raised in a "future" instance will create reference cycles.

  • bpo-41369: Finish updating the vendored libmpdec to version 2.5.1. Patch by Stefan Krah.

  • bpo-43422: Revert the _decimal C API which was added in bpo-41324.

  • bpo-43577: Fix deadlock when using ssl.SSLContext debug callback with ssl.SSLContext.sni_callback().

  • bpo-43571: It's now possible to create MPTCP sockets with IPPROTO_MPTCP

  • bpo-43542: image/heic and image/heif were added to mimetypes.

  • bpo-40645: The hmac module now uses OpenSSL's HMAC implementation when digestmod argument is a hash name or builtin hash function.

  • bpo-43510: Implement PEP 597: Add EncodingWarning warning, -X warn_default_encoding option, PYTHONWARNDEFAULTENCODING environment variable and encoding="locale" argument value.

  • bpo-43521: ast.unparse can now render NaNs and empty sets.

  • bpo-42914: pprint.pprint() gains a new boolean underscore_numbers optional argument to emit integers with thousands separated by an underscore character for improved readability (for example 1_000_000 instead of 1000000).

  • bpo-41361: rotate() calls are now slightly faster due to faster argument parsing.

  • bpo-43423: subprocess.communicate() no longer raises an IndexError when there is an empty stdout or stderr IO buffer during a timeout on Windows.

  • bpo-27820: Fixed long-standing bug of smtplib.SMTP where doing AUTH LOGIN with initial_response_ok=False will fail.

    The cause is that SMTP.auth_login _always_ returns a password if provided with a challenge string, thus non-compliant with the standard for AUTH LOGIN.

    Also fixes bug with the test for smtpd.

  • bpo-43445: Add frozen modules to sys.stdlib_module_names. For example, add "_frozen_importlib" and "_frozen_importlib_external" names.

  • bpo-43245: Add keyword arguments support to ChainMap.new_child().

  • bpo-29982: Add optional parameter ignore_cleanup_errors to tempfile.TemporaryDirectory() and allow multiple cleanup() attempts. Contributed by C.A.M. Gerlach.

  • bpo-43428: Include changes from importlib_metadata 3.7:

    Performance enhancements to distribution discovery.

    entry_points only returns unique distributions.

    Introduces new EntryPoints object for containing a set of entry points with convenience methods for selecting entry points by group or name. entry_points now returns this object if selection parameters are supplied but continues to return a dict object for compatibility. Users are encouraged to rely on the selection interface. The dict object result is likely to be deprecated in the future.

    Added packages_distributions function to return a mapping of packages to the distributions that provide them.

  • bpo-43332: Improves the networking efficiency of http.client when using a proxy via set_tunnel(). Fewer small send calls are made during connection setup.

  • bpo-43420: Improve performance of fractions.Fraction arithmetics for large components. Contributed by Sergey B. Kirpichev.

  • bpo-43356: Allow passing a signal number to _thread.interrupt_main().

  • bpo-43399: Fix ElementTree.extend not working on iterators when using the Python implementation

  • bpo-43369: Improve sqlite3 error handling: If sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_blob() set SQLITE_NOMEM, MemoryError is now raised. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43368: Fix a regression introduced in PR 24562, where an empty bytestring was fetched as None instead of b'' in sqlite3. Patch by Mariusz Felisiak.

  • bpo-41282: Fixed stacklevel of DeprecationWarning emitted from import distutils.

  • bpo-42129: importlib.resources now honors namespace packages, merging resources from each location in the namespace as introduced in importlib_resources 3.2 and including incidental changes through 5.0.3.

  • bpo-43295: datetime.datetime.strptime() now raises ValueError instead of IndexError when matching 'z' with the %z format specifier.

  • bpo-43125: Return empty string if base64mime.body_encode receive empty bytes

  • bpo-43084: curses.window.enclose() returns now True or False (as was documented) instead of 1 or 0.

  • bpo-42994: Add MIME types for opus, AAC, 3gpp and 3gpp2

  • bpo-14678: Add an invalidate_caches() method to the zipimport.zipimporter class to support importlib.invalidate_caches(). Patch by Desmond Cheong.

  • bpo-42782: Fail fast in shutil.move() to avoid creating destination directories on failure.

  • bpo-40066: Enum's repr() and str() have changed: repr() is now EnumClass.MemberName and str() is MemberName. Additionally, stdlib Enum's whose contents are available as module attributes, such as RegexFlag.IGNORECASE, have their repr() as, e.g. re.IGNORECASE.

  • bpo-26053: Fixed bug where the pdb interactive run command echoed the args from the shell command line, even if those have been overridden at the pdb prompt.

  • bpo-24160: Fixed bug where breakpoints did not persist across multiple debugger sessions in pdb's interactive mode.

  • bpo-40701: When the tempfile.tempdir global variable is set to a value of type bytes, it is now handled consistently. Previously exceptions could be raised from some tempfile APIs when the directory did not already exist in this situation. Also ensures that the tempfile.gettempdir() and tempfile.gettempdirb() functions always return str and bytes respectively.

  • bpo-39342: Expose X509_V_FLAG_ALLOW_PROXY_CERTS as VERIFY_ALLOW_PROXY_CERTS to allow proxy certificate validation as explained in

  • bpo-31861: Add builtins.aiter and builtins.anext. Patch by Joshua Bronson (@jab), Daniel Pope (@lordmauve), and Justin Wang (@justin39).



  • bpo-37945: Fix test_getsetlocale_issue1813() of test_locale: skip the test if setlocale() fails. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41561: Add workaround for Ubuntu's custom OpenSSL security level policy.


  • bpo-43179: Introduce and correctly use ALIGNOF_X in place of SIZEOF_X for alignment-related code in optimized string routines. Patch by Jessica Clarke.

  • bpo-43631: Update macOS, Windows, and CI to OpenSSL 1.1.1k.

  • bpo-43617: Improve Check for presence of autoconf-archive package and remove our copies of M4 macros.

  • bpo-43466: The configure script now supports --with-openssl-rpath option.

  • bpo-43372: Use _freeze_importlib to generate code for the __hello__ module. This approach ensures the code matches the interpreter version. Previously, PYTHON_FOR_REGEN was used to generate the code, which might be wrong. The marshal format for code objects has changed with bpo-42246, commit 877df851. Update the code and the expected code sizes in ctypes test_frozentable.


  • bpo-43440: Build sqlite3 with the R*Tree module enabled. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.


  • bpo-42225: Document that IDLE can fail on Unix either from misconfigured IP masquerade rules or failure displaying complex colored (non-ascii) characters.


  • bpo-43688: The limited C API is now supported if Python is built in debug mode (if the Py_DEBUG macro is defined). In the limited C API, the Py_INCREF() and Py_DECREF() functions are now implemented as opaque function calls, rather than accessing directly the PyObject.ob_refcnt member, if Python is built in debug mode and the Py_LIMITED_API macro targets Python 3.10 or newer. It became possible to support the limited C API in debug mode because the PyObject structure is the same in release and debug mode since Python 3.8 (see bpo-36465).

    The limited C API is still not supported in the --with-trace-refs special build (Py_TRACE_REFS macro).

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the pyarena.h header file with functions:

    • PyArena_New()

    • PyArena_Free()

    • PyArena_Malloc()

    • PyArena_AddPyObject()

    These functions were undocumented, excluded from the limited C API, and were only used internally by the compiler. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the compiler and parser functions using struct _mod type, because the public AST C API was removed:

    • PyAST_Compile()

    • PyAST_CompileEx()

    • PyAST_CompileObject()

    • PyFuture_FromAST()

    • PyFuture_FromASTObject()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFile()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFileObject()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFilename()

    • PyParser_ASTFromString()

    • PyParser_ASTFromStringObject()

    These functions were undocumented and excluded from the limited C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove ast.h, asdl.h, and Python-ast.h header files. These functions were undocumented and excluded from the limited C API. Most names defined by these header files were not prefixed by Py and so could create names conflicts. For example, Python-ast.h defined a Yield macro which was conflict with the Yield name used by the Windows <winbase.h> header. Use the Python ast module instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43541: Fix a PyEval_EvalCodeEx() regression: fix reference counting on builtins. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the symtable.h header file and the undocumented functions:

    • PyST_GetScope()

    • PySymtable_Build()

    • PySymtable_BuildObject()

    • PySymtable_Free()

    • Py_SymtableString()

    • Py_SymtableStringObject()

    The Py_SymtableString() function was part the stable ABI by mistake but it could not be used, because the symtable.h header file was excluded from the limited C API.

    The Python symtable module remains available and is unchanged.

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the PyAST_Validate() function. It is no longer possible to build a AST object (mod_ty type) with the public C API. The function was already excluded from the limited C API (PEP 384). Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 6

Release date: 2021-03-01


  • bpo-42967: Fix web cache poisoning vulnerability by defaulting the query args separator to &, and allowing the user to choose a custom separator.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-43321: Fix SystemError raised when PyArg_Parse*() is used with # but without PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN defined.

  • bpo-36346: PyArg_Parse*() functions now emits DeprecationWarning when u or Z format is used. See PEP 623 for detail.

  • bpo-43277: Add a new PySet_CheckExact() function to the C-API to check if an object is an instance of set but not an instance of a subtype. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42990: The types.FunctionType constructor now inherits the current builtins if the globals dictionary has no "__builtins__" key, rather than using {"None": None} as builtins: same behavior as eval() and exec() functions. Defining a function with def function(...): ... in Python is not affected, globals cannot be overridden with this syntax: it also inherits the current builtins. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42990: Functions have a new __builtins__ attribute which is used to look for builtin symbols when a function is executed, instead of looking into __globals__['__builtins__']. Patch by Mark Shannon and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43149: Improve the error message in the parser for exception groups without parentheses. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43121: Fixed an incorrect SyntaxError message for missing comma in literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42819: readline: Explicitly disable bracketed paste in the interactive interpreter, even if it's set in the inputrc, is enabled by default (eg GNU Readline 8.1), or a user calls readline.read_init_file(). The Python REPL has not implemented bracketed paste support. Also, bracketed mode writes the "\x1b[?2004h" escape sequence into stdout which causes test failures in applications that don't support it. It can still be explicitly enabled by calling readline.parse_and_bind("set enable-bracketed-paste on"). Patch by Dustin Rodrigues.

  • bpo-42808: Simple calls to type(object) are now faster due to the vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-42217: Make the compiler merges same co_code and co_linetable objects in a module like already did for co_consts.

  • bpo-41972: Substring search functions such as str1 in str2 and str2.find(str1) now sometimes use the "Two-Way" string comparison algorithm to avoid quadratic behavior on long strings.

  • bpo-42128: Implement PEP 634 (structural pattern matching). Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-40692: In the concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor, validate that multiprocess.synchronize() is available on a given platform and rely on that check in the concurrent.futures test suite so we can run tests that are unrelated to ProcessPoolExecutor on those platforms.

  • bpo-38302: If object.__ipow__() returns NotImplemented, the operator will correctly fall back to object.__pow__() and object.__rpow__() as expected.


  • bpo-43316: The python -m gzip command line application now properly fails when detecting an unsupported extension. It exits with a non-zero exit code and prints an error message to stderr.

  • bpo-43317: Set the chunk size for the gzip module main function to io.DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE. This is slightly faster than the 1024 bytes constant that was used previously.

  • bpo-43146: Handle None in single-arg versions of print_exception() and format_exception().

  • bpo-43260: Fix TextIOWrapper can not flush internal buffer forever after very large text is written.

  • bpo-43258: Prevent needless allocation of sqlite3 aggregate function context when no rows match an aggregate query. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43251: Improve sqlite3 error handling: sqlite3_column_name() failures now result in MemoryError. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40956: Fix segfault in sqlite3.Connection.backup() if no argument was provided. The regression was introduced by PR 23838. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43172: The readline module now passes its tests when built directly against libedit. Existing irreconcilable API differences remain in readline.get_begidx() and readline.get_endidx() behavior based on libreadline vs libedit use.

  • bpo-43163: Fix a bug in codeop that was causing it to not ask for more input when multi-line snippets have unclosed parentheses. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43162: deprecate unsupported ability to access enum members as attributes of other enum members

  • bpo-43146: Fix recent regression in None argument handling in traceback module functions.

  • bpo-43102: The namedtuple __new__ method had its __builtins__ set to None instead of an actual dictionary. This created problems for introspection tools.

  • bpo-43106: Added O_EVTONLY, O_FSYNC, O_SYMLINK and O_NOFOLLOW_ANY for macOS. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-42960: Adds resource.RLIMIT_KQUEUES constant from FreeBSD to the resource module.

  • bpo-42151: Make the pure Python implementation of xml.etree.ElementTree behave the same as the C implementation (_elementree) regarding default attribute values (by not setting specified_attributes=1).

  • bpo-29753: In ctypes, now packed bitfields are calculated properly and the first item of packed bitfields is now shrank correctly.


  • bpo-27646: Clarify that 'yield from <expr>' works with any iterable, not just iterators.

  • bpo-36346: Update some deprecated unicode APIs which are documented as "will be removed in 4.0" to "3.12". See PEP 623 for detail.


  • bpo-43288: Fix test_importlib to correctly skip Unicode file tests if the filesystem does not support them.


  • bpo-43174: Windows build now uses /utf-8 compiler option.

  • bpo-43103: Add a new configure --without-static-libpython option to not build the libpythonMAJOR.MINOR.a static library and not install the python.o object file.

  • bpo-13501: The configure script can now use libedit instead of readline with the command line option --with-readline=editline.

  • bpo-42603: Make configure script use pkg-config to detect the location of Tcl/Tk headers and libraries, used to build tkinter.

    On macOS, a Tcl/Tk configuration provided by pkg-config will be preferred over Tcl/Tk frameworks installed in /{System/,}Library/Frameworks. If both exist and the latter is preferred, the appropriate --with-tcltk-* configuration options need to be explicitly set.

  • bpo-39448: Add the "regen-frozen" makefile target that regenerates the code for the frozen __hello__ module.


  • bpo-43155: PyCMethod_New() is now present in python3.lib.


  • bpo-41837: Update macOS installer build to use OpenSSL 1.1.1j.


  • bpo-43283: Document why printing to IDLE's Shell is often slower than printing to a system terminal and that it can be made faster by pre-formatting a single string before printing.


  • bpo-43278: Always put compiler and system information on the first line of the REPL welcome message.

  • bpo-43270: Remove the private _PyErr_OCCURRED() macro: use the public PyErr_Occurred() function instead.

  • bpo-35134: Move odictobject.h, parser_interface.h, picklebufobject.h, pydebug.h, and pyfpe.h into the cpython/ directory. They must not be included directly, as they are already included by Python.h: Include Files.

  • bpo-35134: Move pyarena.h, pyctype.h, and pytime.h into the cpython/ directory. They must not be included directly, as they are already included by Python.h: Include Files.

  • bpo-40170: PyExceptionClass_Name() is now always declared as a function, in order to hide implementation details. The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_name directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43239: The PyCFunction_New() function is now exported in the ABI when compiled with -fvisibility=hidden.

  • bpo-40170: PyIter_Check() is now always declared as a function, in order to hide implementation details. The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_iternext directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40170: Convert PyDescr_IsData() macro to a function to hide implementation details: The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_descr_set directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43181: Convert PyObject_TypeCheck() macro to a static inline function. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 5

Release date: 2021-02-02


Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42990: Refactor the PyEval_ family of functions.

    • An new function _PyEval_Vector is added to simplify calls to Python from C.

    • _PyEval_EvalCodeWithName is removed

    • PyEval_EvalCodeEx is retained as part of the API, but is not used internally

  • bpo-38631: Replace Py_FatalError() calls in the compiler with regular SystemError exceptions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42997: Improve error message for missing ":" before blocks. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43017: Improve error message in the parser when using un-parenthesised tuples in comprehensions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42986: Fix parser crash when reporting syntax errors in f-string with newlines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40176: Syntax errors for unterminated string literals now point to the start of the string instead of reporting EOF/EOL.

  • bpo-42927: The inline cache for LOAD_ATTR now also optimizes access to attributes defined by __slots__. This makes reading such attribute up to 30% faster.

  • bpo-42864: Improve error messages in the parser when parentheses are not closed. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42924: Fix bytearray repetition incorrectly copying data from the start of the buffer, even if the data is offset within the buffer (e.g. after reassigning a slice at the start of the bytearray to a shorter byte string).

  • bpo-42882: Fix the _PyUnicode_FromId() function (_Py_IDENTIFIER(var) API) when Py_Initialize() / Py_Finalize() is called multiple times: preserve _PyRuntime.unicode_ids.next_index value.

  • bpo-42827: Fix a crash when working out the error line of a SyntaxError in some multi-line expressions.

  • bpo-42823: frame.f_lineno is correct even if frame.f_trace is set to True

  • bpo-37324: Remove deprecated aliases to 容器抽象基类 from the collections module.

  • bpo-41994: Fixed possible leak in import when sys.modules is not a dict.

  • bpo-27772: In string formatting, preceding the width field by '0' no longer affects the default alignment for strings.


  • bpo-43108: Fixed a reference leak in the curses module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43077: Update the bundled pip to 21.0.1 and setuptools to 52.0.0.

  • bpo-41282: Deprecate distutils in documentation and add warning on import.

  • bpo-43014: Improve performance of tokenize by 20-30%. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-42323: Fix math.nextafter() for NaN on AIX.

  • bpo-42955: Add sys.stdlib_module_names, containing the list of the standard library module names. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42944: Fix random.Random.sample when counts argument is not None.

  • bpo-42934: Use TracebackException's new compact param in TestResult to reduce time and memory consumed by traceback formatting.

  • bpo-42931: Add randbytes() to random.__all__.

  • bpo-38250: [Enum] Flags consisting of a single bit are now considered canonical, and will be the only flags returned from listing and iterating over a Flag class or a Flag member. Multi-bit flags are considered aliases; they will be returned from lookups and operations that result in their value. Iteration for both Flag and Flag members is in definition order.

  • bpo-42877: Added the compact parameter to the constructor of traceback.TracebackException to reduce time and memory for use cases that only need to call TracebackException.format() and TracebackException.format_exception_only().

  • bpo-42923: The Py_FatalError() function and the faulthandler module now dump the list of extension modules on a fatal error.

  • bpo-42848: Removed recursion from TracebackException to allow it to handle long exception chains.

  • bpo-42901: [Enum] move member creation from EnumMeta.__new__ to _proto_member.__set_name__, allowing members to be created and visible in __init_subclass__.

  • bpo-42780: Fix os.set_inheritable() for O_PATH file descriptors on Linux.

  • bpo-42866: Fix a reference leak in the getcodec() function of CJK codecs. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42846: Convert the 6 CJK codec extension modules (_codecs_cn, _codecs_hk, _codecs_iso2022, _codecs_jp, _codecs_kr and _codecs_tw) to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42851: remove __init_subclass__ support for Enum members

  • bpo-42834: Make internal caches of the _json module compatible with subinterpreters.

  • bpo-41748: Fix HTMLParser parsing rules for element attributes containing commas with spaces. Patch by Karl Dubost.

  • bpo-40810: Require SQLite 3.7.15 or newer. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-1635741: Convert the _multibytecodec extension module (CJK codecs) to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42802: The distutils bdist_wininst command deprecated in Python 3.8 has been removed. The distutils bdist_wheel command is now recommended to distribute binary packages on Windows.

  • bpo-24464: The undocumented built-in function sqlite3.enable_shared_cache is now deprecated, scheduled for removal in Python 3.12. Its use is strongly discouraged by the SQLite3 documentation. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42384: Make pdb populate sys.path[0] exactly the same as regular python execution.

  • bpo-42383: Fix pdb: previously pdb would fail to restart the debugging target if it was specified using a relative path and the current directory changed.

  • bpo-42005: Fix CLI of cProfile and profile to catch BrokenPipeError.

  • bpo-41604: Don't decrement the reference count of the previous user_ptr when set_panel_userptr fails.

  • bpo-41149: Allow executing callables that have a boolean value of False when passed to Threading.thread as the target. Patch contributed by Barney Stratford.

  • bpo-38307: Add an 'end_lineno' attribute to the Class and Function objects that appear in the tree returned by pyclbr functions. This and the existing 'lineno' attribute define the extent of class and def statements. Patch by Aviral Srivastava.

  • bpo-39273: The BUTTON5_* constants are now exposed in the curses module if available.

  • bpo-33289: Correct call to tkinter.colorchooser to return RGB triplet of ints instead of floats. Patch by Cheryl Sabella.


  • bpo-40304: Fix doc for type(name, bases, dict). Patch by Boris Verkhovskiy and Éric Araujo.

  • bpo-42811: Updated importlib.utils.resolve_name() doc to use __spec__.parent instead of __package__. (Thanks Yair Frid.)


  • bpo-40823: Use unittest.TestLoader().loadTestsFromTestCase() instead of unittest.makeSuite() in sqlite3 tests. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40810: In sqlite3, fix CheckTraceCallbackContent for SQLite pre 3.7.15.


  • bpo-43031: Pass --timeout=$(TESTTIMEOUT) option to the default profile task ./python -m test --pgo command.

  • bpo-36143: make regen-all now also runs regen-keyword. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42874: Removed the grep -q and -E flags in the tzpath validation section of the configure script to better accommodate users of some platforms (specifically Solaris 10).

  • bpo-31904: Add library search path by wr-cc in add_cross_compiling_paths() for VxWorks.

  • bpo-42856: Add --with-wheel-pkg-dir=PATH option to the ./configure script. If specified, the ensurepip module looks for setuptools and pip wheel packages in this directory: if both are present, these wheel packages are used instead of ensurepip bundled wheel packages.

    Some Linux distribution packaging policies recommend against bundling dependencies. For example, Fedora installs wheel packages in the /usr/share/python-wheels/ directory and don't install the ensurepip._bundled package.


  • bpo-41837: Updated Windows installer to include OpenSSL 1.1.1i

  • bpo-42584: Upgrade Windows installer to use SQLite 3.34.0.


  • bpo-42504: Ensure that the value of sysconfig.get_config_var('MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET') is always a string, even in when the value is parsable as an integer.


  • bpo-43008: Make IDLE invoke sys.excepthook() in normal, 2-process mode. Patch by Ken Hilton.

  • bpo-33065: Fix problem debugging user classes with __repr__ method.

  • bpo-23544: Disable Debug=>Stack Viewer when user code is running or Debugger is active, to prevent hang or crash. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-32631: Finish zzdummy example extension module: make menu entries work; add docstrings and tests with 100% coverage.


  • bpo-42979: When Python is built in debug mode (with C assertions), calling a type slot like sq_length (__len__() in Python) now fails with a fatal error if the slot succeeded with an exception set, or failed with no exception set. The error message contains the slot, the type name, and the current exception (if an exception is set). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43030: Fixed a compiler warning in Py_UNICODE_ISSPACE() on platforms with signed wchar_t.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 4

Release date: 2021-01-04

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42814: Fix undefined behavior in Objects/genericaliasobject.c.

  • bpo-42806: Fix the column offsets for f-strings ast nodes surrounded by parentheses and for nodes that spawn multiple lines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40631: Fix regression where a single parenthesized starred expression was a valid assignment target.

  • bpo-27794: Improve the error message for failed writes/deletes to property objects. When possible, the attribute name is now shown. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42745: Make the type attribute lookup cache per-interpreter. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42246: Jumps to jumps are not eliminated when it would break PEP 626.

  • bpo-42246: Make sure that the f_lasti and f_lineno attributes of a frame are set correctly when an exception is raised or re-raised. Required for PEP 626.

  • bpo-32381: The coding cookie (ex: # coding: latin1) is now ignored in the command passed to the -c command line option. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-30858: Improve error location in expressions that contain assignments. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Lysandros Nikolaou.

  • bpo-42615: Remove jump commands made redundant by the deletion of unreachable bytecode blocks

  • bpo-42639: Make the atexit module state per-interpreter. It is now safe have more than one atexit module instance. Patch by Dong-hee Na and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-32381: Fix encoding name when running a .pyc file on Windows: PyRun_SimpleFileExFlags() now uses the correct encoding to decode the filename.

  • bpo-42195: The __args__ of the parameterized generics for typing.Callable and are now consistent. The __args__ for are now flattened while typing.Callable's have not changed. To allow this change, types.GenericAlias can now be subclassed and's __class_getitem__ will now return a subclass of types.GenericAlias. Tests for typing were also updated to not subclass things like Callable[..., T] as that is not a valid base class. Finally, both Callables no longer validate their argtypes, in Callable[[argtypes], resulttype] to prepare for PEP 612. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-40137: Convert functools module to use PyType_FromModuleAndSpec().

  • bpo-40077: Convert array to use heap types, and establish module state for these.

  • bpo-42008: Fix _random.Random() seeding.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the pyexpat extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40521: Make the Unicode dictionary of interned strings compatible with subinterpreters. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-39465: Make _PyUnicode_FromId() function compatible with subinterpreters. Each interpreter now has an array of identifier objects (interned strings decoded from UTF-8). Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • bpo-42257: Handle empty string in variable executable in platform.libc_ver()

  • bpo-42772: randrange() now raises a TypeError when step is specified without a stop argument. Formerly, it silently ignored the step argument.

  • bpo-42759: Fixed equality comparison of tkinter.Variable and tkinter.font.Font. Objects which belong to different Tcl interpreters are now always different, even if they have the same name.

  • bpo-42756: Configure LMTP Unix-domain socket to use socket global default timeout when a timeout is not explicitly provided.

  • bpo-23328: Allow / character in username, password fields on _PROXY envars.

  • bpo-42740: typing.get_args() and typing.get_origin() now support PEP 604 union types and PEP 612 additions to Callable.

  • bpo-42655: subprocess extra_groups is now correctly passed into setgroups() system call.

  • bpo-42727: EnumMeta.__prepare__ now accepts **kwds to properly support __init_subclass__

  • bpo-38308: Add optional weights to statistics.harmonic_mean().

  • bpo-42721: When simple query dialogs (tkinter.simpledialog), message boxes (tkinter.messagebox) or color choose dialog (tkinter.colorchooser) are created without arguments master and parent, and the default root window is not yet created, and NoDefaultRoot() was not called, a new temporal hidden root window will be created automatically. It will not be set as the default root window and will be destroyed right after closing the dialog window. It will help to use these simple dialog windows in programs which do not need other GUI.

  • bpo-25246: Optimized collections.deque.remove().

  • bpo-35728: Added a root parameter to tkinter.font.nametofont().

  • bpo-15303: tkinter supports now widgets with boolean value False.

  • bpo-42681: Fixed range checks for color and pair numbers in curses.

  • bpo-42685: Improved placing of simple query windows in Tkinter (such as tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger()). They are now centered at the center of the parent window if it is specified and shown, otherwise at the center of the screen.

  • bpo-9694: Argparse help no longer uses the confusing phrase, "optional arguments". It uses "options" instead.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _thread extension module to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489) and convert its static types to heap types.

  • bpo-37961: Fix crash in tracemalloc.Traceback.__repr__() (regressed in Python 3.9).

  • bpo-42630: tkinter functions and constructors which need a default root window raise now RuntimeError with descriptive message instead of obscure AttributeError or NameError if it is not created yet or cannot be created automatically.

  • bpo-42639: atexit._run_exitfuncs() now logs callback exceptions using sys.unraisablehook, rather than logging them directly into sys.stderr and raise the last exception.

  • bpo-42644: logging.disable will now validate the types and value of its parameter. It also now accepts strings representing the levels (as does loging.setLevel) instead of only the numerical values.

  • bpo-42639: At Python exit, if a callback registered with atexit.register() fails, its exception is now logged. Previously, only some exceptions were logged, and the last exception was always silently ignored.

  • bpo-36541: Fixed lib2to3.pgen2 to be able to parse PEP-570 positional only argument syntax.

  • bpo-42382: In importlib.metadata: - EntryPoint objects now expose a .dist object referencing the Distribution when constructed from a Distribution. - Add support for package discovery under package normalization rules. - The object returned by metadata() now has a formally defined protocol called PackageMetadata with declared support for the .get_all() method. - Synced with importlib_metadata 3.3.

  • bpo-41877: A check is added against misspellings of autospect, auto_spec and set_spec being passed as arguments to patch, patch.object and create_autospec.

  • bpo-39717: [tarfile] update nested exception raising to use from None or from e

  • bpo-41877: AttributeError for suspected misspellings of assertions on mocks are now pointing out that the cause are misspelled assertions and also what to do if the misspelling is actually an intended attribute name. The unittest.mock document is also updated to reflect the current set of recognised misspellings.

  • bpo-41559: Implemented PEP 612: added ParamSpec and Concatenate to typing. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-42385: StrEnum: fix _generate_next_value_ to return a str

  • bpo-31904: Define THREAD_STACK_SIZE for VxWorks.

  • bpo-34750: [Enum] _EnumDict.update() is now supported

  • bpo-42517: Enum: private names do not become members / do not generate errors -- they remain normal attributes

  • bpo-42678: Enum: call __init_subclass__ after members have been added

  • bpo-28964: ast.literal_eval() adds line number information (if available) in error message for malformed nodes.

  • bpo-42470: random.sample() no longer warns on a sequence which is also a set.

  • bpo-31904: posixpath.expanduser() returns the input path unchanged if user home directory is None on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42388: Fix subprocess.check_output(..., input=None) behavior when text=True to be consistent with that of the documentation and universal_newlines=True.

  • bpo-34463: Fixed discrepancy between traceback and the interpreter in formatting of SyntaxError with lineno not set (traceback was changed to match interpreter).

  • bpo-42393: Raise OverflowError instead of silent truncation in socket.ntohs() and socket.htons(). Silent truncation was deprecated in Python 3.7. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland

  • bpo-42222: Harmonized random.randrange() argument handling to match range().

    • The integer test and conversion in randrange() now uses operator.index().

    • Non-integer arguments to randrange() are deprecated.

    • The ValueError is deprecated in favor of a TypeError.

    • It now runs a little faster than before.

    (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger and Serhiy Storchaka.)

  • bpo-42163: Restore compatibility for uname_result around deepcopy and _replace.

  • bpo-42090: zipfile.Path.joinpath now accepts arbitrary arguments, same as pathlib.Path.joinpath.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _csv module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-42059: typing.TypedDict types created using the alternative call-style syntax now correctly respect the total keyword argument when setting their __required_keys__ and __optional_keys__ class attributes.

  • bpo-41960: Add globalns and localns parameters to the inspect.signature() and inspect.Signature.from_callable().

  • bpo-41907: fix format() behavior for IntFlag

  • bpo-41891: Ensure asyncio.wait_for waits for task completion

  • bpo-24792: Fixed bug where zipimporter sometimes reports an incorrect cause of import errors.

  • bpo-31904: Fix site and sysconfig modules for VxWorks RTOS which has no home directories.

  • bpo-41462: Add os.set_blocking() support for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-40219: Lowered tkinter.ttk.LabeledScale dummy widget to prevent hiding part of the content label.

  • bpo-37193: Fixed memory leak in socketserver.ThreadingMixIn introduced in Python 3.7.

  • bpo-39068: Fix initialization race condition in a85encode() and b85encode() in base64. Patch by Brandon Stansbury.



  • bpo-42794: Update test_nntplib to use official group name of for testing. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-31904: Skip some asyncio tests on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42641: Enhance test_select.test_select(): it now takes 500 ms rather than 10 seconds. Use Python rather than a shell to make the test more portable.

  • bpo-31904: Skip some tests in _test_all_chown_common() on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42199: Fix bytecode helper assertNotInBytecode.

  • bpo-41443: Add more attribute checking in

  • bpo-31904: Disable os.popen and impacted tests on VxWorks

  • bpo-41439: Port test_ssl and test_uuid to VxWorks RTOS.


  • bpo-42692: Fix __builtin_available check on older compilers. Patch by Joshua Root.

  • bpo-27640: Added --disable-test-modules option to the configure script: don't build nor install test modules. Patch by Xavier de Gaye, Thomas Petazzoni and Peixing Xin.

  • bpo-42604: Now all platforms use a value for the "EXT_SUFFIX" build variable derived from SOABI (for instance in freeBSD, "EXT_SUFFIX" is now "" instead of ".so"). Previously only Linux, Mac and VxWorks were using a value for "EXT_SUFFIX" that included "SOABI".

  • bpo-42598: Fix implicit function declarations in configure which could have resulted in incorrect configuration checks. Patch contributed by Joshua Root.

  • bpo-31904: Enable for VxWorks.

  • bpo-29076: Add fish shell support to macOS installer.


  • bpo-42361: Update macOS installer build to use Tcl/Tk 8.6.11 (rc2, expected to be final release).

  • bpo-41837: Update macOS installer build to use OpenSSL 1.1.1i.

  • bpo-42584: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.34.0.


  • bpo-42726: Fixed Python 3 compatibility issue with gdb/ handling of attribute dictionaries.

  • bpo-42613: Fix tool to use the prope config and library directories. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • bpo-42591: Export the Py_FrozenMain() function: fix a Python 3.9.0 regression. Python 3.9 uses -fvisibility=hidden and the function was not exported explicitly and so not exported.

  • bpo-32381: Remove the private _Py_fopen() function which is no longer needed. Use _Py_wfopen() or _Py_fopen_obj() instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-1635741: Port resource extension module to module state

  • bpo-42111: Update the xxlimited module to be a better example of how to use the limited C API.

  • bpo-40052: Fix an alignment build warning/error in function PyVectorcall_Function(). Patch by Andreas Schneider, Antoine Pitrou and Petr Viktorin.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 3

Release date: 2020-12-07


  • bpo-40791: Add volatile to the accumulator variable in hmac.compare_digest, making constant-time-defeating optimizations less likely.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42576: types.GenericAlias will now raise a TypeError when attempting to initialize with a keyword argument. Previously, this would cause the interpreter to crash if the interpreter was compiled with debug symbols. This does not affect interpreters compiled for release. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-42536: Several built-in and standard library types now ensure that their internal result tuples are always tracked by the garbage collector:

    Previously, they could have become untracked by a prior garbage collection. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-42500: Improve handling of exceptions near recursion limit. Converts a number of Fatal Errors in RecursionErrors.

  • bpo-42246: PEP 626: After a return, the f_lineno attribute of a frame is always the last line executed.

  • bpo-42435: Speed up comparison of bytes objects with non-bytes objects when option -b is specified. Speed up comparison of bytarray objects with non-buffer object.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _warnings extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41686: On Windows, the SIGINT event, _PyOS_SigintEvent(), is now created even if Python is configured to not install signal handlers (if PyConfig.install_signal_handlers equals to 0, or Py_InitializeEx(0)).

  • bpo-42381: Allow assignment expressions in set literals and set comprehensions as per PEP 572. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42202: Change function parameters annotations internal representation to tuple of strings. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42374: Fix a regression introduced by the new parser, where an unparenthesized walrus operator was not allowed within generator expressions.

  • bpo-42316: Allow an unparenthesized walrus in subscript indexes.

  • bpo-42349: Make sure that the compiler front-end produces a well-formed control flow graph. Be be more aggressive in the compiler back-end, as it is now safe to do so.

  • bpo-42296: On Windows, fix a regression in signal handling which prevented to interrupt a program using CTRL+C. The signal handler can be run in a thread different than the Python thread, in which case the test deciding if the thread can handle signals is wrong.

  • bpo-42332: types.GenericAlias objects can now be the targets of weakrefs.

  • bpo-42282: Optimise constant subexpressions that appear as part of named expressions (previously the AST optimiser did not descend into named expressions). Patch by Nick Coghlan.

  • bpo-42266: Fixed a bug with the LOAD_ATTR opcode cache that was not respecting monkey-patching a class-level attribute to make it a descriptor. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40077: Convert queue to use heap types.

  • bpo-42246: Improved accuracy of line tracing events and f_lineno attribute of Frame objects. See PEP 626 for details.

  • bpo-40077: Convert mmap to use heap types.

  • bpo-42233: Allow GenericAlias objects to use union type expressions. This allows expressions like list[int] | dict[float, str] where previously a TypeError would have been thrown. This also fixes union type expressions not de-duplicating GenericAlias objects. (Contributed by Ken Jin in bpo-42233.)

  • bpo-26131: The import system triggers a ImportWarning when it falls back to using load_module().


  • bpo-5054: CGIHTTPRequestHandler.run_cgi() HTTP_ACCEPT improperly parsed. Replace the special purpose getallmatchingheaders with generic get_all method and add relevant tests.

    Original Patch by Martin Panter. Modified by Senthil Kumaran.

  • bpo-42562: Fix issue when dis failed to parse function that has no line numbers. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-17735: inspect.findsource() now raises OSError instead of IndexError when co_lineno of a code object is greater than the file length. This can happen, for example, when a file is edited after it was imported. PR by Irit Katriel.

  • bpo-42116: Fix handling of trailing comments by inspect.getsource().

  • bpo-42532: Remove unexpected call of __bool__ when passing a spec_arg argument to a Mock.

  • bpo-38200: Added itertools.pairwise()

  • bpo-41818: Fix test_master_read() so that it succeeds on all platforms that either raise OSError or return b"" upon reading from master.

  • bpo-42487: ChainMap.__iter__ no longer calls __getitem__ on underlying maps

  • bpo-42482: TracebackException no longer holds a reference to the exception's traceback object. Consequently, instances of TracebackException for equivalent but non-equal exceptions now compare as equal.

  • bpo-41818: Make test_openpty() avoid unexpected success due to number of rows and/or number of columns being == 0.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from asyncio.subprocess and asyncio.tasks functions. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from asyncio.open_connection and asyncio.start_server functions. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-28468: Add platform.freedesktop_os_release() function to parse os-release files.

  • bpo-42299: Removed the formatter module, which was deprecated in Python 3.4. It is somewhat obsolete, little used, and not tested. It was originally scheduled to be removed in Python 3.6, but such removals were delayed until after Python 2.7 EOL. Existing users should copy whatever classes they use into their code. Patch by Dong-hee Na and and Terry J. Reedy.

  • bpo-26131: Deprecate zipimport.zipimporter.load_module() in favour of exec_module().

  • bpo-41818: Updated tests for the pty library. test_basic() has been changed to test_openpty(); this additionally checks if slave termios and slave winsize are being set properly by pty.openpty(). In order to add support for FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Darwin, this also adds test_master_read(), which demonstrates that pty.spawn() should not depend on an OSError to exit from its copy loop.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from __init__ in all asyncio.locks and asyncio.Queue classes. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-15450: Make filecmp.dircmp respect subclassing. Now the filecmp.dircmp.subdirs behaves as expected when subclassing dircmp.

  • bpo-42413: The exception socket.timeout is now an alias of TimeoutError.

  • bpo-31904: Support signal module on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42406: We fixed an issue in pickle.whichmodule in which importing multiprocessing could change the how pickle identifies which module an object belongs to, potentially breaking the unpickling of those objects.

  • bpo-42403: Simplify the importlib external bootstrap code: importlib._bootstrap_external now uses regular imports to import builtin modules. When it is imported, the builtin __import__() function is already fully working and so can be used to import builtin modules like sys. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-1635741: Convert _sre module types to heap types (PEP 384). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42375: subprocess module update for DragonFlyBSD support.

  • bpo-41713: Port the _signal extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner and Mohamed Koubaa.

  • bpo-37205: time.time(), time.perf_counter() and time.monotonic() functions can no longer fail with a Python fatal error, instead raise a regular Python exception on failure.

  • bpo-42328: Fixed The function accepts now the representation of the default state as empty sequence (as returned by The structure of the result is now the same on all platform and does not depend on the value of wantobjects.

  • bpo-42345: Fix various issues with typing.Literal parameter handling (flatten, deduplicate, use type to cache key). Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-37205: time.perf_counter() on Windows and time.monotonic() on macOS are now system-wide. Previously, they used an offset computed at startup to reduce the precision loss caused by the float type. Use time.perf_counter_ns() and time.monotonic_ns() added in Python 3.7 to avoid this precision loss.

  • bpo-42318: Fixed support of non-BMP characters in tkinter on macOS.

  • bpo-42350: Fix the threading.Thread class at fork: do nothing if the thread is already stopped (ex: fork called at Python exit). Previously, an error was logged in the child process.

  • bpo-42333: Port _ssl extension module to heap types.

  • bpo-42014: The onerror callback from shutil.rmtree now receives correct function when fails.

  • bpo-42237: Fix os.sendfile() on illumos.

  • bpo-42308: Add threading.__excepthook__ to allow retrieving the original value of threading.excepthook() in case it is set to a broken or a different value. Patch by Mario Corchero.

  • bpo-42131: Implement PEP 451/spec methods on zipimport.zipimporter: find_spec(), create_module(), and exec_module().

    This also allows for the documented deprecation of find_loader(), find_module(), and load_module().

  • bpo-41877: Mock objects which are not unsafe will now raise an AttributeError if an attribute with the prefix asert, aseert, or assrt is accessed, in addition to this already happening for the prefixes assert or assret.

  • bpo-42264: sqlite3.OptimizedUnicode has been undocumented and obsolete since Python 3.3, when it was made an alias to str. It is now deprecated, scheduled for removal in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-42251: Added threading.gettrace() and threading.getprofile() to retrieve the functions set by threading.settrace() and threading.setprofile() respectively. Patch by Mario Corchero.

  • bpo-42249: Fixed writing binary Plist files larger than 4 GiB.

  • bpo-42236: On Unix, the os.device_encoding() function now returns 'UTF-8' rather than the device encoding if the Python UTF-8 Mode is enabled.

  • bpo-41754: webbrowser: Ignore NotADirectoryError when calling xdg-settings.

  • bpo-42183: Fix a stack overflow error for asyncio Task or Future repr().

    The overflow occurs under some circumstances when a Task or Future recursively returns itself.

  • bpo-42140: Improve asyncio.wait function to create the futures set just one time.

  • bpo-42133: Update various modules in the stdlib to fall back on __spec__.loader when __loader__ isn't defined on a module.

  • bpo-26131: The load_module() methods found in importlib now trigger a DeprecationWarning.

  • bpo-39825: Windows: Change sysconfig.get_config_var('EXT_SUFFIX') to the expected full platform_tag.extension format. Previously it was hard-coded to .pyd, now it is compatible with distutils.sysconfig and will result in something like .cp38-win_amd64.pyd. This brings windows into conformance with the other platforms.

  • bpo-26389: The traceback.format_exception(), traceback.format_exception_only(), and traceback.print_exception() functions can now take an exception object as a positional-only argument.

  • bpo-41889: Enum: fix regression involving inheriting a multiply inherited enum

  • bpo-41861: Convert sqlite3 to use heap types (PEP 384). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40624: Added support for the XPath != operator in xml.etree

  • bpo-28850: Fix pprint.PrettyPrinter.format() overrides being ignored for contents of small containers. The pprint._safe_repr() function was removed.

  • bpo-41625: Expose the splice() as os.splice() in the os module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-34215: Clarify the error message for asyncio.IncompleteReadError when expected is None.

  • bpo-41543: Add async context manager support for contextlib.nullcontext.

  • bpo-21041: pathlib.PurePath.parents now supports negative indexing. Patch contributed by Yaroslav Pankovych.

  • bpo-41332: Added missing connect_accepted_socket() method to asyncio.AbstractEventLoop.

  • bpo-12800: Extracting a symlink from a tarball should succeed and overwrite the symlink if it already exists. The fix is to remove the existing file or symlink before extraction. Based on patch by Chris AtLee, Jeffrey Kintscher, and Senthil Kumaran.

  • bpo-40968: urllib.request and http.client now send http/1.1 ALPN extension during TLS handshake when no custom context is supplied.

  • bpo-41001: Add func:os.eventfd to provide a low level interface for Linux's event notification file descriptor.

  • bpo-40816: Add AsyncContextDecorator to contextlib to support async context manager as a decorator.

  • bpo-40550: Fix time-of-check/time-of-action issue in subprocess.Popen.send_signal.

  • bpo-39411: Add an is_async identifier to pyclbr's Function objects. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya

  • bpo-35498: Add slice support to pathlib.PurePath.parents.


  • bpo-42238: Tentative to deprecate make suspicious by first removing it from the CI and documentation builds, but keeping it around for manual uses.

  • bpo-42153: Fix the URL for the IMAP protocol documents.

  • bpo-41028: Language and version switchers, previously maintained in every cpython branches, are now handled by docsbuild-script.


  • bpo-41473: Re-enable test_gdb on gdb 9.2 and newer: bug is fixed in gdb 10.1.

  • bpo-42553: Fix test_asyncio.test_call_later() race condition: don't measure asyncio performance in the call_later() unit test. The test failed randomly on the CI.

  • bpo-31904: Fix test_netrc on VxWorks: create temporary directories using temp_cwd().

  • bpo-31904: skip test_getaddrinfo_ipv6_scopeid_symbolic and test_getnameinfo_ipv6_scopeid_symbolic on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: skip test_test of test_mailcap on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: add shell requirement for test_pipes

  • bpo-31904: skip some tests related to fifo on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: Fix failures for VxWorks.

  • bpo-40754: Include _testinternalcapi module in Windows installer for test suite

  • bpo-41561: test_ssl: skip test_min_max_version_mismatch when TLS 1.0 is not available

  • bpo-31904: Fix os module failures for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-31904: Fix fifo test cases for VxWorks RTOS.


  • bpo-31904: remove libnet dependency from detect_socket() for VxWorks

  • bpo-42398: Fix a race condition in "make regen-all" when make -jN option is used to run jobs in parallel. The script now only use atomic write to write files. Moveover, generated files are now left unchanged if the content does not change, to not change the file modification time.

  • bpo-41617: Fix building pycore_bitutils.h internal header on old clang version without __builtin_bswap16() (ex: Xcode 4.6.3 on Mac OS X 10.7). Patch by Joshua Root and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-38823: It is no longer possible to build the _ctypes extension module without wchar_t type: remove CTYPES_UNICODE macro. Anyway, the wchar_t type is required to build Python. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42087: Support was removed for AIX 5.3 and below. See bpo-40680.

  • bpo-40998: Addressed three compiler warnings found by undefined behavior sanitizer (ubsan).


  • bpo-42120: Remove macro definition of copysign (to _copysign) in headers.

  • bpo-38506: The Windows launcher now properly handles Python 3.10 when listing installed Python versions.


  • bpo-42504: Fix build on macOS Big Sur when MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=11

  • bpo-41116: Ensure distutils.unixxcompiler.find_library_file can find system provided libraries on macOS 11.

  • bpo-41100: Add support for macOS 11 and Apple Silicon systems.

    It is now possible to build "Universal 2" binaries using "--enable-universalsdk --with-universal-archs=universal2".

    Binaries build on later macOS versions can be deployed back to older versions (tested up to macOS 10.9), when using the correct deployment target. This is tested using Xcode 11 and later.

  • bpo-42232: Added Darwin specific madvise options to mmap module.

  • bpo-38443: The --enable-universalsdk and --with-universal-archs options for the configure script now check that the specified architectures can be used.


  • bpo-42508: Keep IDLE running on macOS. Remove obsolete workaround that prevented running files with shortcuts when using new universal2 installers built on macOS 11.

  • bpo-42426: Fix reporting offset of the RE error in searchengine.

  • bpo-42415: Get docstrings for IDLE calltips more often by using inspect.getdoc.


  • bpo-42212: The script now also checks the Python dynamic library and extension modules, not only the Python static library. Make also the script more verbose: explain what it does.

  • bpo-36310: Allow Tools/i18n/ to detect calls to gettext in f-strings.


Python 3.10.0 alpha 2

Release date: 2020-11-03


  • bpo-42103: Prevented potential DoS attack via CPU and RAM exhaustion when processing malformed Apple Property List files in binary format.

  • bpo-42051: The plistlib module no longer accepts entity declarations in XML plist files to avoid XML vulnerabilities. This should not affect users as entity declarations are not used in regular plist files.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42236: If the nl_langinfo(CODESET) function returns an empty string, Python now uses UTF-8 as the filesystem encoding. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42218: Fixed a bug in the PEG parser that was causing crashes in debug mode. Now errors are checked in left-recursive rules to avoid cases where such errors do not get handled in time and appear as long-distance crashes in other places.

  • bpo-42214: Fixed a possible crash in the PEG parser when checking for the '!=' token in the barry_as_flufl rule. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42206: Propagate and raise the errors caused by PyAST_Validate() in the parser.

  • bpo-41796: The ast module internal state is now per interpreter. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42143: Fix handling of errors during creation of PyFunctionObject, which resulted in operations on uninitialized memory. Patch by Yonatan Goldschmidt.

  • bpo-41659: Fix a bug in the parser, where a curly brace following a primary didn't fail immediately. This led to invalid expressions like a {b} to throw a SyntaxError with a wrong offset, or invalid expressions ending with a curly brace like a { to not fail immediately in the REPL.

  • bpo-42150: Fix possible buffer overflow in the new parser when checking for continuation lines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42123: Run the parser two times. On the first run, disable all the rules that only generate better error messages to gain performance. If there's a parse failure, run the parser a second time with those enabled.

  • bpo-42093: The LOAD_ATTR instruction now uses new "per opcode cache" mechanism and it is about 36% faster now. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Yury Selivanov.

  • bpo-42030: Support for the legacy AIX-specific shared library loading support has been removed. All versions of AIX since 4.3 have supported and defaulted to using the common Unix mechanism instead.

  • bpo-41984: The garbage collector now tracks all user-defined classes. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-41993: Fixed potential issues with removing not completely initialized module from sys.modules when import fails.

  • bpo-41979: Star-unpacking is now allowed for with item's targets in the PEG parser.

  • bpo-41974: Removed special methods __int__, __float__, __floordiv__, __mod__, __divmod__, __rfloordiv__, __rmod__ and __rdivmod__ of the complex class. They always raised a TypeError.

  • bpo-41902: Micro optimization when compute sq_item and mp_subscript of range. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41894: When loading a native module and a load failure occurs, prevent a possible UnicodeDecodeError when not running in a UTF-8 locale by decoding the load error message using the current locale's encoding.

  • bpo-41902: Micro optimization for range.index if step is 1. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41435: Add sys._current_exceptions() function to retrieve a dictionary mapping each thread's identifier to the topmost exception currently active in that thread at the time the function is called.

  • bpo-38605: Enable from __future__ import annotations (PEP 563) by default. The values found in __annotations__ dicts are now strings, e.g. {"x": "int"} instead of {"x": int}.


  • bpo-35455: On Solaris, thread_time() is now implemented with gethrvtime() because clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID) is not always available. Patch by Jakub Kulik.

  • bpo-42233: The repr() of typing types containing Generic Alias Types previously did not show the parameterized types in the GenericAlias. They have now been changed to do so.

  • bpo-29566: binhex.binhex() consistently writes macOS 9 line endings.

  • bpo-26789: The logging.FileHandler class now keeps a reference to the builtin open() function to be able to open or reopen the file during Python finalization. Fix errors like: NameError: name 'open' is not defined. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42157: Removed the unicodedata.ucnhash_CAPI attribute which was an internal PyCapsule object. The related private _PyUnicode_Name_CAPI structure was moved to the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42157: Convert the unicodedata extension module to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489) and convert the unicodedata.UCD static type to a heap type. Patch by Mohamed Koubaa and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42146: Fix memory leak in subprocess.Popen() in case an uid (gid) specified in user (group, extra_groups) overflows uid_t (gid_t).

  • bpo-42103: InvalidFileException and RecursionError are now the only errors caused by loading malformed binary Plist file (previously ValueError and TypeError could be raised in some specific cases).

  • bpo-41490: In importlib.resources, .path method is more aggressive about releasing handles to zipfile objects early, enabling use-cases like certifi to leave the context open but delete the underlying zip file.

  • bpo-41052: Pickling heap types implemented in C with protocols 0 and 1 raises now an error instead of producing incorrect data.

  • bpo-42089: In importlib.metadata.PackageNotFoundError, make reference to the package metadata being missing to improve the user experience.

  • bpo-41491: plistlib: fix parsing XML plists with hexadecimal integer values

  • bpo-42065: Fix an incorrectly formatted error from _codecs.charmap_decode() when called with a mapped value outside the range of valid Unicode code points. PR by Max Bernstein.

  • bpo-41966: Fix pickling pure Python datetime.time subclasses. Patch by Dean Inwood.

  • bpo-19270: sched.scheduler.cancel() will now cancel the correct event, if two events with same priority are scheduled for the same time. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-28660: textwrap.wrap() now attempts to break long words after hyphens when break_long_words=True and break_on_hyphens=True.

  • bpo-35823: Use vfork() instead of fork() for subprocess.Popen() on Linux to improve performance in cases where it is deemed safe.

  • bpo-42043: Add support for zipfile.Path inheritance. zipfile.Path.is_file() now returns False for non-existent names. zipfile.Path objects now expose a .filename attribute and rely on that to resolve .name and .parent when the Path object is at the root of the zipfile.

  • bpo-42021: Fix possible ref leaks in sqlite3 module init.

  • bpo-39101: Fixed tests using IsolatedAsyncioTestCase from hanging on BaseExceptions.

  • bpo-41976: Fixed a bug that was causing ctypes.util.find_library() to return None when triying to locate a library in an environment when gcc>=9 is available and ldconfig is not. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-41943: Fix bug where TestCase.assertLogs doesn't correctly filter messages by level.

  • bpo-41923: Implement PEP 613, introducing typing.TypeAlias annotation.

  • bpo-41905: A new function in abc: update_abstractmethods to re-calculate an abstract class's abstract status. In addition, dataclass has been changed to call this function.

  • bpo-23706: Added newline parameter to pathlib.Path.write_text().

  • bpo-41876: Tkinter font class repr uses font name

  • bpo-41831: str() for the type attribute of the tkinter.Event object always returns now the numeric code returned by Tk instead of the name of the event type.

  • bpo-39337: encodings.normalize_encoding() now ignores non-ASCII characters.

  • bpo-41747: Ensure all methods that generated from dataclasses.dataclass() objects now have the proper __qualname__ attribute referring to the class they belong to. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-30681: Handle exceptions caused by unparsable date headers when using email "default" policy. Patch by Tim Bell, Georges Toth

  • bpo-41586: Add F_SETPIPE_SZ and F_GETPIPE_SZ to fcntl module. Allow setting pipesize on subprocess.Popen.

  • bpo-41229: Add contextlib.aclosing for deterministic cleanup of async generators which is analogous to contextlib.closing for non-async generators. Patch by Joongi Kim and John Belmonte.

  • bpo-16396: Allow ctypes.wintypes to be imported on non-Windows systems.

  • bpo-4356: Add a key function to the bisect module.

  • bpo-40592: shutil.which() now ignores empty entries in PATHEXT instead of treating them as a match.

  • bpo-40492: Fix --outfile for cProfile / profile not writing the output file in the original directory when the program being profiled changes the working directory. PR by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-34204: The shelve module now uses pickle.DEFAULT_PROTOCOL by default instead of pickle protocol 3.

  • bpo-27321: Fixed KeyError exception when flattening an email to a string attempts to replace a non-existent Content-Transfer-Encoding header.

  • bpo-38976: The http.cookiejar module now supports the parsing of cookies in CURL-style cookiejar files through MozillaCookieJar on all platforms. Previously, such cookie entries would be silently ignored when loading a cookiejar with such entries.

    Additionally, the HTTP Only attribute is persisted in the object, and will be correctly written to file if the MozillaCookieJar object is subsequently dumped.



  • bpo-41739: Fix test_logging.test_race_between_set_target_and_flush(): the test now waits until all threads complete to avoid leaking running threads.

  • bpo-41970: Avoid a test failure in test_lib2to3 if the module has already imported at the time the test executes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41944: Tests for CJK codecs no longer call eval() on content received via HTTP.

  • bpo-41306: Fixed a failure in test_tk.test_widgets.ScaleTest happening when executing the test with Tk 8.6.10.


  • bpo-38980: Add -fno-semantic-interposition to both the compile and link line when building with --enable-optimizations. Patch by Victor Stinner and Pablo Galindo.


  • bpo-38439: Updates the icons for IDLE in the Windows Store package.

  • bpo-38252: Use 8-byte step to detect ASCII sequence in 64-bit Windows build.

  • bpo-39107: Update Tcl and Tk to 8.6.10 in Windows installer.

  • bpo-41557: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.33.0.

  • bpo-38324: Avoid Unicode errors when accessing certain locale data on Windows.


  • bpo-41471: Ignore invalid prefix lengths in system proxy excludes.


  • bpo-33987: Mostly finish using ttk widgets, mainly for editor, settings, and searches. Some patches by Mark Roseman.

  • bpo-40511: Typing opening and closing parentheses inside the parentheses of a function call will no longer cause unnecessary "flashing" off and on of an existing open call-tip, e.g. when typed in a string literal.

  • bpo-38439: Add a 256×256 pixel IDLE icon to the Windows .ico file. Created by Andrew Clover. Remove the low-color gif variations from the .ico file.


  • bpo-42157: The private _PyUnicode_Name_CAPI structure of the PyCapsule API unicodedata.ucnhash_CAPI has been moved to the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42015: Fix potential crash in deallocating method objects when dynamically allocated PyMethodDef's lifetime is managed through the self argument of a PyCFunction.

  • bpo-40423: The subprocess module and os.closerange will now use the close_range(low, high, flags) syscall when it is available for more efficient closing of ranges of descriptors.

  • bpo-41845: PyObject_GenericGetDict() is available again in the limited API when targeting 3.10 or later.

  • bpo-40422: Add _Py_closerange function to provide performant closing of a range of file descriptors.

  • bpo-41986: Py_FileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors and Py_UTF8Mode are available again in limited API.

  • bpo-41756: Add PyIter_Send function to allow sending value into generator/coroutine/iterator without raising StopIteration exception to signal return.

  • bpo-41784: Added PyUnicode_AsUTF8AndSize to the limited C API.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 1

Release date: 2020-10-05


  • bpo-41304: Fixes python3x._pth being ignored on Windows, caused by the fix for bpo-29778 (CVE-2020-15801).

  • bpo-41162: Audit hooks are now cleared later during finalization to avoid missing events.

  • bpo-29778: Ensure python3.dll is loaded from correct locations when Python is embedded (CVE-2020-15523).

  • bpo-41004: The __hash__() methods of ipaddress.IPv4Interface and ipaddress.IPv6Interface incorrectly generated constant hash values of 32 and 128 respectively. This resulted in always causing hash collisions. The fix uses hash() to generate hash values for the tuple of (address, mask length, network address).

  • bpo-39603: Prevent http header injection by rejecting control characters in http.client.putrequest(...).

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-41909: Fixed stack overflow in issubclass() and isinstance() when getting the __bases__ attribute leads to infinite recursion.

  • bpo-41922: Speed up calls to reversed() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41873: Calls to float() are now faster due to the vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-41870: Speed up calls to bool() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _bisect module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39934: Correctly count control blocks in 'except' in compiler. Ensures that a syntax error, rather a fatal error, occurs for deeply nested, named exception handlers.

  • bpo-41780: Fix __dir__() of types.GenericAlias. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _lsprof extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the cmath extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _scproxy extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the termios extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Convert the _sha256 extension module types to heap types.

  • bpo-41690: Fix a possible stack overflow in the parser when parsing functions and classes with a huge amount of arguments. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _overlapped extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _curses_panel extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _opcode extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41681: Fixes the wrong error description in the error raised by using 2 , in format string in f-string and str.format().

  • bpo-41675: The implementation of signal.siginterrupt() now uses sigaction() (if it is available in the system) instead of the deprecated siginterrupt(). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41670: Prevent line trace being skipped on platforms not compiled with USE_COMPUTED_GOTOS. Fixes issue where some lines nested within a try-except block were not being traced on Windows.

  • bpo-41654: Fix a crash that occurred when destroying subclasses of MemoryError. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the zlib extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41631: The _ast module uses again a global state. Using a module state per module instance is causing subtle practical problems. For example, the Mercurial project replaces the __import__() function to implement lazy import, whereas Python expected that import _ast always return a fully initialized _ast module.

  • bpo-40077: Convert _operator to use PyType_FromSpec().

  • bpo-1653741: Port _sha3 to multi-phase init. Convert static types to heap types.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _blake2 extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41533: Free the stack allocated in va_build_stack if do_mkstack fails and the stack is not a small_stack.

  • bpo-41531: Fix a bug that was dropping keys when compiling dict literals with more than 0xFFFF elements. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41525: The output of python --help contains now only ASCII characters.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _sha1, _sha512, and _md5 extension modules to multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41431: Optimize dict_merge() for copying dict (e.g. dict(d) and {}.update(d)).

  • bpo-41428: Implement PEP 604. This supports (int | str) etc. in place of Union[str, int].

  • bpo-41340: Removed fallback implementation for strdup.

  • bpo-38156: Handle interrupts that come after EOF correctly in PyOS_StdioReadline.

  • bpo-41342: round() with integer argument is now faster (9--60%).

  • bpo-41334: Constructors str(), bytes() and bytearray() are now faster (around 30--40% for small objects).

  • bpo-41295: Resolve a regression in CPython 3.8.4 where defining "__setattr__" in a multi-inheritance setup and calling up the hierarchy chain could fail if builtins/extension types were involved in the base types.

  • bpo-41323: Bytecode optimizations are performed directly on the control flow graph. This will result in slightly more compact code objects in some circumstances.

  • bpo-41247: Always cache the running loop holder when running asyncio.set_running_loop.

  • bpo-41252: Fix incorrect refcounting in _ssl.c's _servername_callback().

  • bpo-1635741: Port multiprocessing to multi-phase initialization

  • bpo-1635741: Port winapi to multiphase initialization

  • bpo-41215: Use non-NULL default values in the PEG parser keyword list to overcome a bug that was preventing Python from being properly compiled when using the XLC compiler. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41218: Python 3.8.3 had a regression where compiling with ast.PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT would aggressively mark list comprehension with CO_COROUTINE. Now only list comprehension making use of async/await will tagged as so.

  • bpo-1635741: Port faulthandler to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-1635741: Port sha256 to multiphase initialization

  • bpo-41175: Guard against a NULL pointer dereference within bytearrayobject triggered by the bytearray() + bytearray() operation.

  • bpo-41100: add arm64 to the allowable Mac OS arches in mpdecimal.h

  • bpo-41094: Fix decoding errors with audit when open files with non-ASCII names on non-UTF-8 locale.

  • bpo-39960: The "hackcheck" that prevents sneaking around a type's __setattr__() by calling the superclass method was rewritten to allow C implemented heap types.

  • bpo-41084: Prefix the error message with 'f-string: ', when parsing an f-string expression which throws a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40521: Empty frozensets are no longer singletons.

  • bpo-41076: Pre-feed the parser with the location of the f-string expression, not the f-string itself, which allows us to skip the shifting of the AST node locations after the parsing is completed.

  • bpo-41056: Fixes a reference to deallocated stack space during startup when constructing sys.path involving a relative symlink when code was supplied via -c. (discovered via Coverity)

  • bpo-41061: Fix incorrect expressions and asserts in hashtable code and tests.

  • bpo-41052: Opt out serialization/deserialization for _random.Random

  • bpo-40939: Rename PyPegen* functions to PyParser*, so that we can remove the old set of PyParser* functions that were using the old parser, but keep everything backwards-compatible.

  • bpo-35975: Stefan Behnel reported that cf_feature_version is used even when PyCF_ONLY_AST is not set. This is against the intention and against the documented behavior, so it's been fixed.

  • bpo-40939: Remove the remaining files from the old parser and the symbol module.

  • bpo-40077: Convert _bz2 to use PyType_FromSpec().

  • bpo-41006: The encodings.latin_1 module is no longer imported at startup. Now it is only imported when it is the filesystem encoding or the stdio encoding.

  • bpo-40636: zip() now supports PEP 618's strict parameter, which raises a ValueError if the arguments are exhausted at different lengths. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _gdbm to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-40985: Fix a bug that caused the SyntaxError text to be empty when a file ends with a line ending in a line continuation character (i.e. backslash). The error text should contain the text of the last line.

  • bpo-40958: Fix a possible buffer overflow in the PEG parser when gathering information for emitting syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _dbm to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-40957: Fix refleak in _Py_fopen_obj() when PySys_Audit() fails

  • bpo-40950: Add a state to the nis module (PEP 3121) and apply the multiphase initialization. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40947: The Python Path Configuration now takes PyConfig.platlibdir in account.

  • bpo-40939: Remove the old parser, the parser module and all associated support code, command-line options and environment variables. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40847: Fix a bug where a line with only a line continuation character is not considered a blank line at tokenizer level. In such cases, more than a single NEWLINE token was emitted. The old parser was working around the issue, but the new parser threw a SyntaxError for valid input due to this. For example, an empty line following a line continuation character was interpreted as a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40890: Each dictionary view now has a mapping attribute that provides a types.MappingProxyType wrapping the original dictionary. Patch contributed by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-40889: Improved the performance of symmetric difference operations on dictionary item views. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-40904: Fix possible segfault in the new PEG parser when parsing f-string containing yield statements with no value (f"{yield}"). Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40903: Fixed a possible segfault in the new PEG parser when producing error messages for invalid assignments of the form p=p=. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40880: Fix invalid memory read in the new parser when checking newlines in string literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40883: Fix memory leak in when parsing f-strings in the new parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40870: Raise ValueError when validating custom AST's where the constants True, False and None are used within a ast.Name node.

  • bpo-40854: Allow overriding sys.platlibdir via a new PYTHONPLATLIBDIR environment variable.

  • bpo-40826: Fix GIL usage in PyOS_Readline(): lock the GIL to set an exception and pass the Python thread state when checking if there is a pending signal.

  • bpo-1635741: Port fcntl to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-19468: Delete unnecessary instance check in importlib.reload(). Patch by Furkan Önder.

  • bpo-40824: Unexpected errors in calling the __iter__ method are no longer masked by TypeError in the in operator and functions contains(), indexOf() and countOf() of the operator module.

  • bpo-40792: Attributes start, stop and step of the range object now always has exact type int. Previously, they could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-40780: Fix a corner case where g-style string formatting of a float failed to remove trailing zeros.

  • bpo-38964: When there's a SyntaxError in the expression part of an fstring, the filename attribute of the SyntaxError gets correctly set to the name of the file the fstring resides in.

  • bpo-40750: Support the "-d" debug flag in the new PEG parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40217: Instances of types created with PyType_FromSpecWithBases() will no longer automatically visit their class object when traversing references in the garbage collector. The user is expected to manually visit the object's class. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39573: Py_TYPE() is changed to the inline static function. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40696: Fix a hang that can arise after generator.throw() due to a cycle in the exception context chain.

  • bpo-40521: Each interpreter now its has own free lists, singletons and caches:

    • Free lists: float, tuple, list, dict, frame, context, asynchronous generator, MemoryError.

    • Singletons: empty tuple, empty bytes string, empty Unicode string, single byte character, single Unicode (latin1) character.

    • Slice cache.

    They are no longer shared by all interpreters.

  • bpo-40679: Certain TypeError messages about missing or extra arguments now include the function's qualified name. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-29590: Make the stack trace correct after calling generator.throw() on a generator that has yielded from a yield from.

  • bpo-4022: Improve performance of generators by not raising internal StopIteration.

  • bpo-1635741: Port mmap to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _lzma to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-37999: Builtin and extension functions that take integer arguments no longer accept Decimals, Fractions and other objects that can be converted to integers only with a loss (e.g. that have the __int__() method but do not have the __index__() method).

  • bpo-29882: Add int.bit_count(), counting the number of ones in the binary representation of an integer. Patch by Niklas Fiekas.

  • bpo-36982: Use ncurses extended color functions when available to support terminals with 256 colors, and add the new function curses.has_extended_color_support() to indicate whether extended color support is provided by the underlying ncurses library.

  • bpo-19569: Add the private macros _Py_COMP_DIAG_PUSH, _Py_COMP_DIAG_IGNORE_DEPR_DECLS, and _Py_COMP_DIAG_POP.

  • bpo-26680: The int type now supports the x.is_integer() method for compatibility with float.


  • bpo-41900: C14N 2.0 serialisation in xml.etree.ElementTree failed for unprefixed attributes when a default namespace was defined.

  • bpo-41887: Strip leading spaces and tabs on ast.literal_eval(). Also document stripping of spaces and tabs for eval().

  • bpo-41773: Note in documentation that random.choices() doesn't support non-finite weights, raise ValueError when given non-finite weights.

  • bpo-41840: Fix a bug in the symtable module that was causing module-scope global variables to not be reported as both local and global. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41842: Add codecs.unregister() function to unregister a codec search function.

  • bpo-40564: In zipfile.Path, mutate the passed ZipFile object type instead of making a copy. Prevents issues when both the local copy and the caller’s copy attempt to close the same file handle.

  • bpo-40670: More reliable validation of statements in timeit.Timer. It now accepts "empty" statements (only whitespaces and comments) and rejects misindentent statements.

  • bpo-41833: The threading.Thread constructor now uses the target name if the target argument is specified but the name argument is omitted.

  • bpo-41817: fix tkinter.EventType Enum so all members are strings, and none are tuples

  • bpo-41810: types.EllipsisType, types.NotImplementedType and types.NoneType have been reintroduced, providing a new set of types readily interpretable by static type checkers.

  • bpo-41815: Fix SQLite3 segfault when backing up closed database. Patch contributed by Peter David McCormick.

  • bpo-41816: StrEnum added: it ensures that all members are already strings or string candidates

  • bpo-41517: fix bug allowing Enums to be extended via multiple inheritance

  • bpo-39587: use the correct mix-in data type when constructing Enums

  • bpo-41792: Add is_typeddict function to to check if a type is a TypedDict class

    Previously there was no way to check that without using private API. See the relevant issue in python/typing

  • bpo-41789: Honor object overrides in Enum class creation (specifically, __str__, __repr__, __format__, and __reduce_ex__).

  • bpo-32218: enum.Flag and enum.IntFlag members are now iterable

  • bpo-39651: Fix a race condition in the call_soon_threadsafe() method of asyncio.ProactorEventLoop: do nothing if the self-pipe socket has been closed.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the mashal extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _string extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41732: Added an iterator to memoryview.

  • bpo-41720: Fixed turtle.Vec2D.__rmul__() for arguments which are not int or float.

  • bpo-41696: Fix handling of debug mode in This allows setting PYTHONASYNCIODEBUG or -X dev to enable asyncio debug mode when using

  • bpo-41687: Fix implementation of sendfile to be compatible with Solaris.

  • bpo-41662: No longer override exceptions raised in __len__() of a sequence of parameters in sqlite3 with ProgrammingError.

  • bpo-39010: Restarting a ProactorEventLoop on Windows no longer logs spurious ConnectionResetErrors.

  • bpo-41638: ProgrammingError message for absent parameter in sqlite3 contains now the name of the parameter instead of its index when parameters are supplied as a dict.

  • bpo-41662: Fixed crash when mutate list of parameters during iteration in sqlite3.

  • bpo-41513: Improved the accuracy of math.hypot(). Internally, each step is computed with extra precision so that the result is now almost always correctly rounded.

  • bpo-41609: The pdb whatis command correctly reports instance methods as 'Method' rather than 'Function'.

  • bpo-39994: Fixed pprint's handling of dict subclasses that override __repr__.

  • bpo-32751: When cancelling the task due to a timeout, asyncio.wait_for() will now wait until the cancellation is complete also in the case when timeout is <= 0, like it does with positive timeouts.

  • bpo-37658: asyncio.wait_for() now properly handles races between cancellation of itself and the completion of the wrapped awaitable.

  • bpo-40782: Change the method asyncio.AbstractEventLoop.run_in_executor to not be a coroutine.

  • bpo-41520: Fix codeop regression that prevented turning compile warnings into errors.

  • bpo-41528: turtle uses math module functions to convert degrees to radians and vice versa and to calculate vector norm

  • bpo-41513: Minor algorithmic improvement to math.hypot() and math.dist() giving small gains in speed and accuracy.

  • bpo-41503: Fixed a race between setTarget and flush in logging.handlers.MemoryHandler.

  • bpo-41497: Fix potential UnicodeDecodeError in dis module.

  • bpo-41467: On Windows, fix asyncio recv_into() return value when the socket/pipe is closed (BrokenPipeError): return 0 rather than an empty byte string (b'').

  • bpo-41425: Make tkinter doc example runnable.

  • bpo-41421: Make an algebraic simplification to random.paretovariate(). It now is slightly less subject to round-off error and is slightly faster. Inputs that used to cause ZeroDivisionError now cause an OverflowError instead.

  • bpo-41440: Add os.cpu_count() support for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-41316: Fix the tarfile module to write only basename of TAR file to GZIP compression header.

  • bpo-41384: Raise TclError instead of TypeError when an unknown option is passed to tkinter.OptionMenu.

  • bpo-41317: Use add_done_callback() in asyncio.loop.sock_accept() to unsubscribe reader early on cancellation.

  • bpo-41364: Reduce import overhead of uuid.

  • bpo-35328: Set the environment variable VIRTUAL_ENV_PROMPT at venv activation.

  • bpo-41341: Recursive evaluation of typing.ForwardRef in get_type_hints.

  • bpo-41344: Prevent creating shared_memory.SharedMemory objects with size=0.

  • bpo-41333: collections.OrderedDict.pop() is now 2 times faster.

  • bpo-41288: Unpickling invalid NEWOBJ_EX opcode with the C implementation raises now UnpicklingError instead of crashing.

  • bpo-39017: Avoid infinite loop when reading specially crafted TAR files using the tarfile module (CVE-2019-20907).

  • bpo-41273: Speed up any transport using _ProactorReadPipeTransport by calling recv_into instead of recv, thus not creating a new buffer for each recv call in the transport's read loop.

  • bpo-41235: Fix the error handling in ssl.SSLContext.load_dh_params().

  • bpo-41207: In distutils.spawn, restore expectation that DistutilsExecError is raised when the command is not found.

  • bpo-29727: Register array.array as a MutableSequence. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39168: Remove the __new__ method of typing.Generic.

  • bpo-41194: Fix a crash in the _ast module: it can no longer be loaded more than once. It now uses a global state rather than a module state.

  • bpo-41195: Add read-only ssl.SSLContext.security_level attribute to retrieve the context's security level.

  • bpo-41193: The write_history() atexit function of the readline completer now ignores any OSError to ignore error if the filesystem is read-only, instead of only ignoring FileNotFoundError and PermissionError.

  • bpo-41182: selector: use DefaultSelector based upon implementation

  • bpo-41161: The decimal module now requires libmpdec-2.5.0. Users of --with-system-libmpdec should update their system library.

  • bpo-40874: The decimal module now requires libmpdec-2.5.0.

  • bpo-41138: Fixed the trace module CLI for Python source files with non-UTF-8 encoding.

  • bpo-31082: Use the term "iterable" in the docstring for functools.reduce().

  • bpo-40521: Remove freelist from collections.deque().

  • bpo-31938: Fix default-value signatures of several functions in the select module - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-41068: Fixed reading files with non-ASCII names from ZIP archive directly after writing them.

  • bpo-41058: pdb.find_function() now correctly determines the source file encoding.

  • bpo-41056: Invalid file descriptor values are now prevented from being passed to os.fpathconf. (discovered by Coverity)

  • bpo-41056: Fix a NULL pointer dereference within the ssl module during a MemoryError in the keylog callback. (discovered by Coverity)

  • bpo-41056: Fixed an instance where a MemoryError within the zoneinfo module might not be reported or not reported at its source. (found by Coverity)

  • bpo-41048: mimetypes.read_mime_types() function reads the rule file using UTF-8 encoding, not the locale encoding. Patch by Srinivas Reddy Thatiparthy.

  • bpo-41043: Fixed the use of glob() in the stdlib: literal part of the path is now always correctly escaped.

  • bpo-41025: Fixed an issue preventing the C implementation of zoneinfo.ZoneInfo from being subclassed.

  • bpo-35018: Add the xml.sax.handler.LexicalHandler class that is present in other SAX XML implementations.

  • bpo-41002: Improve performance of with a given amount. Patch by Bruce Merry.

  • bpo-40448: ensurepip now disables the use of pip cache when installing the bundled versions of pip and setuptools. Patch by Krzysztof Konopko.

  • bpo-40967: Removed asyncio.Task.current_task() and asyncio.Task.all_tasks(). Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-40924: Ensure importlib.resources.path returns an extant path for the SourceFileLoader's resource reader. Avoids the regression identified in master while a long-term solution is devised.

  • bpo-40955: Fix a minor memory leak in subprocess module when extra_groups was specified.

  • bpo-40855: The standard deviation and variance functions in the statistics module were ignoring their mu and xbar arguments.

  • bpo-40939: Use the new PEG parser when generating the stdlib keyword module.

  • bpo-23427: Add sys.orig_argv attribute: the list of the original command line arguments passed to the Python executable.

  • bpo-33689: Ignore empty or whitespace-only lines in .pth files. This matches the documentated behavior. Before, empty lines caused the site-packages dir to appear multiple times in sys.path. By Ido Michael, contributors Malcolm Smith and Tal Einat.

  • bpo-40884: Added a defaults parameter to logging.Formatter, to allow specifying default values for custom fields. Patch by Asaf Alon and Bar Harel.

  • bpo-40876: Clarify error message in the csv module.

  • bpo-39791: Refresh importlib.metadata from importlib_metadata 1.6.1.

  • bpo-40807: Stop codeop._maybe_compile, used by code.InteractiveInterpreter (and IDLE). from emitting each warning three times.

  • bpo-32604: Fix reference leak in the select module when the module is imported in a subinterpreter.

  • bpo-39791: Built-in loaders (SourceFileLoader and ZipImporter) now supply TraversableResources implementations for ResourceReader, and the fallback function has been removed.

  • bpo-39314: rlcompleter.Completer and the standard Python shell now close the parenthesis for functions that take no arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-17005: The topological sort functionality that was introduced initially in the functools module has been moved to a new graphlib module to better accommodate the new tools and keep the original scope of the functools module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40834: Fix truncate when sending str object with_xxsubinterpreters.channel_send.

  • bpo-40755: Add rich comparisons to collections.Counter().

  • bpo-26407: Unexpected errors in calling the __iter__ method are no longer masked by TypeError in csv.reader(), csv.writer.writerow() and csv.writer.writerows().

  • bpo-39384: Fixed email.contentmanager to allow set_content() to set a null string.

  • bpo-40744: The sqlite3 module uses SQLite API functions that require SQLite v3.7.3 or higher. This patch removes support for older SQLite versions, and explicitly requires SQLite 3.7.3 both at build, compile and runtime. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40777: Initialize PyDateTime_IsoCalendarDateType.tp_base at run-time to avoid errors on some compilers.

  • bpo-38488: Update ensurepip to install pip 20.1.1 and setuptools 47.1.0.

  • bpo-40792: The result of operator.index() now always has exact type int. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-40767: webbrowser now properly finds the default browser in pure Wayland systems by checking the WAYLAND_DISPLAY environment variable. Patch contributed by Jérémy Attali.

  • bpo-40791: hashlib.compare_digest() uses OpenSSL's CRYPTO_memcmp() function when OpenSSL is available.

  • bpo-40795: ctypes module: If ctypes fails to convert the result of a callback or if a ctypes callback function raises an exception, sys.unraisablehook is now called with an exception set. Previously, the error was logged into stderr by PyErr_Print().

  • bpo-16995: Add base64.b32hexencode() and base64.b32hexdecode() to support the Base32 Encoding with Extended Hex Alphabet.

  • bpo-30008: Fix ssl code to be compatible with OpenSSL 1.1.x builds that use no-deprecated and --api=1.1.0.

  • bpo-30064: Fix asyncio loop.sock_* race condition issue

  • bpo-40759: Deprecate the symbol module.

  • bpo-40756: The second argument (extra) of LoggerAdapter.__init__ now defaults to None.

  • bpo-37129: Add a new os.RWF_APPEND flag for os.pwritev().

  • bpo-40737: Fix possible reference leak for sqlite3 initialization.

  • bpo-40726: Handle cases where the end_lineno is None on ast.increment_lineno().

  • bpo-40698: distutils upload creates SHA2-256 and Blake2b-256 digests. MD5 digests is skipped if platform blocks MD5.

  • bpo-40695: hashlib no longer falls back to builtin hash implementations when OpenSSL provides a hash digest and the algorithm is blocked by security policy.

  • bpo-9216: passed usedforsecurity to OpenSSL EVP constructor test_hashlib and test_smtplib handle strict security policy better.

  • bpo-40614: ast.parse() will not parse self documenting expressions in f-strings when passed feature_version is less than (3, 8).

  • bpo-40626: Add h5 file extension as MIME Type application/x-hdf5, as per HDF Group recommendation for HDF5 formatted data files. Patch contributed by Mark Schwab.

  • bpo-25920: On macOS, when building Python for macOS 10.4 and older, which wasn't the case for macOS installer, socket.getaddrinfo() no longer uses an internal lock to prevent race conditions when calling getaddrinfo() which is thread-safe since macOS 10.5. Python 3.9 requires macOS 10.6 or newer. The internal lock caused random hang on fork when another thread was calling socket.getaddrinfo(). The lock was also used on FreeBSD older than 5.3, OpenBSD older than 201311 and NetBSD older than 4.

  • bpo-40671: Prepare _hashlib for PEP 489 and use PyModule_AddType().

  • bpo-32309: Added a new coroutine asyncio.to_thread(). It is mainly used for running IO-bound functions in a separate thread to avoid blocking the event loop, and essentially works as a high-level version of run_in_executor() that can directly take keyword arguments.

  • bpo-36543: Restored the deprecated xml.etree.cElementTree module.

  • bpo-40611: MAP_POPULATE constant has now been added to the list of exported mmap module flags.

  • bpo-39881: PEP 554 for use in the test suite. (Patch By Joannah Nanjekye)

  • bpo-13097: ctypes now raises an ArgumentError when a callback is invoked with more than 1024 arguments.

  • bpo-39385: A new test assertion context-manager, unittest.assertNoLogs() will ensure a given block of code emits no log messages using the logging module. Contributed by Kit Yan Choi.

  • bpo-23082: Updated the error message and docs of PurePath.relative_to() to better reflect the function behaviour.

  • bpo-40318: Use SQLite3 trace v2 API, if it is available.

  • bpo-40105: ZipFile truncates files to avoid corruption when a shorter comment is provided in append ("a") mode. Patch by Jan Mazur.

  • bpo-40084: Fix Enum.__dir__: dir(Enum.member) now includes attributes as well as methods.

  • bpo-31122: ssl.wrap_socket() now raises ssl.SSLEOFError rather than OSError when peer closes connection during TLS negotiation

  • bpo-39728: fix default _missing_ so a duplicate ValueError is not set as the __context__ of the original ValueError

  • bpo-39244: Fixed multiprocessing.context.get_all_start_methods to properly return the default method first on macOS.

  • bpo-39040: Fix parsing of invalid mime headers parameters by collapsing whitespace between encoded words in a bare-quote-string.

  • bpo-38731: Add --quiet option to command-line interface of py_compile. Patch by Gregory Schevchenko.

  • bpo-35714: struct.error is now raised if there is a null character in a struct format string.

  • bpo-38144: Added the root_dir and dir_fd parameters in glob.glob().

  • bpo-26543: Fix IMAP4.noop() when debug mode is enabled (ex: imaplib.Debug = 3).

  • bpo-12178: csv.writer() now correctly escapes escapechar when input contains escapechar. Patch by Catalin Iacob, Berker Peksag, and Itay Elbirt.

  • bpo-36290: AST nodes are now raising TypeError on conflicting keyword arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-33944: Added site-packages tracing in verbose mode.

  • bpo-35078: Refactor formatweekday, formatmonthname methods in LocaleHTMLCalendar and LocaleTextCalendar classes in calendar module to call the base class methods.This enables customizable CSS classes for LocaleHTMLCalendar. Patch by Srinivas Reddy Thatiparthy

  • bpo-29620: assertWarns() no longer raises a RuntimeException when accessing a module's __warningregistry__ causes importation of a new module, or when a new module is imported in another thread. Patch by Kernc.

  • bpo-31844: Remove ParserBase.error() method from the private and undocumented _markupbase module. html.parser.HTMLParser is the only subclass of ParserBase and its error() implementation was deprecated in Python 3.4 and removed in Python 3.5.

  • bpo-34226: Fix cgi.parse_multipart without content_length. Patch by Roger Duran

  • bpo-33660: Fix pathlib.PosixPath to resolve a relative path located on the root directory properly.

  • bpo-28557: Improve the error message for a misbehaving rawio.readinto

  • bpo-26680: The d.is_integer() method is added to the Decimal type, for compatibility with other number types.

  • bpo-26680: The x.is_integer() method is incorporated into the abstract types of the numeric tower, Real, Rational and Integral, with appropriate default implementations.


  • bpo-41428: Add documentation for PEP 604 (Allow writing union types as X | Y).

  • bpo-41774: In Programming FAQ "Sequences (Tuples/Lists)" section, add "How do you remove multiple items from a list".

  • bpo-35293: Fix RemovedInSphinx40Warning when building the documentation. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37149: Change Shipman tkinter doc link from to TkDocs. (The doc has been removed from the NMT server.) The new link responds much faster and includes a short explanatory note.

  • bpo-41726: Update the refcounts info of PyType_FromModuleAndSpec.

  • bpo-41624: Fix the signature of typing.Coroutine.

  • bpo-40204: Enable Sphinx 3.2 c_allow_pre_v3 option and disable c_warn_on_allowed_pre_v3 option to make the documentation compatible with Sphinx 2 and Sphinx 3.

  • bpo-41045: Add documentation for debug feature of f-strings.

  • bpo-41314: Changed the release when from __future__ import annotations becomes the default from 4.0 to 3.10 (following a change in PEP 563).

  • bpo-40979: Refactored typing.rst, arranging more than 70 classes, functions, and decorators into new sub-sections.

  • bpo-40552: Fix in tutorial section 4.2. Code snippet is now correct.

  • bpo-39883: Make code, examples, and recipes in the Python documentation be licensed under the more permissive BSD0 license in addition to the existing Python 2.0 license.

  • bpo-37703: Updated Documentation to comprehensively elaborate on the behaviour of gather.cancel()


  • bpo-41939: Fix test_site.test_license_exists_at_url(): call urllib.request.urlcleanup() to reset the global urllib.request._opener. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41731: Make test_cmd_line_script pass with option '-vv'.

  • bpo-41602: Add tests for SIGINT handling in the runpy module.

  • bpo-41521: Rename blacklist parameter of check__all__() to not_exported.

  • bpo-41477: Make ctypes optional in test_genericalias.

  • bpo-41085: Fix integer overflow in the array.array.index() method on 64-bit Windows for index larger than 2**31.

  • bpo-41069: and the current directory for tests when run via test.regrtest contain now non-ascii characters if possible.

  • bpo-38377: On Linux, skip tests using multiprocessing if the current user cannot create a file in /dev/shm/ directory. Add the skip_if_broken_multiprocessing_synchronize() function to the module.

  • bpo-41009: Fix use of support.require_{linux|mac|freebsd}_version() decorators as class decorator.

  • bpo-41003: Fix test_copyreg when numpy is installed: test.pickletester now saves/restores warnings filters when importing numpy, to ignore filters installed by numpy.

  • bpo-40964: Disable remote imaplib tests, host is blocking incoming connections.

  • bpo-40927: Fix test_binhex when run twice: it now uses import_fresh_module() to ensure that it raises DeprecationWarning each time.

  • bpo-17258: Skip some multiprocessing tests when MD5 hash digest is blocked.

  • bpo-31904: Increase LOOPBACK_TIMEOUT to 10 for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-38169: Increase code coverage for SharedMemory and ShareableList

  • bpo-34401: Make test_gdb properly run on HP-UX. Patch by Michael Osipov.


  • bpo-38249: Update Py_UNREACHABLE to use __builtin_unreachable() if only the compiler is able to use it. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41617: Fix pycore_bitutils.h header file to support old clang versions: __builtin_bswap16() is not available in LLVM clang 3.0.

  • bpo-40204: Pin Sphinx version to 2.3.1 in Doc/Makefile.

  • bpo-36020: The C99 functions snprintf() and vsnprintf() are now required to build Python.

  • bpo-40684: make install now uses the PLATLIBDIR variable for the destination lib-dynload/ directory when ./configure --with-platlibdir is used.

  • bpo-40683: Fixed an issue where the zoneinfo module and its tests were not included when Python is installed with make.


  • bpo-41744: Fixes automatic import of props file when using the Nuget package.

  • bpo-41627: The user site directory for 32-bit now includes a -32 suffix to distinguish it from the 64-bit interpreter's directory.

  • bpo-41526: Fixed layout of final page of the installer by removing the special thanks to Mark Hammond (with his permission).

  • bpo-41492: Fixes the description that appears in UAC prompts.

  • bpo-40948: Improve post-install message to direct people to the "py" command.

  • bpo-41412: The installer will now fail to install on Windows 7 and Windows 8. Further, the UCRT dependency is now always downloaded on demand.

  • bpo-40741: Update Windows release to include SQLite 3.32.3.

  • bpo-41142: msilib now supports creating CAB files with non-ASCII file path and adding files with non-ASCII file path to them.

  • bpo-41074: Fixed support of non-ASCII names in functions msilib.OpenDatabase() and msilib.init_database() and non-ASCII SQL in method msilib.Database.OpenView().

  • bpo-41039: Stable ABI redirection DLL (python3.dll) now uses #pragma comment(linker) for re-exporting.

  • bpo-40164: Updates Windows OpenSSL to 1.1.1g

  • bpo-39631: Changes the registered MIME type for .py files on Windows to text/x-python instead of text/plain.

  • bpo-40677: Manually define IO_REPARSE_TAG_APPEXECLINK in case some old Windows SDK doesn't have it.

  • bpo-37556: Extend py.exe help to mention overrides via venv, shebang, environmental variables & ini files.


  • bpo-41557: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.33.0.

  • bpo-39580: Avoid opening Finder window if running installer from the command line. Patch contributed by Rick Heil.

  • bpo-41100: Fix configure error when building on macOS 11. Note that the current Python release was released shortly after the first developer preview of macOS 11 (Big Sur); there are other known issues with building and running on the developer preview. Big Sur is expected to be fully supported in a future bugfix release of Python 3.8.x and with 3.9.0.

  • bpo-40741: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.32.3.

  • bpo-41005: fixed an XDG settings issue not allowing macos to open browser in

  • bpo-40741: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.32.2.


  • bpo-41775: Use 'IDLE Shell' as shell title

  • bpo-35764: Rewrite the Calltips doc section.

  • bpo-40181: In calltips, stop reminding that '/' marks the end of positional-only arguments.

  • bpo-41468: Improve IDLE run crash error message (which users should never see).

  • bpo-41373: Save files loaded with no line ending, as when blank, or different line endings, by setting its line ending to the system default. Fix regression in 3.8.4 and 3.9.0b4.

  • bpo-41300: Save files with non-ascii chars. Fix regression released in 3.9.0b4 and 3.8.4.

  • bpo-37765: Add keywords to module name completion list. Rewrite Completions section of IDLE doc.

  • bpo-41152: The encoding of stdin, stdout and stderr in IDLE is now always UTF-8.

  • bpo-41144: Make Open Module open a special module such as os.path.

  • bpo-39885: Make context menu Cut and Copy work again when right-clicking within a selection.

  • bpo-40723: Make test_idle pass when run after import.


  • bpo-41936: Removed undocumented macros Py_ALLOW_RECURSION and Py_END_ALLOW_RECURSION and the recursion_critical field of the PyInterpreterState structure.

  • bpo-41692: The PyUnicode_InternImmortal() function is now deprecated and will be removed in Python 3.12: use PyUnicode_InternInPlace() instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41842: Add PyCodec_Unregister() function to unregister a codec search function.

  • bpo-41834: Remove the _Py_CheckRecursionLimit variable: it has been replaced by ceval.recursion_limit of the PyInterpreterState structure. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41689: Types created with PyType_FromSpec() now make any signature in their tp_doc slot accessible from __text_signature__.

  • bpo-41524: Fix bug in PyOS_mystrnicmp and PyOS_mystricmp that incremented pointers beyond the end of a string.

  • bpo-41324: Add a minimal decimal capsule API. The API supports fast conversions between Decimals up to 38 digits and their triple representation as a C struct.

  • bpo-30155: Add PyDateTime_DATE_GET_TZINFO() and PyDateTime_TIME_GET_TZINFO() macros for accessing the tzinfo attributes of datetime.datetime and datetime.time objects.

  • bpo-40170: Revert PyType_HasFeature() change: it reads again directly the PyTypeObject.tp_flags member when the limited C API is not used, rather than always calling PyType_GetFlags() which hides implementation details.

  • bpo-41123: Remove PyUnicode_AsUnicodeCopy.

  • bpo-41123: Removed PyLong_FromUnicode().

  • bpo-41123: Removed PyUnicode_GetMax().

  • bpo-41123: Removed Py_UNICODE_str* functions manipulating Py_UNICODE* strings.

  • bpo-41103: PyObject_AsCharBuffer(), PyObject_AsReadBuffer(), PyObject_CheckReadBuffer(), and PyObject_AsWriteBuffer() are removed. Please migrate to new buffer protocol; PyObject_GetBuffer() and PyBuffer_Release().

  • bpo-36346: Raises DeprecationWarning for PyUnicode_FromUnicode(NULL, size) and PyUnicode_FromStringAndSize(NULL, size) with size > 0.

  • bpo-36346: Mark Py_UNICODE_COPY, Py_UNICODE_FILL, PyUnicode_WSTR_LENGTH, PyUnicode_FromUnicode, PyUnicode_AsUnicode, and PyUnicode_AsUnicodeAndSize as deprecated in C. Remove Py_UNICODE_MATCH which was deprecated and broken since Python 3.3.

  • bpo-40989: The PyObject_INIT() and PyObject_INIT_VAR() macros become aliases to, respectively, PyObject_Init() and PyObject_InitVar() functions.

  • bpo-36020: On Windows, #include "pyerrors.h" no longer defines snprintf and vsnprintf macros.

  • bpo-40943: The PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN macro must now be defined to use PyArg_ParseTuple() and Py_BuildValue() formats which use #: es#, et#, s#, u#, y#, z#, U# and Z#. See Parsing arguments and building values and the PEP 353.

  • bpo-40910: Export explicitly the Py_GetArgcArgv() function to the C API and document the function. Previously, it was exported implicitly which no longer works since Python is built with -fvisibility=hidden.

  • bpo-40724: Allow defining buffer slots in type specs.

  • bpo-40679: Fix a _PyEval_EvalCode() crash if qualname argument is NULL.

  • bpo-40839: Calling PyDict_GetItem() without GIL held had been allowed for historical reason. It is no longer allowed.

  • bpo-40826: PyOS_InterruptOccurred() now fails with a fatal error if it is called with the GIL released.

  • bpo-40792: The result of PyNumber_Index() now always has exact type int. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-39573: Convert Py_REFCNT() and Py_SIZE() macros to static inline functions. They cannot be used as l-value anymore: use Py_SET_REFCNT() and Py_SET_SIZE() to set an object reference count and size. This change is backward incompatible on purpose, to prepare the C API for an opaque PyObject structure.

  • bpo-40703: The PyType_FromSpec*() functions no longer overwrite the type's "__module__" attribute if it is set via "Py_tp_members" or "Py_tp_getset".

  • bpo-39583: Remove superfluous "extern C" declarations from Include/cpython/*.h.

Python 3.9.0 beta 1

Release date: 2020-05-19


Core and Builtins

  • bpo-40663: Correctly generate annotations where parentheses are omitted but required (e.g: Type[(str, int, *other))].

  • bpo-40596: Fixed str.isidentifier() for non-canonicalized strings containing non-BMP characters on Windows.

  • bpo-40593: Improved syntax errors for invalid characters in source code.

  • bpo-40585: Fixed a bug when using codeop.compile_command() that was causing exceptions to be swallowed with the new parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40566: Apply PEP 573 to abc.

  • bpo-40502: Initialize n->n_col_offset. (Patch by Joannah Nanjekye)

  • bpo-40527: Fix command line argument parsing: no longer write errors multiple times into stderr.

  • bpo-1635741: Port errno to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40523: Add pass-throughs for hash() and reversed() to weakref.proxy objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port syslog to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40246: Reporting a specialised error message for invalid string prefixes, which was introduced in bpo-40246, is being reverted due to backwards compatibility concerns for strings that immediately follow a reserved keyword without whitespace between them. Constructs like bg="#d00" if clear else"#fca" were failing to parse, which is not an acceptable breakage on such short notice.

  • bpo-40417: Fix imp module deprecation warning when PyImport_ReloadModule is called. Patch by Robert Rouhani.

  • bpo-40408: Fixed support of nested type variables in GenericAlias (e.g. list[list[T]]).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _stat module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-29587: Enable implicit exception chaining when calling generator.throw().

  • bpo-40328: Add tools for generating mappings headers for CJKCodecs.

  • bpo-40228: Setting frame.f_lineno is now robust w.r.t. changes in the source-to-bytecode compiler

  • bpo-38880: Added the ability to list interpreters associated with channel ends in the internal subinterpreters module.

  • bpo-37986: Improve performance of PyLong_FromDouble() for values that fit into long.


  • bpo-40662: Fixed ast.get_source_segment() for ast nodes that have incomplete location information. Patch by Irit Katriel.

  • bpo-40665: Convert bisect to use Argument Clinic.

  • bpo-40536: Added the available_timezones() function to the zoneinfo module. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-40645: The hmac.HMAC exposes internal implementation details. The attributes digest_cons, inner, and outer are deprecated and will be removed in the future.

  • bpo-40645: The internal module _hashlib wraps and exposes OpenSSL's HMAC API. The new code will be used in Python 3.10 after the internal implementation details of the pure Python HMAC module are no longer part of the public API.

  • bpo-40637: Builtin hash modules can now be disabled or selectively enabled with configure --with-builtin-hashlib-hashes=sha3,blake1 or --without-builtin-hashlib-hashes.

  • bpo-37630: The hashlib module can now use SHA3 hashes and SHAKE XOF from OpenSSL when available.

  • bpo-40479: The hashlib now compiles with OpenSSL 3.0.0-alpha2.

  • bpo-40257: Revert changes to inspect.getdoc().

  • bpo-40607: When cancelling a task due to timeout, asyncio.wait_for() will now propagate the exception if an error happens during cancellation. Patch by Roman Skurikhin.

  • bpo-40612: Fix edge cases in SyntaxError formatting. If the offset is <= 0, no caret is printed. If the offset is > line length, the caret is printed pointing just after the last character.

  • bpo-40597: If text content lines are longer than policy.max_line_length, always use a content-encoding to make sure they are wrapped.

  • bpo-40571: Added functools.cache() as a simpler, more discoverable way to access the unbounded cache variant of lru_cache(maxsize=None).

  • bpo-40503: PEP 615, the zoneinfo module. Adds support for the IANA time zone database.

  • bpo-40397: Removed attributes __args__ and __parameters__ from special generic aliases like typing.List (not subscripted).

  • bpo-40549: Convert posixmodule.c ("posix" or "nt" module) to the multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-31033: Add a msg argument to Future.cancel() and Task.cancel().

  • bpo-40541: Added an optional counts parameter to random.sample().

  • bpo-40515: The ssl and hashlib modules now actively check that OpenSSL is build with thread support. Python 3.7.0 made thread support mandatory and no longer works safely with a no-thread builds.

  • bpo-31033: When a asyncio.Task is cancelled, the exception traceback now chains all the way back to where the task was first interrupted.

  • bpo-40504: functools.lru_cache() objects can now be the targets of weakrefs.

  • bpo-40559: Fix possible memory leak in the C implementation of asyncio.Task.

  • bpo-40480: fnmatch.fnmatch() could take exponential time in the presence of multiple * pattern characters. This was repaired by generating more elaborate regular expressions to avoid futile backtracking.

  • bpo-40495: compileall is now able to use hardlinks to prevent duplicates in a case when .pyc files for different optimization levels have the same content.

  • bpo-40457: The ssl module now support OpenSSL builds without TLS 1.0 and 1.1 methods.

  • bpo-40355: Improve error reporting in ast.literal_eval() in the presence of malformed ast.Dict nodes instead of silently ignoring any non-conforming elements. Patch by Curtis Bucher.

  • bpo-40465: Deprecated the optional random argument to random.shuffle().

  • bpo-40459: platform.win32_ver() now produces correct ptype strings instead of empty strings.

  • bpo-39435: The first argument of pickle.loads() is now positional-only.

  • bpo-39305: Update nntplib to merge nntplib.NNTP and nntplib._NNTPBase. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-32494: Update dbm.gnu to use gdbm_count if possible when calling len(). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40453: Add isolated=True keyword-only parameter to _xxsubinterpreters.create(). An isolated subinterpreter cannot spawn threads, spawn a child process or call os.fork().

  • bpo-40286: Remove _random.Random.randbytes(): the C implementation of randbytes(). Implement the method in Python to ease subclassing: randbytes() now directly reuses getrandbits().

  • bpo-40394: Added default arguments to difflib.SequenceMatcher.find_longest_match().

  • bpo-39995: Fix a race condition in concurrent.futures._ThreadWakeup: access to _ThreadWakeup is now protected with the shutdown lock.

  • bpo-30966: Process.shutdown(wait=True) of concurrent.futures now closes explicitly the result queue.

  • bpo-30966: Add a new close() method to the SimpleQueue class to explicitly close the queue.

  • bpo-39966: Revert bpo-25597. unittest.mock.MagicMock with wraps' set uses default return values for magic methods.

  • bpo-39791: Added files() function to importlib.resources with support for subdirectories in package data, matching backport in importlib_resources 1.5.

  • bpo-40375: imaplib.IMAP4.unselect() is added. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40389: repr() now returns typing.Optional[T] when called for typing.Union of two types, one of which is NoneType.

  • bpo-40291: Add support for CAN_J1939 sockets (available on Linux 5.4+)

  • bpo-40273: types.MappingProxyType is now reversible.

  • bpo-39075: The repr for types.SimpleNamespace is now insertion ordered rather than alphabetical.

  • bpo-40192: On AIX, thread_time() is now implemented with thread_cputime() which has nanosecond resolution, rather than clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID) which has a resolution of 10 ms. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-40025: Raise TypeError when _generate_next_value_ is defined after members. Patch by Ethan Onstott.

  • bpo-39058: In the argparse module, the repr for Namespace() and other argument holders now displayed in the order attributes were added. Formerly, it displayed in alphabetical order even though argument order is preserved the user visible parts of the module.

  • bpo-24416: The isocalendar() methods of and datetime.datetime now return a named tuple instead of a tuple.


  • bpo-34790: Add version of removal for explicit passing of coros to asyncio.wait()'s documentation

  • bpo-40561: Provide docstrings for webbrowser open functions.

  • bpo-40499: Mention that asyncio.wait() requires a non-empty set of awaitables.

  • bpo-39705: Tutorial example for sorted() in the Loop Techniques section is given a better explanation. Also a new example is included to explain sorted()'s basic behavior.

  • bpo-39435: Fix an incorrect signature for pickle.loads() in the docs


  • bpo-40055: distutils.tests now saves/restores warnings filters to leave them unchanged. Importing tests imports docutils which imports pkg_resources which adds a warnings filter.

  • bpo-40436: test_gdb and test.pythoninfo now check gdb command exit code.


  • bpo-40653: Move _dirnameW out of HAVE_SYMLINK to fix a potential compiling issue.

  • bpo-40514: Add --with-experimental-isolated-subinterpreters build option to configure: better isolate subinterpreters, experimental build mode.


  • bpo-40650: Include winsock2.h in pytime.c for timeval.

  • bpo-40458: Increase reserved stack space to prevent overflow crash on Windows.

  • bpo-39148: Add IPv6 support to asyncio datagram endpoints in ProactorEventLoop. Change the raised exception for unknown address families to ValueError as it's not coming from Windows API.


  • bpo-34956: When building Python on macOS from source, _tkinter now links with non-system Tcl and Tk frameworks if they are installed in /Library/Frameworks, as had been the case on older releases of macOS. If a macOS SDK is explicitly configured, by using --enable-universalsdk= or -isysroot, only the SDK itself is searched. The default behavior can still be overridden with --with-tcltk-includes and --with-tcltk-libs.

  • bpo-35569: Expose RFC 3542 IPv6 socket options.


  • bpo-40479: Update multissltest helper to test with latest OpenSSL 1.0.2, 1.1.0, 1.1.1, and 3.0.0-alpha.

  • bpo-40431: Fix a syntax typo in turtledemo that now raises a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40163: Fix multissltest tool. OpenSSL has changed download URL for old releases. The multissltest tool now tries to download from current and old download URLs.


  • bpo-39465: Remove the _PyUnicode_ClearStaticStrings() function from the C API.

  • bpo-38787: Add PyCFunction_CheckExact() macro for exact type checks now that we allow subtypes of PyCFunction, as well as PyCMethod_CheckExact() and PyCMethod_Check() for the new PyCMethod subtype.

  • bpo-40545: Declare _PyErr_GetTopmostException() with PyAPI_FUNC() to properly export the function in the C API. The function remains private (_Py) prefix.

  • bpo-40412: Nullify inittab_copy during finalization, preventing future interpreter initializations in an embedded situation from crashing. Patch by Gregory Szorc.

  • bpo-40429: The PyThreadState_GetFrame() function now returns a strong reference to the frame.

  • bpo-40428: Remove the following functions from the C API. Call PyGC_Collect() explicitly to free all free lists.

    • PyAsyncGen_ClearFreeLists()

    • PyContext_ClearFreeList()

    • PyDict_ClearFreeList()

    • PyFloat_ClearFreeList()

    • PyFrame_ClearFreeList()

    • PyList_ClearFreeList()

    • PySet_ClearFreeList()

    • PyTuple_ClearFreeList()

  • bpo-40421: New PyFrame_GetBack() function: get the frame next outer frame.

  • bpo-40421: New PyFrame_GetCode() function: return a borrowed reference to the frame code.

  • bpo-40217: Ensure that instances of types created with PyType_FromSpecWithBases() will visit its class object when traversing references in the garbage collector (implemented as an extension of the provided tp_traverse). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38787: Module C state is now accessible from C-defined heap type methods (PEP 573). Patch by Marcel Plch and Petr Viktorin.

Python 3.9.0 alpha 6

Release date: 2020-04-27


  • bpo-40121: Fixes audit events raised on creating a new socket.

  • bpo-39073: Disallow CR or LF in email.headerregistry.Address arguments to guard against header injection attacks.