dataclasses — Data Classes

Código-fonte: Lib/dataclasses.py


Este módulo fornece um decorador e funções para adicionar automaticamente método especials tais como __init__() e __repr__() a classes definidas pelo usuário. Foi originalmente descrita em PEP 557.

As variáveis de membro a serem usadas nesses métodos gerados são definidas usando PEP 526 anotações de tipo. Por exemplo, este código:

from dataclasses import dataclass

@dataclass
class InventoryItem:
    """Class for keeping track of an item in inventory."""
    name: str
    unit_price: float
    quantity_on_hand: int = 0

    def total_cost(self) -> float:
        return self.unit_price * self.quantity_on_hand

Vai adicionar, além de outras coisas, o __init__() que parece com:

def __init__(self, name: str, unit_price: float, quantity_on_hand: int=0):
    self.name = name
    self.unit_price = unit_price
    self.quantity_on_hand = quantity_on_hand

Observe que este método é adicionado automaticamente à classe: ele não é especificado diretamente na definição InventoryItem mostrada acima.

Novo na versão 3.7.

Decoradores no nível do módulo, classes e funções.

@dataclasses.dataclass(*, init=True, repr=True, eq=True, order=False, unsafe_hash=False, frozen=False)

Esta função é um decorador que é usado para adicionar método especials para classes, conforme descrito abaixo.

O decorador dataclass() examina a classe para encontrar fields. Um field é definido como uma variável de classe que possui uma anotação de tipo. Com duas exceções descritas abaixo, nada em dataclass() examina o tipo especificado na anotação de variável.

A ordem dos campos em todos os métodos gerados é a ordem em que eles aparecem na definição de classe.

O decorador dataclass() adicionará vários métodos “dunder” à classe, descritos abaixo. Se algum dos métodos adicionados já existir na classe, o comportamento dependerá do parâmetro, conforme documentado abaixo. O decorador retorna a mesma classe que é chamado; nenhuma nova classe é criada.

Se dataclass() for usado apenas como um simples decorador, sem parâmetros, ele age como se tivesse os valores padrão documentados nessa assinatura. Ou seja, esses três usos de dataclass() são equivalentes:

@dataclass
class C:
    ...

@dataclass()
class C:
    ...

@dataclass(init=True, repr=True, eq=True, order=False, unsafe_hash=False, frozen=False)
class C:
   ...

Os parâmetros do dataclass() são:

  • init: Se verdadeiro (o padrão), o método __init__() será gerado.

    Se a classe já tenha __init__() definido, esse parâmetro é ignorado.

  • repr: Se verdadeiro (o padrão), um método __repr__() será gerado. A sequência de string repr gerada terá o nome da classe e o nome e repr de cada campo, na ordem em que são definidos na classe. Os campos marcados como excluídos do repr não são incluídos. Por exemplo: InventoryItem(name='widget', unit_price=3.0, quantity_on_hand=10).

    Se a classe já tenha __repr__() definido, esse parâmetro é ignorado.

  • eq: Se verdadeiro (o padrão), um método __eq__() será gerado. Este método compara a classe como se fosse uma tupla de campos, em ordem. Ambas as instâncias na comparação devem ser de tipo idêntico.

    Se a classe já tenha __eq__() definido, esse parâmetro é ignorado.

  • order: If true (the default is False), __lt__(), __le__(), __gt__(), and __ge__() methods will be generated. These compare the class as if it were a tuple of its fields, in order. Both instances in the comparison must be of the identical type. If order is true and eq is false, a ValueError is raised.

    Se a classe já define algum entre __lt__(), __le__(), __gt__() ou __ge__(), então TypeError é levantada.

  • unsafe_hash: If False (the default), a __hash__() method is generated according to how eq and frozen are set.

    __hash__() is used by built-in hash(), and when objects are added to hashed collections such as dictionaries and sets. Having a __hash__() implies that instances of the class are immutable. Mutability is a complicated property that depends on the programmer’s intent, the existence and behavior of __eq__(), and the values of the eq and frozen flags in the dataclass() decorator.

    By default, dataclass() will not implicitly add a __hash__() method unless it is safe to do so. Neither will it add or change an existing explicitly defined __hash__() method. Setting the class attribute __hash__ = None has a specific meaning to Python, as described in the __hash__() documentation.

    If __hash__() is not explicit defined, or if it is set to None, then dataclass() may add an implicit __hash__() method. Although not recommended, you can force dataclass() to create a __hash__() method with unsafe_hash=True. This might be the case if your class is logically immutable but can nonetheless be mutated. This is a specialized use case and should be considered carefully.

    Here are the rules governing implicit creation of a __hash__() method. Note that you cannot both have an explicit __hash__() method in your dataclass and set unsafe_hash=True; this will result in a TypeError.

    If eq and frozen are both true, by default dataclass() will generate a __hash__() method for you. If eq is true and frozen is false, __hash__() will be set to None, marking it unhashable (which it is, since it is mutable). If eq is false, __hash__() will be left untouched meaning the __hash__() method of the superclass will be used (if the superclass is object, this means it will fall back to id-based hashing).

  • frozen: If true (the default is False), assigning to fields will generate an exception. This emulates read-only frozen instances. If __setattr__() or __delattr__() is defined in the class, then TypeError is raised. See the discussion below.

fields may optionally specify a default value, using normal Python syntax:

@dataclass
class C:
    a: int       # 'a' has no default value
    b: int = 0   # assign a default value for 'b'

In this example, both a and b will be included in the added __init__() method, which will be defined as:

def __init__(self, a: int, b: int = 0):

TypeError will be raised if a field without a default value follows a field with a default value. This is true either when this occurs in a single class, or as a result of class inheritance.

dataclasses.field(*, default=MISSING, default_factory=MISSING, repr=True, hash=None, init=True, compare=True, metadata=None)

For common and simple use cases, no other functionality is required. There are, however, some dataclass features that require additional per-field information. To satisfy this need for additional information, you can replace the default field value with a call to the provided field() function. For example:

@dataclass
class C:
    mylist: list[int] = field(default_factory=list)

c = C()
c.mylist += [1, 2, 3]

As shown above, the MISSING value is a sentinel object used to detect if the default and default_factory parameters are provided. This sentinel is used because None is a valid value for default. No code should directly use the MISSING value.

Os parâmetros de field() são:

  • default: If provided, this will be the default value for this field. This is needed because the field() call itself replaces the normal position of the default value.

  • default_factory: If provided, it must be a zero-argument callable that will be called when a default value is needed for this field. Among other purposes, this can be used to specify fields with mutable default values, as discussed below. It is an error to specify both default and default_factory.

  • init: If true (the default), this field is included as a parameter to the generated __init__() method.

  • repr: If true (the default), this field is included in the string returned by the generated __repr__() method.

  • compare: If true (the default), this field is included in the generated equality and comparison methods (__eq__(), __gt__(), et al.).

  • hash: This can be a bool or None. If true, this field is included in the generated __hash__() method. If None (the default), use the value of compare: this would normally be the expected behavior. A field should be considered in the hash if it’s used for comparisons. Setting this value to anything other than None is discouraged.

    One possible reason to set hash=False but compare=True would be if a field is expensive to compute a hash value for, that field is needed for equality testing, and there are other fields that contribute to the type’s hash value. Even if a field is excluded from the hash, it will still be used for comparisons.

  • metadata: This can be a mapping or None. None is treated as an empty dict. This value is wrapped in MappingProxyType() to make it read-only, and exposed on the Field object. It is not used at all by Data Classes, and is provided as a third-party extension mechanism. Multiple third-parties can each have their own key, to use as a namespace in the metadata.

If the default value of a field is specified by a call to field(), then the class attribute for this field will be replaced by the specified default value. If no default is provided, then the class attribute will be deleted. The intent is that after the dataclass() decorator runs, the class attributes will all contain the default values for the fields, just as if the default value itself were specified. For example, after:

@dataclass
class C:
    x: int
    y: int = field(repr=False)
    z: int = field(repr=False, default=10)
    t: int = 20

The class attribute C.z will be 10, the class attribute C.t will be 20, and the class attributes C.x and C.y will not be set.

class dataclasses.Field

Field objects describe each defined field. These objects are created internally, and are returned by the fields() module-level method (see below). Users should never instantiate a Field object directly. Its documented attributes are:

  • name: O nome do campo.

  • type: O tipo do campo.

  • default, default_factory, init, repr, hash, compare, and metadata have the identical meaning and values as they do in the field() declaration.

Other attributes may exist, but they are private and must not be inspected or relied on.

dataclasses.fields(class_or_instance)

Returns a tuple of Field objects that define the fields for this dataclass. Accepts either a dataclass, or an instance of a dataclass. Raises TypeError if not passed a dataclass or instance of one. Does not return pseudo-fields which are ClassVar or InitVar.

dataclasses.asdict(instance, *, dict_factory=dict)

Converts the dataclass instance to a dict (by using the factory function dict_factory). Each dataclass is converted to a dict of its fields, as name: value pairs. dataclasses, dicts, lists, and tuples are recursed into. For example:

@dataclass
class Point:
     x: int
     y: int

@dataclass
class C:
     mylist: list[Point]

p = Point(10, 20)
assert asdict(p) == {'x': 10, 'y': 20}

c = C([Point(0, 0), Point(10, 4)])
assert asdict(c) == {'mylist': [{'x': 0, 'y': 0}, {'x': 10, 'y': 4}]}

Raises TypeError if instance is not a dataclass instance.

dataclasses.astuple(instance, *, tuple_factory=tuple)

Converts the dataclass instance to a tuple (by using the factory function tuple_factory). Each dataclass is converted to a tuple of its field values. dataclasses, dicts, lists, and tuples are recursed into.

Continuando a partir do exemplo anterior:

assert astuple(p) == (10, 20)
assert astuple(c) == ([(0, 0), (10, 4)],)

Raises TypeError if instance is not a dataclass instance.

dataclasses.make_dataclass(cls_name, fields, *, bases=(), namespace=None, init=True, repr=True, eq=True, order=False, unsafe_hash=False, frozen=False)

Creates a new dataclass with name cls_name, fields as defined in fields, base classes as given in bases, and initialized with a namespace as given in namespace. fields is an iterable whose elements are each either name, (name, type), or (name, type, Field). If just name is supplied, typing.Any is used for type. The values of init, repr, eq, order, unsafe_hash, and frozen have the same meaning as they do in dataclass().

This function is not strictly required, because any Python mechanism for creating a new class with __annotations__ can then apply the dataclass() function to convert that class to a dataclass. This function is provided as a convenience. For example:

C = make_dataclass('C',
                   [('x', int),
                     'y',
                    ('z', int, field(default=5))],
                   namespace={'add_one': lambda self: self.x + 1})

É equivalente a:

@dataclass
class C:
    x: int
    y: 'typing.Any'
    z: int = 5

    def add_one(self):
        return self.x + 1
dataclasses.replace(instance, /, **changes)

Creates a new object of the same type of instance, replacing fields with values from changes. If instance is not a Data Class, raises TypeError. If values in changes do not specify fields, raises TypeError.

The newly returned object is created by calling the __init__() method of the dataclass. This ensures that __post_init__(), if present, is also called.

Init-only variables without default values, if any exist, must be specified on the call to replace() so that they can be passed to __init__() and __post_init__().

It is an error for changes to contain any fields that are defined as having init=False. A ValueError will be raised in this case.

Be forewarned about how init=False fields work during a call to replace(). They are not copied from the source object, but rather are initialized in __post_init__(), if they’re initialized at all. It is expected that init=False fields will be rarely and judiciously used. If they are used, it might be wise to have alternate class constructors, or perhaps a custom replace() (or similarly named) method which handles instance copying.

dataclasses.is_dataclass(class_or_instance)

Return True if its parameter is a dataclass or an instance of one, otherwise return False.

Se você precisa saber se a classe é uma instância de dataclass (e não a dataclass de fato), então adicione uma verificação para not isinstance(obj, type):

def is_dataclass_instance(obj):
    return is_dataclass(obj) and not isinstance(obj, type)

Processamento pós-inicialização

The generated __init__() code will call a method named __post_init__(), if __post_init__() is defined on the class. It will normally be called as self.__post_init__(). However, if any InitVar fields are defined, they will also be passed to __post_init__() in the order they were defined in the class. If no __init__() method is generated, then __post_init__() will not automatically be called.

Among other uses, this allows for initializing field values that depend on one or more other fields. For example:

@dataclass
class C:
    a: float
    b: float
    c: float = field(init=False)

    def __post_init__(self):
        self.c = self.a + self.b

See the section below on init-only variables for ways to pass parameters to __post_init__(). Also see the warning about how replace() handles init=False fields.

Variáveis de classe

One of two places where dataclass() actually inspects the type of a field is to determine if a field is a class variable as defined in PEP 526. It does this by checking if the type of the field is typing.ClassVar. If a field is a ClassVar, it is excluded from consideration as a field and is ignored by the dataclass mechanisms. Such ClassVar pseudo-fields are not returned by the module-level fields() function.

Variáveis de inicialização apenas

The other place where dataclass() inspects a type annotation is to determine if a field is an init-only variable. It does this by seeing if the type of a field is of type dataclasses.InitVar. If a field is an InitVar, it is considered a pseudo-field called an init-only field. As it is not a true field, it is not returned by the module-level fields() function. Init-only fields are added as parameters to the generated __init__() method, and are passed to the optional __post_init__() method. They are not otherwise used by dataclasses.

For example, suppose a field will be initialized from a database, if a value is not provided when creating the class:

@dataclass
class C:
    i: int
    j: int = None
    database: InitVar[DatabaseType] = None

    def __post_init__(self, database):
        if self.j is None and database is not None:
            self.j = database.lookup('j')

c = C(10, database=my_database)

In this case, fields() will return Field objects for i and j, but not for database.

Frozen instances

It is not possible to create truly immutable Python objects. However, by passing frozen=True to the dataclass() decorator you can emulate immutability. In that case, dataclasses will add __setattr__() and __delattr__() methods to the class. These methods will raise a FrozenInstanceError when invoked.

There is a tiny performance penalty when using frozen=True: __init__() cannot use simple assignment to initialize fields, and must use object.__setattr__().

Herança

When the dataclass is being created by the dataclass() decorator, it looks through all of the class’s base classes in reverse MRO (that is, starting at object) and, for each dataclass that it finds, adds the fields from that base class to an ordered mapping of fields. After all of the base class fields are added, it adds its own fields to the ordered mapping. All of the generated methods will use this combined, calculated ordered mapping of fields. Because the fields are in insertion order, derived classes override base classes. An example:

@dataclass
class Base:
    x: Any = 15.0
    y: int = 0

@dataclass
class C(Base):
    z: int = 10
    x: int = 15

A lista final de campos é, em ordem, x, y, z. O tipo final de x é int, conforme especificado na classe C.

O método __init__() gerado para C vai se parecer com:

def __init__(self, x: int = 15, y: int = 0, z: int = 10):

Funções padrão de fábrica

If a field() specifies a default_factory, it is called with zero arguments when a default value for the field is needed. For example, to create a new instance of a list, use:

mylist: list = field(default_factory=list)

If a field is excluded from __init__() (using init=False) and the field also specifies default_factory, then the default factory function will always be called from the generated __init__() function. This happens because there is no other way to give the field an initial value.

Valores padrão mutáveis

Python stores default member variable values in class attributes. Consider this example, not using dataclasses:

class C:
    x = []
    def add(self, element):
        self.x.append(element)

o1 = C()
o2 = C()
o1.add(1)
o2.add(2)
assert o1.x == [1, 2]
assert o1.x is o2.x

Note that the two instances of class C share the same class variable x, as expected.

Usando dataclasses, se este código fosse válido:

@dataclass
class D:
    x: List = []
    def add(self, element):
        self.x += element

Geraria código similar a:

class D:
    x = []
    def __init__(self, x=x):
        self.x = x
    def add(self, element):
        self.x += element

assert D().x is D().x

This has the same issue as the original example using class C. That is, two instances of class D that do not specify a value for x when creating a class instance will share the same copy of x. Because dataclasses just use normal Python class creation they also share this behavior. There is no general way for Data Classes to detect this condition. Instead, dataclasses will raise a TypeError if it detects a default parameter of type list, dict, or set. This is a partial solution, but it does protect against many common errors.

Using default factory functions is a way to create new instances of mutable types as default values for fields:

@dataclass
class D:
    x: list = field(default_factory=list)

assert D().x is not D().x

Exceções

exception dataclasses.FrozenInstanceError

Raised when an implicitly defined __setattr__() or __delattr__() is called on a dataclass which was defined with frozen=True.