ast — Árvores de Sintaxe Abstrata

Código-fonte: Lib/ast.py


O módulo ast ajuda os aplicativos Python a processar árvores da gramática de sintaxe abstrata do Python. A sintaxe abstrata em si pode mudar em cada lançamento do Python; este módulo ajuda a descobrir programaticamente como é a gramática atual.

Uma árvore de sintaxe abstrata pode ser gerada passando ast.PyCF_ONLY_AST como um sinalizador para a função embutida compile(), ou usando o auxiliar parse() fornecido neste módulo. O resultado será uma árvore de objetos cujas classes herdam de ast.AST. Uma árvore de sintaxe abstrata pode ser compilada em um objeto de código Python usando a função embutida compile().

Gramática Abstrata

A gramática abstrata está atualmente definida da seguinte forma:

-- ASDL's 4 builtin types are:
-- identifier, int, string, constant

module Python
{
    mod = Module(stmt* body, type_ignore* type_ignores)
        | Interactive(stmt* body)
        | Expression(expr body)
        | FunctionType(expr* argtypes, expr returns)

    stmt = FunctionDef(identifier name, arguments args,
                       stmt* body, expr* decorator_list, expr? returns,
                       string? type_comment)
          | AsyncFunctionDef(identifier name, arguments args,
                             stmt* body, expr* decorator_list, expr? returns,
                             string? type_comment)

          | ClassDef(identifier name,
             expr* bases,
             keyword* keywords,
             stmt* body,
             expr* decorator_list)
          | Return(expr? value)

          | Delete(expr* targets)
          | Assign(expr* targets, expr value, string? type_comment)
          | AugAssign(expr target, operator op, expr value)
          -- 'simple' indicates that we annotate simple name without parens
          | AnnAssign(expr target, expr annotation, expr? value, int simple)

          -- use 'orelse' because else is a keyword in target languages
          | For(expr target, expr iter, stmt* body, stmt* orelse, string? type_comment)
          | AsyncFor(expr target, expr iter, stmt* body, stmt* orelse, string? type_comment)
          | While(expr test, stmt* body, stmt* orelse)
          | If(expr test, stmt* body, stmt* orelse)
          | With(withitem* items, stmt* body, string? type_comment)
          | AsyncWith(withitem* items, stmt* body, string? type_comment)

          | Raise(expr? exc, expr? cause)
          | Try(stmt* body, excepthandler* handlers, stmt* orelse, stmt* finalbody)
          | Assert(expr test, expr? msg)

          | Import(alias* names)
          | ImportFrom(identifier? module, alias* names, int? level)

          | Global(identifier* names)
          | Nonlocal(identifier* names)
          | Expr(expr value)
          | Pass | Break | Continue

          -- col_offset is the byte offset in the utf8 string the parser uses
          attributes (int lineno, int col_offset, int? end_lineno, int? end_col_offset)

          -- BoolOp() can use left & right?
    expr = BoolOp(boolop op, expr* values)
         | NamedExpr(expr target, expr value)
         | BinOp(expr left, operator op, expr right)
         | UnaryOp(unaryop op, expr operand)
         | Lambda(arguments args, expr body)
         | IfExp(expr test, expr body, expr orelse)
         | Dict(expr* keys, expr* values)
         | Set(expr* elts)
         | ListComp(expr elt, comprehension* generators)
         | SetComp(expr elt, comprehension* generators)
         | DictComp(expr key, expr value, comprehension* generators)
         | GeneratorExp(expr elt, comprehension* generators)
         -- the grammar constrains where yield expressions can occur
         | Await(expr value)
         | Yield(expr? value)
         | YieldFrom(expr value)
         -- need sequences for compare to distinguish between
         -- x < 4 < 3 and (x < 4) < 3
         | Compare(expr left, cmpop* ops, expr* comparators)
         | Call(expr func, expr* args, keyword* keywords)
         | FormattedValue(expr value, int? conversion, expr? format_spec)
         | JoinedStr(expr* values)
         | Constant(constant value, string? kind)

         -- the following expression can appear in assignment context
         | Attribute(expr value, identifier attr, expr_context ctx)
         | Subscript(expr value, expr slice, expr_context ctx)
         | Starred(expr value, expr_context ctx)
         | Name(identifier id, expr_context ctx)
         | List(expr* elts, expr_context ctx)
         | Tuple(expr* elts, expr_context ctx)

         -- can appear only in Subscript
         | Slice(expr? lower, expr? upper, expr? step)

          -- col_offset is the byte offset in the utf8 string the parser uses
          attributes (int lineno, int col_offset, int? end_lineno, int? end_col_offset)

    expr_context = Load | Store | Del

    boolop = And | Or

    operator = Add | Sub | Mult | MatMult | Div | Mod | Pow | LShift
                 | RShift | BitOr | BitXor | BitAnd | FloorDiv

    unaryop = Invert | Not | UAdd | USub

    cmpop = Eq | NotEq | Lt | LtE | Gt | GtE | Is | IsNot | In | NotIn

    comprehension = (expr target, expr iter, expr* ifs, int is_async)

    excepthandler = ExceptHandler(expr? type, identifier? name, stmt* body)
                    attributes (int lineno, int col_offset, int? end_lineno, int? end_col_offset)

    arguments = (arg* posonlyargs, arg* args, arg? vararg, arg* kwonlyargs,
                 expr* kw_defaults, arg? kwarg, expr* defaults)

    arg = (identifier arg, expr? annotation, string? type_comment)
           attributes (int lineno, int col_offset, int? end_lineno, int? end_col_offset)

    -- keyword arguments supplied to call (NULL identifier for **kwargs)
    keyword = (identifier? arg, expr value)
               attributes (int lineno, int col_offset, int? end_lineno, int? end_col_offset)

    -- import name with optional 'as' alias.
    alias = (identifier name, identifier? asname)

    withitem = (expr context_expr, expr? optional_vars)

    type_ignore = TypeIgnore(int lineno, string tag)
}

Classes de nó

class ast.AST

Esta é a base de todas as classes de nós AST. As classes de nós reais são derivadas do arquivo Parser/Python.asdl, o qual é reproduzido abaixo. Elas são definidas no módulo C _ast e reexportadas em ast.

Há uma classe definida para cada símbolo do lado esquerdo na gramática abstrata (por exemplo, ast.stmt ou ast.expr). Além disso, existe uma classe definida para cada construtor no lado direito; essas classes herdam das classes para as árvores do lado esquerdo. Por exemplo, ast.BinOp herda de ast.expr. Para regras de produção com alternativas (“somas”), a classe do lado esquerdo é abstrata: apenas instâncias de nós construtores específicos são criadas.

_fields

Cada classe concreta possui um atributo _fields que fornece os nomes de todos os nós filhos.

Cada instância de uma classe concreta tem um atributo para cada nó filho, do tipo definido na gramática. Por exemplo, as instâncias ast.BinOp possuem um atributo left do tipo ast.expr.

Se estes atributos estiverem marcados como opcionais na gramática (usando um ponto de interrogação), o valor pode ser None. Se os atributos puderem ter valor zero ou mais (marcados com um asterisco), os valores serão representados como listas do Python. Todos os atributos possíveis devem estar presentes e ter valores válidos ao compilar uma AST com compile().

lineno
col_offset
end_lineno
end_col_offset

Instances of ast.expr and ast.stmt subclasses have lineno, col_offset, end_lineno, and end_col_offset attributes. The lineno and end_lineno are the first and last line numbers of the source text span (1-indexed so the first line is line 1), and the col_offset and end_col_offset are the corresponding UTF-8 byte offsets of the first and last tokens that generated the node. The UTF-8 offset is recorded because the parser uses UTF-8 internally.

Observe que as posições finais não são exigidas pelo compilador e, portanto, são opcionais. O deslocamento final está após o último símbolo, por exemplo, é possível obter o segmento de origem de um nó de expressão de uma linha usando source_line[node.col_offset : node.end_col_offset].

O construtor de uma classe ast.T analisa seus argumentos da seguinte forma:

  • Se houver argumentos posicionais, deve haver tantos quanto houver itens em T._fields; eles serão atribuídos como atributos desses nomes.

  • Se houver argumentos de palavra-chave, eles definirão os atributos dos mesmos nomes para os valores fornecidos.

Por exemplo, para criar e popular um nó ast.UnaryOp, você poderia usar

node = ast.UnaryOp()
node.op = ast.USub()
node.operand = ast.Constant()
node.operand.value = 5
node.operand.lineno = 0
node.operand.col_offset = 0
node.lineno = 0
node.col_offset = 0

ou a forma mais compacta

node = ast.UnaryOp(ast.USub(), ast.Constant(5, lineno=0, col_offset=0),
                   lineno=0, col_offset=0)

Alterado na versão 3.8: A classe ast.Constant é agora usada para todas as constantes.

Alterado na versão 3.9: Simple indices are represented by their value, extended slices are represented as tuples.

Obsoleto desde a versão 3.8: Old classes ast.Num, ast.Str, ast.Bytes, ast.NameConstant and ast.Ellipsis are still available, but they will be removed in future Python releases. In the meantime, instantiating them will return an instance of a different class.

Obsoleto desde a versão 3.9: Old classes ast.Index and ast.ExtSlice are still available, but they will be removed in future Python releases. In the meantime, instantiating them will return an instance of a different class.

Nota

The descriptions of the specific node classes displayed here were initially adapted from the fantastic Green Tree Snakes project and all its contributors.

Literais

class ast.Constant(value)

A constant value. The value attribute of the Constant literal contains the Python object it represents. The values represented can be simple types such as a number, string or None, but also immutable container types (tuples and frozensets) if all of their elements are constant.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('123', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Constant(value=123))
class ast.FormattedValue(value, conversion, format_spec)

Node representing a single formatting field in an f-string. If the string contains a single formatting field and nothing else the node can be isolated otherwise it appears in JoinedStr.

  • value is any expression node (such as a literal, a variable, or a function call).

  • conversion is an integer:

    • -1: no formatting

    • 115: !s string formatting

    • 114: !r repr formatting

    • 97: !a ascii formatting

  • format_spec is a JoinedStr node representing the formatting of the value, or None if no format was specified. Both conversion and format_spec can be set at the same time.

class ast.JoinedStr(values)

An f-string, comprising a series of FormattedValue and Constant nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('f"sin({a}) is {sin(a):.3}"', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=JoinedStr(
        values=[
            Constant(value='sin('),
            FormattedValue(
                value=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                conversion=-1),
            Constant(value=') is '),
            FormattedValue(
                value=Call(
                    func=Name(id='sin', ctx=Load()),
                    args=[
                        Name(id='a', ctx=Load())],
                    keywords=[]),
                conversion=-1,
                format_spec=JoinedStr(
                    values=[
                        Constant(value='.3')]))]))
class ast.List(elts, ctx)
class ast.Tuple(elts, ctx)

A list or tuple. elts holds a list of nodes representing the elements. ctx is Store if the container is an assignment target (i.e. (x,y)=something), and Load otherwise.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('[1, 2, 3]', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=List(
        elts=[
            Constant(value=1),
            Constant(value=2),
            Constant(value=3)],
        ctx=Load()))
>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('(1, 2, 3)', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Tuple(
        elts=[
            Constant(value=1),
            Constant(value=2),
            Constant(value=3)],
        ctx=Load()))
class ast.Set(elts)

A set. elts holds a list of nodes representing the set’s elements.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('{1, 2, 3}', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Set(
        elts=[
            Constant(value=1),
            Constant(value=2),
            Constant(value=3)]))
class ast.Dict(keys, values)

A dictionary. keys and values hold lists of nodes representing the keys and the values respectively, in matching order (what would be returned when calling dictionary.keys() and dictionary.values()).

When doing dictionary unpacking using dictionary literals the expression to be expanded goes in the values list, with a None at the corresponding position in keys.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('{"a":1, **d}', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Dict(
        keys=[
            Constant(value='a'),
            None],
        values=[
            Constant(value=1),
            Name(id='d', ctx=Load())]))

Variables

class ast.Name(id, ctx)

A variable name. id holds the name as a string, and ctx is one of the following types.

class ast.Load
class ast.Store
class ast.Del

Variable references can be used to load the value of a variable, to assign a new value to it, or to delete it. Variable references are given a context to distinguish these cases.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Expr(
            value=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()))],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a = 1'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Assign(
            targets=[
                Name(id='a', ctx=Store())],
            value=Constant(value=1))],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('del a'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Delete(
            targets=[
                Name(id='a', ctx=Del())])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Starred(value, ctx)

A *var variable reference. value holds the variable, typically a Name node. This type must be used when building a Call node with *args.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a, *b = it'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Assign(
            targets=[
                Tuple(
                    elts=[
                        Name(id='a', ctx=Store()),
                        Starred(
                            value=Name(id='b', ctx=Store()),
                            ctx=Store())],
                    ctx=Store())],
            value=Name(id='it', ctx=Load()))],
    type_ignores=[])

Expressões

class ast.Expr(value)

When an expression, such as a function call, appears as a statement by itself with its return value not used or stored, it is wrapped in this container. value holds one of the other nodes in this section, a Constant, a Name, a Lambda, a Yield or YieldFrom node.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('-a'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Expr(
            value=UnaryOp(
                op=USub(),
                operand=Name(id='a', ctx=Load())))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.UnaryOp(op, operand)

A unary operation. op is the operator, and operand any expression node.

class ast.UAdd
class ast.USub
class ast.Not
class ast.Invert

Unary operator tokens. Not is the not keyword, Invert is the ~ operator.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('not x', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=UnaryOp(
        op=Not(),
        operand=Name(id='x', ctx=Load())))
class ast.BinOp(left, op, right)

A binary operation (like addition or division). op is the operator, and left and right are any expression nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('x + y', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=BinOp(
        left=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
        op=Add(),
        right=Name(id='y', ctx=Load())))
class ast.Add
class ast.Sub
class ast.Mult
class ast.Div
class ast.FloorDiv
class ast.Mod
class ast.Pow
class ast.LShift
class ast.RShift
class ast.BitOr
class ast.BitXor
class ast.BitAnd
class ast.MatMult

Binary operator tokens.

class ast.BoolOp(op, values)

A boolean operation, ‘or’ or ‘and’. op is Or or And. values are the values involved. Consecutive operations with the same operator, such as a or b or c, are collapsed into one node with several values.

This doesn’t include not, which is a UnaryOp.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('x or y', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=BoolOp(
        op=Or(),
        values=[
            Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            Name(id='y', ctx=Load())]))
class ast.And
class ast.Or

Boolean operator tokens.

class ast.Compare(left, ops, comparators)

A comparison of two or more values. left is the first value in the comparison, ops the list of operators, and comparators the list of values after the first element in the comparison.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('1 <= a < 10', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Compare(
        left=Constant(value=1),
        ops=[
            LtE(),
            Lt()],
        comparators=[
            Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
            Constant(value=10)]))
class ast.Eq
class ast.NotEq
class ast.Lt
class ast.LtE
class ast.Gt
class ast.GtE
class ast.Is
class ast.IsNot
class ast.In
class ast.NotIn

Comparison operator tokens.

class ast.Call(func, args, keywords, starargs, kwargs)

A function call. func is the function, which will often be a Name or Attribute object. Of the arguments:

  • args holds a list of the arguments passed by position.

  • keywords holds a list of keyword objects representing arguments passed by keyword.

When creating a Call node, args and keywords are required, but they can be empty lists. starargs and kwargs are optional.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('func(a, b=c, *d, **e)', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Call(
        func=Name(id='func', ctx=Load()),
        args=[
            Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
            Starred(
                value=Name(id='d', ctx=Load()),
                ctx=Load())],
        keywords=[
            keyword(
                arg='b',
                value=Name(id='c', ctx=Load())),
            keyword(
                value=Name(id='e', ctx=Load()))]))
class ast.keyword(arg, value)

A keyword argument to a function call or class definition. arg is a raw string of the parameter name, value is a node to pass in.

class ast.IfExp(test, body, orelse)

An expression such as a if b else c. Each field holds a single node, so in the following example, all three are Name nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a if b else c', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=IfExp(
        test=Name(id='b', ctx=Load()),
        body=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
        orelse=Name(id='c', ctx=Load())))
class ast.Attribute(value, attr, ctx)

Attribute access, e.g. d.keys. value is a node, typically a Name. attr is a bare string giving the name of the attribute, and ctx is Load, Store or Del according to how the attribute is acted on.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('snake.colour', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Attribute(
        value=Name(id='snake', ctx=Load()),
        attr='colour',
        ctx=Load()))
class ast.NamedExpr(target, value)

A named expression. This AST node is produced by the assignment expressions operator (also known as the walrus operator). As opposed to the Assign node in which the first argument can be multiple nodes, in this case both target and value must be single nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('(x := 4)', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=NamedExpr(
        target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
        value=Constant(value=4)))

Subscripting

class ast.Subscript(value, slice, ctx)

A subscript, such as l[1]. value is the subscripted object (usually sequence or mapping). slice is an index, slice or key. It can be a Tuple and contain a Slice. ctx is Load, Store or Del according to the action performed with the subscript.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('l[1:2, 3]', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Subscript(
        value=Name(id='l', ctx=Load()),
        slice=Tuple(
            elts=[
                Slice(
                    lower=Constant(value=1),
                    upper=Constant(value=2)),
                Constant(value=3)],
            ctx=Load()),
        ctx=Load()))
class ast.Slice(lower, upper, step)

Regular slicing (on the form lower:upper or lower:upper:step). Can occur only inside the slice field of Subscript, either directly or as an element of Tuple.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('l[1:2]', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=Subscript(
        value=Name(id='l', ctx=Load()),
        slice=Slice(
            lower=Constant(value=1),
            upper=Constant(value=2)),
        ctx=Load()))

Comprehensions

class ast.ListComp(elt, generators)
class ast.SetComp(elt, generators)
class ast.GeneratorExp(elt, generators)
class ast.DictComp(key, value, generators)

List and set comprehensions, generator expressions, and dictionary comprehensions. elt (or key and value) is a single node representing the part that will be evaluated for each item.

generators is a list of comprehension nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('[x for x in numbers]', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=ListComp(
        elt=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='numbers', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=0)]))
>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('{x: x**2 for x in numbers}', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=DictComp(
        key=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
        value=BinOp(
            left=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            op=Pow(),
            right=Constant(value=2)),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='numbers', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=0)]))
>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('{x for x in numbers}', mode='eval'), indent=4))
Expression(
    body=SetComp(
        elt=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='numbers', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=0)]))
class ast.comprehension(target, iter, ifs, is_async)

One for clause in a comprehension. target is the reference to use for each element - typically a Name or Tuple node. iter is the object to iterate over. ifs is a list of test expressions: each for clause can have multiple ifs.

is_async indicates a comprehension is asynchronous (using an async for instead of for). The value is an integer (0 or 1).

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('[ord(c) for line in file for c in line]', mode='eval'),
...                indent=4)) # Multiple comprehensions in one.
Expression(
    body=ListComp(
        elt=Call(
            func=Name(id='ord', ctx=Load()),
            args=[
                Name(id='c', ctx=Load())],
            keywords=[]),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='line', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='file', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=0),
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='c', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='line', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=0)]))

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('(n**2 for n in it if n>5 if n<10)', mode='eval'),
...                indent=4)) # generator comprehension
Expression(
    body=GeneratorExp(
        elt=BinOp(
            left=Name(id='n', ctx=Load()),
            op=Pow(),
            right=Constant(value=2)),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='n', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='it', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[
                    Compare(
                        left=Name(id='n', ctx=Load()),
                        ops=[
                            Gt()],
                        comparators=[
                            Constant(value=5)]),
                    Compare(
                        left=Name(id='n', ctx=Load()),
                        ops=[
                            Lt()],
                        comparators=[
                            Constant(value=10)])],
                is_async=0)]))

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('[i async for i in soc]', mode='eval'),
...                indent=4)) # Async comprehension
Expression(
    body=ListComp(
        elt=Name(id='i', ctx=Load()),
        generators=[
            comprehension(
                target=Name(id='i', ctx=Store()),
                iter=Name(id='soc', ctx=Load()),
                ifs=[],
                is_async=1)]))

Instruções

class ast.Assign(targets, value, type_comment)

An assignment. targets is a list of nodes, and value is a single node.

Multiple nodes in targets represents assigning the same value to each. Unpacking is represented by putting a Tuple or List within targets.

type_comment

type_comment is an optional string with the type annotation as a comment.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a = b = 1'), indent=4)) # Multiple assignment
Module(
    body=[
        Assign(
            targets=[
                Name(id='a', ctx=Store()),
                Name(id='b', ctx=Store())],
            value=Constant(value=1))],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a,b = c'), indent=4)) # Unpacking
Module(
    body=[
        Assign(
            targets=[
                Tuple(
                    elts=[
                        Name(id='a', ctx=Store()),
                        Name(id='b', ctx=Store())],
                    ctx=Store())],
            value=Name(id='c', ctx=Load()))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.AnnAssign(target, annotation, value, simple)

An assignment with a type annotation. target is a single node and can be a Name, a Attribute or a Subscript. annotation is the annotation, such as a Constant or Name node. value is a single optional node. simple is a boolean integer set to True for a Name node in target that do not appear in between parenthesis and are hence pure names and not expressions.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('c: int'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        AnnAssign(
            target=Name(id='c', ctx=Store()),
            annotation=Name(id='int', ctx=Load()),
            simple=1)],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('(a): int = 1'), indent=4)) # Annotation with parenthesis
Module(
    body=[
        AnnAssign(
            target=Name(id='a', ctx=Store()),
            annotation=Name(id='int', ctx=Load()),
            value=Constant(value=1),
            simple=0)],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a.b: int'), indent=4)) # Attribute annotation
Module(
    body=[
        AnnAssign(
            target=Attribute(
                value=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                attr='b',
                ctx=Store()),
            annotation=Name(id='int', ctx=Load()),
            simple=0)],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('a[1]: int'), indent=4)) # Subscript annotation
Module(
    body=[
        AnnAssign(
            target=Subscript(
                value=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                slice=Constant(value=1),
                ctx=Store()),
            annotation=Name(id='int', ctx=Load()),
            simple=0)],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.AugAssign(target, op, value)

Augmented assignment, such as a += 1. In the following example, target is a Name node for x (with the Store context), op is Add, and value is a Constant with value for 1.

The target attribute connot be of class Tuple or List, unlike the targets of Assign.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('x += 2'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        AugAssign(
            target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
            op=Add(),
            value=Constant(value=2))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Raise(exc, cause)

A raise statement. exc is the exception object to be raised, normally a Call or Name, or None for a standalone raise. cause is the optional part for y in raise x from y.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('raise x from y'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Raise(
            exc=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            cause=Name(id='y', ctx=Load()))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Assert(test, msg)

An assertion. test holds the condition, such as a Compare node. msg holds the failure message.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('assert x,y'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Assert(
            test=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            msg=Name(id='y', ctx=Load()))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Delete(targets)

Represents a del statement. targets is a list of nodes, such as Name, Attribute or Subscript nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('del x,y,z'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Delete(
            targets=[
                Name(id='x', ctx=Del()),
                Name(id='y', ctx=Del()),
                Name(id='z', ctx=Del())])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Pass

A pass statement.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('pass'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Pass()],
    type_ignores=[])

Other statements which are only applicable inside functions or loops are described in other sections.

Imports

class ast.Import(names)

An import statement. names is a list of alias nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('import x,y,z'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Import(
            names=[
                alias(name='x'),
                alias(name='y'),
                alias(name='z')])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.ImportFrom(module, names, level)

Represents from x import y. module is a raw string of the ‘from’ name, without any leading dots, or None for statements such as from . import foo. level is an integer holding the level of the relative import (0 means absolute import).

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('from y import x,y,z'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        ImportFrom(
            module='y',
            names=[
                alias(name='x'),
                alias(name='y'),
                alias(name='z')],
            level=0)],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.alias(name, asname)

Both parameters are raw strings of the names. asname can be None if the regular name is to be used.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('from ..foo.bar import a as b, c'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        ImportFrom(
            module='foo.bar',
            names=[
                alias(name='a', asname='b'),
                alias(name='c')],
            level=2)],
    type_ignores=[])

Control flow

Nota

Optional clauses such as else are stored as an empty list if they’re not present.

class ast.If(test, body, orelse)

An if statement. test holds a single node, such as a Compare node. body and orelse each hold a list of nodes.

elif clauses don’t have a special representation in the AST, but rather appear as extra If nodes within the orelse section of the previous one.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""
... if x:
...    ...
... elif y:
...    ...
... else:
...    ...
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        If(
            test=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
            orelse=[
                If(
                    test=Name(id='y', ctx=Load()),
                    body=[
                        Expr(
                            value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
                    orelse=[
                        Expr(
                            value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))])])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.For(target, iter, body, orelse, type_comment)

A for loop. target holds the variable(s) the loop assigns to, as a single Name, Tuple or List node. iter holds the item to be looped over, again as a single node. body and orelse contain lists of nodes to execute. Those in orelse are executed if the loop finishes normally, rather than via a break statement.

type_comment

type_comment is an optional string with the type annotation as a comment.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""
... for x in y:
...     ...
... else:
...     ...
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        For(
            target=Name(id='x', ctx=Store()),
            iter=Name(id='y', ctx=Load()),
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
            orelse=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.While(test, body, orelse)

A while loop. test holds the condition, such as a Compare node.

>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""
... while x:
...    ...
... else:
...    ...
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        While(
            test=Name(id='x', ctx=Load()),
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
            orelse=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Break
class ast.Continue

The break and continue statements.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... for a in b:
...     if a > 5:
...         break
...     else:
...         continue
...
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        For(
            target=Name(id='a', ctx=Store()),
            iter=Name(id='b', ctx=Load()),
            body=[
                If(
                    test=Compare(
                        left=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                        ops=[
                            Gt()],
                        comparators=[
                            Constant(value=5)]),
                    body=[
                        Break()],
                    orelse=[
                        Continue()])],
            orelse=[])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Try(body, handlers, orelse, finalbody)

try blocks. All attributes are list of nodes to execute, except for handlers, which is a list of ExceptHandler nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""
... try:
...    ...
... except Exception:
...    ...
... except OtherException as e:
...    ...
... else:
...    ...
... finally:
...    ...
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Try(
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
            handlers=[
                ExceptHandler(
                    type=Name(id='Exception', ctx=Load()),
                    body=[
                        Expr(
                            value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))]),
                ExceptHandler(
                    type=Name(id='OtherException', ctx=Load()),
                    name='e',
                    body=[
                        Expr(
                            value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))])],
            orelse=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))],
            finalbody=[
                Expr(
                    value=Constant(value=Ellipsis))])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.ExceptHandler(type, name, body)

A single except clause. type is the exception type it will match, typically a Name node (or None for a catch-all except: clause). name is a raw string for the name to hold the exception, or None if the clause doesn’t have as foo. body is a list of nodes.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... try:
...     a + 1
... except TypeError:
...     pass
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Try(
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=BinOp(
                        left=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                        op=Add(),
                        right=Constant(value=1)))],
            handlers=[
                ExceptHandler(
                    type=Name(id='TypeError', ctx=Load()),
                    body=[
                        Pass()])],
            orelse=[],
            finalbody=[])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.With(items, body, type_comment)

A with block. items is a list of withitem nodes representing the context managers, and body is the indented block inside the context.

type_comment

type_comment is an optional string with the type annotation as a comment.

class ast.withitem(context_expr, optional_vars)

A single context manager in a with block. context_expr is the context manager, often a Call node. optional_vars is a Name, Tuple or List for the as foo part, or None if that isn’t used.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... with a as b, c as d:
...    something(b, d)
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        With(
            items=[
                withitem(
                    context_expr=Name(id='a', ctx=Load()),
                    optional_vars=Name(id='b', ctx=Store())),
                withitem(
                    context_expr=Name(id='c', ctx=Load()),
                    optional_vars=Name(id='d', ctx=Store()))],
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Call(
                        func=Name(id='something', ctx=Load()),
                        args=[
                            Name(id='b', ctx=Load()),
                            Name(id='d', ctx=Load())],
                        keywords=[]))])],
    type_ignores=[])

Function and class definitions

class ast.FunctionDef(name, args, body, decorator_list, returns, type_comment)

A function definition.

  • name is a raw string of the function name.

  • args is a arguments node.

  • body is the list of nodes inside the function.

  • decorator_list is the list of decorators to be applied, stored outermost first (i.e. the first in the list will be applied last).

  • returns is the return annotation.

type_comment

type_comment is an optional string with the type annotation as a comment.

class ast.Lambda(args, body)

lambda is a minimal function definition that can be used inside an expression. Unlike FunctionDef, body holds a single node.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('lambda x,y: ...'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Expr(
            value=Lambda(
                args=arguments(
                    posonlyargs=[],
                    args=[
                        arg(arg='x'),
                        arg(arg='y')],
                    kwonlyargs=[],
                    kw_defaults=[],
                    defaults=[]),
                body=Constant(value=Ellipsis)))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.arguments(posonlyargs, args, vararg, kwonlyargs, kw_defaults, kwarg, defaults)

The arguments for a function.

  • posonlyargs, args and kwonlyargs are lists of arg nodes.

  • vararg and kwarg are single arg nodes, referring to the *args, **kwargs parameters.

  • kw_defaults is a list of default values for keyword-only arguments. If one is None, the corresponding argument is required.

  • defaults is a list of default values for arguments that can be passed positionally. If there are fewer defaults, they correspond to the last n arguments.

class ast.arg(arg, annotation, type_comment)

A single argument in a list. arg is a raw string of the argument name, annotation is its annotation, such as a Str or Name node.

type_comment

type_comment is an optional string with the type annotation as a comment

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... @decorator1
... @decorator2
... def f(a: 'annotation', b=1, c=2, *d, e, f=3, **g) -> 'return annotation':
...     pass
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        FunctionDef(
            name='f',
            args=arguments(
                posonlyargs=[],
                args=[
                    arg(
                        arg='a',
                        annotation=Constant(value='annotation')),
                    arg(arg='b'),
                    arg(arg='c')],
                vararg=arg(arg='d'),
                kwonlyargs=[
                    arg(arg='e'),
                    arg(arg='f')],
                kw_defaults=[
                    None,
                    Constant(value=3)],
                kwarg=arg(arg='g'),
                defaults=[
                    Constant(value=1),
                    Constant(value=2)]),
            body=[
                Pass()],
            decorator_list=[
                Name(id='decorator1', ctx=Load()),
                Name(id='decorator2', ctx=Load())],
            returns=Constant(value='return annotation'))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Return(value)

A return statement.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('return 4'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Return(
            value=Constant(value=4))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Yield(value)
class ast.YieldFrom(value)

A yield or yield from expression. Because these are expressions, they must be wrapped in a Expr node if the value sent back is not used.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('yield x'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Expr(
            value=Yield(
                value=Name(id='x', ctx=Load())))],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('yield from x'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Expr(
            value=YieldFrom(
                value=Name(id='x', ctx=Load())))],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.Global(names)
class ast.Nonlocal(names)

global and nonlocal statements. names is a list of raw strings.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('global x,y,z'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Global(
            names=[
                'x',
                'y',
                'z'])],
    type_ignores=[])

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse('nonlocal x,y,z'), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        Nonlocal(
            names=[
                'x',
                'y',
                'z'])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.ClassDef(name, bases, keywords, starargs, kwargs, body, decorator_list)

A class definition.

  • name is a raw string for the class name

  • bases is a list of nodes for explicitly specified base classes.

  • keywords is a list of keyword nodes, principally for ‘metaclass’. Other keywords will be passed to the metaclass, as per PEP-3115.

  • starargs and kwargs are each a single node, as in a function call. starargs will be expanded to join the list of base classes, and kwargs will be passed to the metaclass.

  • body is a list of nodes representing the code within the class definition.

  • decorator_list is a list of nodes, as in FunctionDef.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... @decorator1
... @decorator2
... class Foo(base1, base2, metaclass=meta):
...     pass
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        ClassDef(
            name='Foo',
            bases=[
                Name(id='base1', ctx=Load()),
                Name(id='base2', ctx=Load())],
            keywords=[
                keyword(
                    arg='metaclass',
                    value=Name(id='meta', ctx=Load()))],
            body=[
                Pass()],
            decorator_list=[
                Name(id='decorator1', ctx=Load()),
                Name(id='decorator2', ctx=Load())])],
    type_ignores=[])

Async and await

class ast.AsyncFunctionDef(name, args, body, decorator_list, returns, type_comment)

An async def function definition. Has the same fields as FunctionDef.

class ast.Await(value)

An await expression. value is what it waits for. Only valid in the body of an AsyncFunctionDef.

>>> print(ast.dump(ast.parse("""\
... async def f():
...     await other_func()
... """), indent=4))
Module(
    body=[
        AsyncFunctionDef(
            name='f',
            args=arguments(
                posonlyargs=[],
                args=[],
                kwonlyargs=[],
                kw_defaults=[],
                defaults=[]),
            body=[
                Expr(
                    value=Await(
                        value=Call(
                            func=Name(id='other_func', ctx=Load()),
                            args=[],
                            keywords=[])))],
            decorator_list=[])],
    type_ignores=[])
class ast.AsyncFor(target, iter, body, orelse, type_comment)
class ast.AsyncWith(items, body, type_comment)

async for loops and async with context managers. They have the same fields as For and With, respectively. Only valid in the body of an AsyncFunctionDef.

Nota

When a string is parsed by ast.parse(), operator nodes (subclasses of ast.operator, ast.unaryop, ast.cmpop, ast.boolop and ast.expr_context) on the returned tree will be singletons. Changes to one will be reflected in all other occurrences of the same value (e.g. ast.Add).

Auxiliares de ast

Além das classes de nós, o módulo ast define essas funções e classes utilitárias para percorrer árvores de sintaxe abstrata:

ast.parse(source, filename='<unknown>', mode='exec', *, type_comments=False, feature_version=None)

Analisa a fonte em um nó AST. Equivalente a compile(source, filename, mode, ast.PyCF_ONLY_AST).

Se type_comments=True é fornecido, o analisador é modificado para verificar e retornar comentários do tipo, conforme especificado por PEP 484 e PEP 526. Isso é equivalente a adicionar ast.PyCF_TYPE_COMMENTS aos sinalizadores passados para compile() `. Isso relatará erros de sintaxe para comentários do tipo extraviado. Sem esse sinalizador, os comentários do tipo serão ignorados e o campo ``type_comment`() nos nós AST selecionados sempre será None. Além disso, os locais dos comentários # type: ignore serão retornados como o atributo type_ignores de Module (caso contrário, é sempre uma lista vazia).

Além disso, se mode for 'func_type', a sintaxe de entrada é modificada para corresponder a “comentários de tipo de assinatura” de PEP 484, por exemplo, (str, int) -> List[str].

Além disso, definir feature_version como uma tupla (maior, menor) tentará analisar usando a gramática dessa versão do Python. Atualmente, maior deve ser igual a 3. Por exemplo, definir feature_version=(3, 4) permitirá o uso de async e waitit como nomes de variáveis. A versão mais baixa suportada é (3, 4); a mais alta é sys.version_info[0:2].

Aviso

É possível travar o interpretador Python com uma string suficientemente grande/complexa devido às limitações de profundidade da pilha no compilador de AST do Python.

Alterado na versão 3.8: Adicionado type_comments, mode='func_type' e feature_version.

ast.unparse(ast_obj)

Unparse an ast.AST object and generate a string with code that would produce an equivalent ast.AST object if parsed back with ast.parse().

Aviso

The produced code string will not necessarily be equal to the original code that generated the ast.AST object (without any compiler optimizations, such as constant tuples/frozensets).

Aviso

Trying to unparse a highly complex expression would result with RecursionError.

Novo na versão 3.9.

ast.literal_eval(node_or_string)

Avalia com segurança um nó de expressão ou uma string contendo um literal Python ou exibição de contêiner. A string ou o nó fornecido pode consistir apenas nas seguintes estruturas literais de Python: strings, bytes, números, tuplas, listas, dicts, conjuntos, booleanos e None.

Isso pode ser usado para avaliar com segurança strings contendo valores Python de fontes não confiáveis sem a necessidade de analisar os valores por si próprio. Não é capaz de avaliar expressões arbitrariamente complexas, por exemplo, envolvendo operadores ou indexação.

Aviso

É possível travar o interpretador Python com uma string suficientemente grande/complexa devido às limitações de profundidade da pilha no compilador de AST do Python.

Alterado na versão 3.2: Agora permite bytes e literais de conjuntos.

Alterado na versão 3.9: Now supports creating empty sets with 'set()'.

ast.get_docstring(node, clean=True)

Retorna a docstring do node dado (que deve ser um nó FunctionDef, AsyncFunctionDef, ClassDef ou Module) ou None se não tiver uma docstring. Se clean for verdadeiro, limpa o recuo da docstring com inspect.cleandoc().

Alterado na versão 3.5: Não há suporte a AsyncFunctionDef.

ast.get_source_segment(source, node, *, padded=False)

Obtém o segmento de código-fonte de source que gerou node. Se algumas informações de local (lineno, end_lineno, col_offset ou end_col_offset) estiverem faltando, retorna None.

Se padded for True, a primeira linha de uma instrução multilinha será preenchida com espaços para corresponder à sua posição original.

Novo na versão 3.8.

ast.fix_missing_locations(node)

Quando você compila uma árvore de nós com compile(), o compilador espera atributos lineno e col_offset para cada nó que os suporta. Isso é tedioso para preencher nós gerados, portanto, esse auxiliar adiciona esses atributos recursivamente, onde ainda não estão definidos, definindo-os para os valores do nó pai. Ele funciona recursivamente a partir do node.

ast.increment_lineno(node, n=1)

Incrementa o número da linhas e o número da linha final de cada nó na árvore começando em node em n. Isso é útil para “mover código” para um local diferente em um arquivo.

ast.copy_location(new_node, old_node)

Copia o local de origem (lineno, col_offset, end_lineno e end_col_offset) de old_node para new_node se possível e, então, retorna new_node.

ast.iter_fields(node)

Produz uma tupla de (fieldname, value) para cada campo em node._fields que esteja presente em node.

ast.iter_child_nodes(node)

Produz todos os nós filhos diretos de node, ou seja, todos os campos que são nós e todos os itens de campos que são listas de nós.

ast.walk(node)

Produz recursivamente todos os nós descendentes na árvore começando em node (incluindo o próprio node), em nenhuma ordem especificada. Isso é útil se você quiser apenas modificar nós no lugar e não se importar com o contexto.

class ast.NodeVisitor

Uma classe base de visitante de nó que percorre a árvore de sintaxe abstrata e chama uma função de visitante para cada nó encontrado. Esta função pode retornar um valor que é encaminhado pelo método visit().

Esta classe deve ser uma subclasse, com a subclasse adicionando métodos visitantes.

visit(node)

Visita um nó. A implementação padrão chama o método chamado self.visit_nomedaclasse sendo nomedaclasse o nome da classe do nó, ou generic_visit() se aquele método não existir.

generic_visit(node)

Este visitante chama visit() em todos os filhos do nó.

Observe que nós filhos de nós que possuem um método de visitante personalizado não serão visitados, a menos que o visitante chame generic_visit() ou os visite por conta própria.

Não use o NodeVisitor se você quiser aplicar mudanças nos nós durante a travessia. Para isso existe um visitante especial (NodeTransformer) que permite modificações.

Obsoleto desde a versão 3.8: Os métodos visit_Num(), visit_Str(), visit_Bytes(), visit_NameConstant() e visit_Ellipsis() estão agora descontinuados e não serão chamados em futuras versões do Python. Adicione um método visit_Constant() para lidar com nós de constantes.

class ast.NodeTransformer

A subclasse NodeVisitor que percorre a árvore de sintaxe abstrata e permite a modificação de nós.

O NodeTransformer percorrerá a AST e usará o valor de retorno dos métodos do visitante para substituir ou remover o nó antigo. Se o valor de retorno do método visitante for None, o nó será removido de seu local, caso contrário, ele será substituído pelo valor de retorno. O valor de retorno pode ser o nó original, caso em que não há substituição.

Aqui está um exemplo de transformador que rescreve todas as ocorrências de procuras por nome (foo) para data['foo']:

class RewriteName(NodeTransformer):

    def visit_Name(self, node):
        return Subscript(
            value=Name(id='data', ctx=Load()),
            slice=Constant(value=node.id),
            ctx=node.ctx
        )

Tenha em mente que, se o nó em que você está operando tiver nós filhos, você deve transformar os nós filhos por conta própria ou chamar o método generic_visit() para o nó primeiro.

Para nós que faziam parte de uma coleção de instruções (que se aplica a todos os nós de instrução), o visitante também pode retornar uma lista de nós em vez de apenas um único nó.

Se NodeTransformer introduz novos nós (que não faziam parte da árvore original) sem fornecer informações de localização (como lineno), fix_missing_locations() deve ser chamado com o novo subárvore para recalcular as informações de localização:

tree = ast.parse('foo', mode='eval')
new_tree = fix_missing_locations(RewriteName().visit(tree))

Normalmente você usa o transformador assim:

node = YourTransformer().visit(node)
ast.dump(node, annotate_fields=True, include_attributes=False, *, indent=None)

Retorne um despejo formatado da árvore em node. Isso é útil principalmente para fins de depuração. Se annotate_fields for verdadeiro (por padrão), a sequência retornada mostrará os nomes e os valores para os campos. Se annotate_fields for falso, a sequência de resultados será mais compacta ao omitir nomes de campos não ambíguos. Atributos como números de linha e deslocamentos de coluna não são despejados por padrão. Se isso for desejado, include_attributes pode ser definido como verdadeiro.

If indent is a non-negative integer or string, then the tree will be pretty-printed with that indent level. An indent level of 0, negative, or "" will only insert newlines. None (the default) selects the single line representation. Using a positive integer indent indents that many spaces per level. If indent is a string (such as "\t"), that string is used to indent each level.

Alterado na versão 3.9: Added the indent option.

Compiler Flags

The following flags may be passed to compile() in order to change effects on the compilation of a program:

ast.PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT

Enables support for top-level await, async for, async with and async comprehensions.

Novo na versão 3.8.

ast.PyCF_ONLY_AST

Generates and returns an abstract syntax tree instead of returning a compiled code object.

ast.PyCF_TYPE_COMMENTS

Enables support for PEP 484 and PEP 526 style type comments (# type: <type>, # type: ignore <stuff>).

Novo na versão 3.8.

Uso da linha de comando

Novo na versão 3.9.

The ast module can be executed as a script from the command line. It is as simple as:

python -m ast [-m <mode>] [-a] [infile]

The following options are accepted:

-h, --help

Show the help message and exit.

-m <mode>
--mode <mode>

Specify what kind of code must be compiled, like the mode argument in parse().

--no-type-comments

Don’t parse type comments.

-a, --include-attributes

Include attributes such as line numbers and column offsets.

-i <indent>
--indent <indent>

Indentation of nodes in AST (number of spaces).

If infile is specified its contents are parsed to AST and dumped to stdout. Otherwise, the content is read from stdin.

Ver também

Green Tree Snakes, um recurso de documentação externo, possui bons detalhes sobre trabalhar com ASTs do Python.

ASTTokens annotates Python ASTs with the positions of tokens and text in the source code that generated them. This is helpful for tools that make source code transformations.

leoAst.py unifies the token-based and parse-tree-based views of python programs by inserting two-way links between tokens and ast nodes.

LibCST parses code as a Concrete Syntax Tree that looks like an ast tree and keeps all formatting details. It’s useful for building automated refactoring (codemod) applications and linters.

Parso is a Python parser that supports error recovery and round-trip parsing for different Python versions (in multiple Python versions). Parso is also able to list multiple syntax errors in your python file.