型オブジェクト

type PyTypeObject
Part of the Limited API (as an opaque struct).

組み込み型を記述する際に用いられる、オブジェクトを表す C 構造体です。

PyTypeObject PyType_Type
Part of the Stable ABI.

型オブジェクト自身の型オブジェクトです。Python レイヤにおける type と同じオブジェクトです。

int PyType_Check(PyObject *o)

Return non-zero if the object o is a type object, including instances of types derived from the standard type object. Return 0 in all other cases. This function always succeeds.

int PyType_CheckExact(PyObject *o)

Return non-zero if the object o is a type object, but not a subtype of the standard type object. Return 0 in all other cases. This function always succeeds.

unsigned int PyType_ClearCache()
Part of the Stable ABI.

内部の検索キャッシュをクリアします。現在のバージョンタグを返します。

unsigned long PyType_GetFlags(PyTypeObject *type)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Return the tp_flags member of type. This function is primarily meant for use with Py_LIMITED_API; the individual flag bits are guaranteed to be stable across Python releases, but access to tp_flags itself is not part of the limited API.

Added in version 3.2.

バージョン 3.4 で変更: 返り値の型が long ではなく unsigned long になりました。

PyObject *PyType_GetDict(PyTypeObject *type)

Return the type object's internal namespace, which is otherwise only exposed via a read-only proxy (cls.__dict__). This is a replacement for accessing tp_dict directly. The returned dictionary must be treated as read-only.

This function is meant for specific embedding and language-binding cases, where direct access to the dict is necessary and indirect access (e.g. via the proxy or PyObject_GetAttr()) isn't adequate.

Extension modules should continue to use tp_dict, directly or indirectly, when setting up their own types.

Added in version 3.12.

void PyType_Modified(PyTypeObject *type)
Part of the Stable ABI.

内部の検索キャッシュを、その type とすべてのサブタイプに対して無効にします。この関数は type の属性や基底クラス列を変更したあとに手動で呼び出さなければなりません。

int PyType_AddWatcher(PyType_WatchCallback callback)

Register callback as a type watcher. Return a non-negative integer ID which must be passed to future calls to PyType_Watch(). In case of error (e.g. no more watcher IDs available), return -1 and set an exception.

Added in version 3.12.

int PyType_ClearWatcher(int watcher_id)

Clear watcher identified by watcher_id (previously returned from PyType_AddWatcher()). Return 0 on success, -1 on error (e.g. if watcher_id was never registered.)

An extension should never call PyType_ClearWatcher with a watcher_id that was not returned to it by a previous call to PyType_AddWatcher().

Added in version 3.12.

int PyType_Watch(int watcher_id, PyObject *type)

Mark type as watched. The callback granted watcher_id by PyType_AddWatcher() will be called whenever PyType_Modified() reports a change to type. (The callback may be called only once for a series of consecutive modifications to type, if _PyType_Lookup() is not called on type between the modifications; this is an implementation detail and subject to change.)

An extension should never call PyType_Watch with a watcher_id that was not returned to it by a previous call to PyType_AddWatcher().

Added in version 3.12.

typedef int (*PyType_WatchCallback)(PyObject *type)

Type of a type-watcher callback function.

The callback must not modify type or cause PyType_Modified() to be called on type or any type in its MRO; violating this rule could cause infinite recursion.

Added in version 3.12.

int PyType_HasFeature(PyTypeObject *o, int feature)

Return non-zero if the type object o sets the feature feature. Type features are denoted by single bit flags.

int PyType_IS_GC(PyTypeObject *o)

Return true if the type object includes support for the cycle detector; this tests the type flag Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC.

int PyType_IsSubtype(PyTypeObject *a, PyTypeObject *b)
Part of the Stable ABI.

ab のサブタイプの場合に真を返します。

この関数は実際のサブクラスをチェックするだけです。つまり、 __subclasscheck__()b に対し呼ばれません。 issubclass() と同じチェックをするには PyObject_IsSubclass() を呼んでください。

PyObject *PyType_GenericAlloc(PyTypeObject *type, Py_ssize_t nitems)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI.

型オブジェクトの tp_alloc に対するジェネリックハンドラです。 Python のデフォルトのメモリアロケートメカニズムを使って新しいインスタンスをアロケートし、すべての内容を NULL で初期化します。

PyObject *PyType_GenericNew(PyTypeObject *type, PyObject *args, PyObject *kwds)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI.

型オブジェクトの tp_new に対するジェネリックハンドラです。型の tp_alloc スロットを使って新しいインスタンスを作成します。

int PyType_Ready(PyTypeObject *type)
Part of the Stable ABI.

型オブジェクトのファイナライズを行います。この関数は全てのオブジェクトで初期化を完了するために呼び出されなくてはなりません。この関数は、基底クラス型から継承したスロットを型オブジェクトに追加する役割があります。成功した場合には 0 を返し、エラーの場合には -1 を返して例外情報を設定します。

注釈

If some of the base classes implements the GC protocol and the provided type does not include the Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC in its flags, then the GC protocol will be automatically implemented from its parents. On the contrary, if the type being created does include Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC in its flags then it must implement the GC protocol itself by at least implementing the tp_traverse handle.

PyObject *PyType_GetName(PyTypeObject *type)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.11.

Return the type's name. Equivalent to getting the type's __name__ attribute.

Added in version 3.11.

PyObject *PyType_GetQualName(PyTypeObject *type)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.11.

Return the type's qualified name. Equivalent to getting the type's __qualname__ attribute.

Added in version 3.11.

void *PyType_GetSlot(PyTypeObject *type, int slot)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.4.

与えられたスロットに格納されている関数ポインタを返します。返り値が NULL の場合は、スロットが NULL か、関数が不正な引数で呼ばれたことを示します。通常、呼び出し側は返り値のポインタを適切な関数型にキャストします。

See PyType_Slot.slot for possible values of the slot argument.

Added in version 3.4.

バージョン 3.10 で変更: PyType_GetSlot() can now accept all types. Previously, it was limited to heap types.

PyObject *PyType_GetModule(PyTypeObject *type)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Return the module object associated with the given type when the type was created using PyType_FromModuleAndSpec().

If no module is associated with the given type, sets TypeError and returns NULL.

This function is usually used to get the module in which a method is defined. Note that in such a method, PyType_GetModule(Py_TYPE(self)) may not return the intended result. Py_TYPE(self) may be a subclass of the intended class, and subclasses are not necessarily defined in the same module as their superclass. See PyCMethod to get the class that defines the method. See PyType_GetModuleByDef() for cases when PyCMethod cannot be used.

Added in version 3.9.

void *PyType_GetModuleState(PyTypeObject *type)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Return the state of the module object associated with the given type. This is a shortcut for calling PyModule_GetState() on the result of PyType_GetModule().

If no module is associated with the given type, sets TypeError and returns NULL.

If the type has an associated module but its state is NULL, returns NULL without setting an exception.

Added in version 3.9.

PyObject *PyType_GetModuleByDef(PyTypeObject *type, struct PyModuleDef *def)

Find the first superclass whose module was created from the given PyModuleDef def, and return that module.

If no module is found, raises a TypeError and returns NULL.

This function is intended to be used together with PyModule_GetState() to get module state from slot methods (such as tp_init or nb_add) and other places where a method's defining class cannot be passed using the PyCMethod calling convention.

Added in version 3.11.

int PyUnstable_Type_AssignVersionTag(PyTypeObject *type)
これは Unstable API. It may change without warning in minor releases.

Attempt to assign a version tag to the given type.

Returns 1 if the type already had a valid version tag or a new one was assigned, or 0 if a new tag could not be assigned.

Added in version 3.12.

Creating Heap-Allocated Types

The following functions and structs are used to create heap types.

PyObject *PyType_FromMetaclass(PyTypeObject *metaclass, PyObject *module, PyType_Spec *spec, PyObject *bases)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.12.

Create and return a heap type from the spec (see Py_TPFLAGS_HEAPTYPE).

The metaclass metaclass is used to construct the resulting type object. When metaclass is NULL, the metaclass is derived from bases (or Py_tp_base[s] slots if bases is NULL, see below).

Metaclasses that override tp_new are not supported, except if tp_new is NULL. (For backwards compatibility, other PyType_From* functions allow such metaclasses. They ignore tp_new, which may result in incomplete initialization. This is deprecated and in Python 3.14+ such metaclasses will not be supported.)

The bases argument can be used to specify base classes; it can either be only one class or a tuple of classes. If bases is NULL, the Py_tp_bases slot is used instead. If that also is NULL, the Py_tp_base slot is used instead. If that also is NULL, the new type derives from object.

The module argument can be used to record the module in which the new class is defined. It must be a module object or NULL. If not NULL, the module is associated with the new type and can later be retrieved with PyType_GetModule(). The associated module is not inherited by subclasses; it must be specified for each class individually.

This function calls PyType_Ready() on the new type.

Note that this function does not fully match the behavior of calling type() or using the class statement. With user-provided base types or metaclasses, prefer calling type (or the metaclass) over PyType_From* functions. Specifically:

Added in version 3.12.

PyObject *PyType_FromModuleAndSpec(PyObject *module, PyType_Spec *spec, PyObject *bases)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Equivalent to PyType_FromMetaclass(NULL, module, spec, bases).

Added in version 3.9.

バージョン 3.10 で変更: The function now accepts a single class as the bases argument and NULL as the tp_doc slot.

バージョン 3.12 で変更: The function now finds and uses a metaclass corresponding to the provided base classes. Previously, only type instances were returned.

The tp_new of the metaclass is ignored. which may result in incomplete initialization. Creating classes whose metaclass overrides tp_new is deprecated and in Python 3.14+ it will be no longer allowed.

PyObject *PyType_FromSpecWithBases(PyType_Spec *spec, PyObject *bases)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.3.

Equivalent to PyType_FromMetaclass(NULL, NULL, spec, bases).

Added in version 3.3.

バージョン 3.12 で変更: The function now finds and uses a metaclass corresponding to the provided base classes. Previously, only type instances were returned.

The tp_new of the metaclass is ignored. which may result in incomplete initialization. Creating classes whose metaclass overrides tp_new is deprecated and in Python 3.14+ it will be no longer allowed.

PyObject *PyType_FromSpec(PyType_Spec *spec)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI.

Equivalent to PyType_FromMetaclass(NULL, NULL, spec, NULL).

バージョン 3.12 で変更: The function now finds and uses a metaclass corresponding to the base classes provided in Py_tp_base[s] slots. Previously, only type instances were returned.

The tp_new of the metaclass is ignored. which may result in incomplete initialization. Creating classes whose metaclass overrides tp_new is deprecated and in Python 3.14+ it will be no longer allowed.

type PyType_Spec
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Structure defining a type's behavior.

const char *name

Name of the type, used to set PyTypeObject.tp_name.

int basicsize

If positive, specifies the size of the instance in bytes. It is used to set PyTypeObject.tp_basicsize.

If zero, specifies that tp_basicsize should be inherited.

If negative, the absolute value specifies how much space instances of the class need in addition to the superclass. Use PyObject_GetTypeData() to get a pointer to subclass-specific memory reserved this way.

バージョン 3.12 で変更: Previously, this field could not be negative.

int itemsize

Size of one element of a variable-size type, in bytes. Used to set PyTypeObject.tp_itemsize. See tp_itemsize documentation for caveats.

If zero, tp_itemsize is inherited. Extending arbitrary variable-sized classes is dangerous, since some types use a fixed offset for variable-sized memory, which can then overlap fixed-sized memory used by a subclass. To help prevent mistakes, inheriting itemsize is only possible in the following situations:

unsigned int flags

Type flags, used to set PyTypeObject.tp_flags.

If the Py_TPFLAGS_HEAPTYPE flag is not set, PyType_FromSpecWithBases() sets it automatically.

PyType_Slot *slots

Array of PyType_Slot structures. Terminated by the special slot value {0, NULL}.

Each slot ID should be specified at most once.

type PyType_Slot
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Structure defining optional functionality of a type, containing a slot ID and a value pointer.

int slot

A slot ID.

Slot IDs are named like the field names of the structures PyTypeObject, PyNumberMethods, PySequenceMethods, PyMappingMethods and PyAsyncMethods with an added Py_ prefix. For example, use:

The following “offset” fields cannot be set using PyType_Slot:

If it is not possible to switch to a MANAGED flag (for example, for vectorcall or to support Python older than 3.12), specify the offset in Py_tp_members. See PyMemberDef documentation for details.

The following fields cannot be set at all when creating a heap type:

Setting Py_tp_bases or Py_tp_base may be problematic on some platforms. To avoid issues, use the bases argument of PyType_FromSpecWithBases() instead.

バージョン 3.9 で変更: Slots in PyBufferProcs may be set in the unlimited API.

バージョン 3.11 で変更: bf_getbuffer and bf_releasebuffer are now available under the limited API.

void *pfunc

The desired value of the slot. In most cases, this is a pointer to a function.

Slots other than Py_tp_doc may not be NULL.