Protocole Objet

PyObject *Py_NotImplemented

Le singleton NotImplemented, utilisé pour signaler qu'une opération n'est pas implémentée pour la combinaison de types en question.

Py_RETURN_NOTIMPLEMENTED

Properly handle returning Py_NotImplemented from within a C function (that is, create a new strong reference to NotImplemented and return it).

Py_PRINT_RAW

Flag to be used with multiple functions that print the object (like PyObject_Print() and PyFile_WriteObject()). If passed, these function would use the str() of the object instead of the repr().

int PyObject_Print(PyObject *o, FILE *fp, int flags)

Print an object o, on file fp. Returns -1 on error. The flags argument is used to enable certain printing options. The only option currently supported is Py_PRINT_RAW; if given, the str() of the object is written instead of the repr().

int PyObject_HasAttrWithError(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

Returns 1 if o has the attribute attr_name, and 0 otherwise. This is equivalent to the Python expression hasattr(o, attr_name). On failure, return -1.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.

int PyObject_HasAttrStringWithError(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

This is the same as PyObject_HasAttrWithError(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.

int PyObject_HasAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Returns 1 if o has the attribute attr_name, and 0 otherwise. This function always succeeds.

Note

Exceptions that occur when this calls __getattr__() and __getattribute__() methods are silently ignored. For proper error handling, use PyObject_HasAttrWithError(), PyObject_GetOptionalAttr() or PyObject_GetAttr() instead.

int PyObject_HasAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI.

This is the same as PyObject_HasAttr(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

Note

Exceptions that occur when this calls __getattr__() and __getattribute__() methods or while creating the temporary str object are silently ignored. For proper error handling, use PyObject_HasAttrStringWithError(), PyObject_GetOptionalAttrString() or PyObject_GetAttrString() instead.

PyObject *PyObject_GetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Retrieve an attribute named attr_name from object o. Returns the attribute value on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o.attr_name.

If the missing attribute should not be treated as a failure, you can use PyObject_GetOptionalAttr() instead.

PyObject *PyObject_GetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

This is the same as PyObject_GetAttr(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

If the missing attribute should not be treated as a failure, you can use PyObject_GetOptionalAttrString() instead.

int PyObject_GetOptionalAttr(PyObject *obj, PyObject *attr_name, PyObject **result);
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

Variant of PyObject_GetAttr() which doesn't raise AttributeError if the attribute is not found.

If the attribute is found, return 1 and set *result to a new strong reference to the attribute. If the attribute is not found, return 0 and set *result to NULL; the AttributeError is silenced. If an error other than AttributeError is raised, return -1 and set *result to NULL.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.

int PyObject_GetOptionalAttrString(PyObject *obj, const char *attr_name, PyObject **result);
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

This is the same as PyObject_GetOptionalAttr(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.

PyObject *PyObject_GenericGetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *name)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Accesseur d'attribut générique destiné à être mis dans le slot tp_getattro d'un objet type. Recherche un descripteur dans le dictionnaire de classes du MRO de l'objet ainsi qu'un attribut dans le __dict__ de l'objet (si présent). Comme défini dans Implémentation de descripteurs, les descripteurs de données sont prioritaires sur les attributs d'instance, contrairement aux autres descripteurs. Sinon, une AttributeError est levée.

int PyObject_SetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name, PyObject *v)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Définit la valeur de l'attribut nommé attr_name, pour l'objet o, à la valeur v. Lève une exception et renvoie -1 en cas d'échec ; renvoie 0 en cas de succès. Ceci est équivalent à l'instruction Python o.attr_name = v.

If v is NULL, the attribute is deleted. This behaviour is deprecated in favour of using PyObject_DelAttr(), but there are currently no plans to remove it.

int PyObject_SetAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name, PyObject *v)
Part of the Stable ABI.

This is the same as PyObject_SetAttr(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

If v is NULL, the attribute is deleted, but this feature is deprecated in favour of using PyObject_DelAttrString().

int PyObject_GenericSetAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *name, PyObject *value)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Accesseur et suppresseur générique d'attributs qui est fait pour être mis dans le tp_setattro d'un objet type. Il cherche un descripteur de données dans le dictionnaire de classes dans le MRO de l'objet et, si ce descripteur est trouvé, c'est lui qui est utilisé de préférence pour la suppression et la définition de l'attribut dans le dictionnaire d'instance. Sinon, l'attribut est défini ou supprimé dans le __dict__ de l'objet (si présent). En cas de succès, 0 est renvoyé, sinon une AttributeError est levée et -1 est renvoyé.

int PyObject_DelAttr(PyObject *o, PyObject *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

Supprime l'attribut nommé attr_name, pour l'objet o. Renvoie -1 en cas d'échec. Ceci est l'équivalent de l'expression Python del o.attr_name.

int PyObject_DelAttrString(PyObject *o, const char *attr_name)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.13.

This is the same as PyObject_DelAttr(), but attr_name is specified as a const char* UTF-8 encoded bytes string, rather than a PyObject*.

PyObject *PyObject_GenericGetDict(PyObject *o, void *context)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Une implémentation générique de l'accesseur d'un descripteur d'un __dict__. Crée le dictionnaire si nécessaire.

This function may also be called to get the __dict__ of the object o. Pass NULL for context when calling it. Since this function may need to allocate memory for the dictionary, it may be more efficient to call PyObject_GetAttr() when accessing an attribute on the object.

On failure, returns NULL with an exception set.

Nouveau dans la version 3.3.

int PyObject_GenericSetDict(PyObject *o, PyObject *value, void *context)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.7.

Une implémentation générique du mutateur d'un descripteur de __dict__. Cette implémentation n'autorise pas la suppression du dictionnaire.

Nouveau dans la version 3.3.

PyObject **_PyObject_GetDictPtr(PyObject *obj)

Return a pointer to __dict__ of the object obj. If there is no __dict__, return NULL without setting an exception.

This function may need to allocate memory for the dictionary, so it may be more efficient to call PyObject_GetAttr() when accessing an attribute on the object.

PyObject *PyObject_RichCompare(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Compare the values of o1 and o2 using the operation specified by opid, which must be one of Py_LT, Py_LE, Py_EQ, Py_NE, Py_GT, or Py_GE, corresponding to <, <=, ==, !=, >, or >= respectively. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 op o2, where op is the operator corresponding to opid. Returns the value of the comparison on success, or NULL on failure.

int PyObject_RichCompareBool(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, int opid)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Compare the values of o1 and o2 using the operation specified by opid, like PyObject_RichCompare(), but returns -1 on error, 0 if the result is false, 1 otherwise.

Note

If o1 and o2 are the same object, PyObject_RichCompareBool() will always return 1 for Py_EQ and 0 for Py_NE.

PyObject *PyObject_Format(PyObject *obj, PyObject *format_spec)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Format obj using format_spec. This is equivalent to the Python expression format(obj, format_spec).

format_spec may be NULL. In this case the call is equivalent to format(obj). Returns the formatted string on success, NULL on failure.

PyObject *PyObject_Repr(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Compute a string representation of object o. Returns the string representation on success, NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression repr(o). Called by the repr() built-in function.

Modifié dans la version 3.4: Cette fonction inclut maintenant une assertion de débogage afin d'assurer qu'elle ne passe pas sous silence une exception active.

PyObject *PyObject_ASCII(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Comme PyObject_Repr(), calcule une représentation en chaîne de caractères de l'objet o, mais échappe les caractères non ASCII dans la chaîne de caractères renvoyée par PyObject_Repr() avec' \x, \u ou \U. Cela génère une chaîne de caractères similaire à celle renvoyée par PyObject_Repr() en Python 2. Appelée par la fonction native ascii().

PyObject *PyObject_Str(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Compute a string representation of object o. Returns the string representation on success, NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression str(o). Called by the str() built-in function and, therefore, by the print() function.

Modifié dans la version 3.4: Cette fonction inclut maintenant une assertion de débogage afin d'assurer qu'elle ne passe pas sous silence une exception active.

PyObject *PyObject_Bytes(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Compute a bytes representation of object o. NULL is returned on failure and a bytes object on success. This is equivalent to the Python expression bytes(o), when o is not an integer. Unlike bytes(o), a TypeError is raised when o is an integer instead of a zero-initialized bytes object.

int PyObject_IsSubclass(PyObject *derived, PyObject *cls)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Renvoie 1 si la classe derived est identique à ou dérivée de la classe cls, renvoie 0 sinon. En cas d'erreur, renvoie -1.

Si cls est un n-uplet, la vérification est menée sur chaque entrée de cls. Le résultat sera 1 quand au moins une des vérifications renvoie 1, sinon ce sera 0.

Si cls a une méthode __subclasscheck__(), elle est appelée pour déterminer le statut de la sous-classe comme décrit dans PEP 3119. Sinon, derived est une sous-classe de cls si c'est une sous-classe directe ou indirecte, c'est-à-dire contenue dans cls.__mro__.

Normally only class objects, i.e. instances of type or a derived class, are considered classes. However, objects can override this by having a __bases__ attribute (which must be a tuple of base classes).

int PyObject_IsInstance(PyObject *inst, PyObject *cls)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Renvoie 1 si inst est une instance de la classe cls ou une sous-classe de cls, ou 0 sinon. En cas d'erreur, renvoie -1 et initialise une exception.

Si cls est un n-uplet, la vérification est menée sur chaque entrée de cls. Le résultat sera 1 quand au moins une des vérifications renvoie 1, sinon ce sera 0.

Si cls a une méthode __subclasscheck__(), elle sera appelée pour déterminer le statut de la sous-classe comme décrit dans PEP 3119. Sinon, inst est une instance cls si sa classe est une sous-classe de cls.

An instance inst can override what is considered its class by having a __class__ attribute.

An object cls can override if it is considered a class, and what its base classes are, by having a __bases__ attribute (which must be a tuple of base classes).

Py_hash_t PyObject_Hash(PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Compute and return the hash value of an object o. On failure, return -1. This is the equivalent of the Python expression hash(o).

Modifié dans la version 3.2: The return type is now Py_hash_t. This is a signed integer the same size as Py_ssize_t.

Py_hash_t PyObject_HashNotImplemented(PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Set a TypeError indicating that type(o) is not hashable and return -1. This function receives special treatment when stored in a tp_hash slot, allowing a type to explicitly indicate to the interpreter that it is not hashable.

int PyObject_IsTrue(PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Returns 1 if the object o is considered to be true, and 0 otherwise. This is equivalent to the Python expression not not o. On failure, return -1.

int PyObject_Not(PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Returns 0 if the object o is considered to be true, and 1 otherwise. This is equivalent to the Python expression not o. On failure, return -1.

PyObject *PyObject_Type(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

When o is non-NULL, returns a type object corresponding to the object type of object o. On failure, raises SystemError and returns NULL. This is equivalent to the Python expression type(o). This function creates a new strong reference to the return value. There's really no reason to use this function instead of the Py_TYPE() function, which returns a pointer of type PyTypeObject*, except when a new strong reference is needed.

int PyObject_TypeCheck(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)

Return non-zero if the object o is of type type or a subtype of type, and 0 otherwise. Both parameters must be non-NULL.

Py_ssize_t PyObject_Size(PyObject *o)
Py_ssize_t PyObject_Length(PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Return the length of object o. If the object o provides either the sequence and mapping protocols, the sequence length is returned. On error, -1 is returned. This is the equivalent to the Python expression len(o).

Py_ssize_t PyObject_LengthHint(PyObject *o, Py_ssize_t defaultvalue)

Return an estimated length for the object o. First try to return its actual length, then an estimate using __length_hint__(), and finally return the default value. On error return -1. This is the equivalent to the Python expression operator.length_hint(o, defaultvalue).

Nouveau dans la version 3.4.

PyObject *PyObject_GetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

Return element of o corresponding to the object key or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o[key].

int PyObject_SetItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key, PyObject *v)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Map the object key to the value v. Raise an exception and return -1 on failure; return 0 on success. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o[key] = v. This function does not steal a reference to v.

int PyObject_DelItem(PyObject *o, PyObject *key)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Remove the mapping for the object key from the object o. Return -1 on failure. This is equivalent to the Python statement del o[key].

PyObject *PyObject_Dir(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

This is equivalent to the Python expression dir(o), returning a (possibly empty) list of strings appropriate for the object argument, or NULL if there was an error. If the argument is NULL, this is like the Python dir(), returning the names of the current locals; in this case, if no execution frame is active then NULL is returned but PyErr_Occurred() will return false.

PyObject *PyObject_GetIter(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI.

This is equivalent to the Python expression iter(o). It returns a new iterator for the object argument, or the object itself if the object is already an iterator. Raises TypeError and returns NULL if the object cannot be iterated.

PyObject *PyObject_GetAIter(PyObject *o)
Valeur de retour : nouvelle référence. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

This is the equivalent to the Python expression aiter(o). Takes an AsyncIterable object and returns an AsyncIterator for it. This is typically a new iterator but if the argument is an AsyncIterator, this returns itself. Raises TypeError and returns NULL if the object cannot be iterated.

Nouveau dans la version 3.10.

void *PyObject_GetTypeData(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *cls)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.12.

Get a pointer to subclass-specific data reserved for cls.

The object o must be an instance of cls, and cls must have been created using negative PyType_Spec.basicsize. Python does not check this.

On error, set an exception and return NULL.

Nouveau dans la version 3.12.

Py_ssize_t PyType_GetTypeDataSize(PyTypeObject *cls)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.12.

Return the size of the instance memory space reserved for cls, i.e. the size of the memory PyObject_GetTypeData() returns.

This may be larger than requested using -PyType_Spec.basicsize; it is safe to use this larger size (e.g. with memset()).

The type cls must have been created using negative PyType_Spec.basicsize. Python does not check this.

On error, set an exception and return a negative value.

Nouveau dans la version 3.12.

void *PyObject_GetItemData(PyObject *o)

Get a pointer to per-item data for a class with Py_TPFLAGS_ITEMS_AT_END.

On error, set an exception and return NULL. TypeError is raised if o does not have Py_TPFLAGS_ITEMS_AT_END set.

Nouveau dans la version 3.12.

int PyObject_VisitManagedDict(PyObject *obj, visitproc visit, void *arg)

Visit the managed dictionary of obj.

This function must only be called in a traverse function of the type which has the Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT flag set.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.

void PyObject_ClearManagedDict(PyObject *obj)

Clear the managed dictionary of obj.

This function must only be called in a traverse function of the type which has the Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT flag set.

Nouveau dans la version 3.13.