Index des modules Python

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__future__ Future statement definitions
__main__ The environment where top-level code is run. Covers command-line interfaces, import-time behavior, and ``__name__ == '__main__'``.
_thread Low-level threading API.
_tkinter A binary module that contains the low-level interface to Tcl/Tk.
abc Abstract base classes according to :pep:`3119`.
argparse Command-line option and argument parsing library.
array Space efficient arrays of uniformly typed numeric values.
ast Abstract Syntax Tree classes and manipulation.
asyncio Asynchronous I/O.
atexit Register and execute cleanup functions.
base64 RFC 4648: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings; Base85 and Ascii85
bdb Debugger framework.
binascii Tools for converting between binary and various ASCII-encoded binary representations.
bisect Array bisection algorithms for binary searching.
builtins The module that provides the built-in namespace.
bz2 Interfaces for bzip2 compression and decompression.
calendar Functions for working with calendars, including some emulation of the Unix cal program.
cmath Mathematical functions for complex numbers.
cmd Build line-oriented command interpreters.
code Facilities to implement read-eval-print loops.
codecs Encode and decode data and streams.
codeop Compile (possibly incomplete) Python code.
collections Container datatypes Abstract base classes for containers
colorsys Conversion functions between RGB and other color systems.
compileall Tools for byte-compiling all Python source files in a directory tree.
    concurrent.futures Execute computations concurrently using threads or processes.
configparser Configuration file parser.
contextlib Utilities for with-statement contexts.
contextvars Context Variables
copy Shallow and deep copy operations.
copyreg Register pickle support functions.
csv Write and read tabular data to and from delimited files.
ctypes A foreign function library for Python.
curses (Unix) An interface to the curses library, providing portable terminal handling.
    curses.ascii Constants and set-membership functions for ASCII characters.
    curses.panel A panel stack extension that adds depth to curses windows.
    curses.textpad Emacs-like input editing in a curses window.
dataclasses Generate special methods on user-defined classes.
datetime Basic date and time types.
dbm Interfaces to various Unix "database" formats.
    dbm.dumb Portable implementation of the simple DBM interface.
    dbm.gnu (Unix) GNU database manager
    dbm.ndbm (Unix) The New Database Manager
    dbm.sqlite3 (All) SQLite backend for dbm
decimal Implementation of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
difflib Helpers for computing differences between objects.
dis Disassembler for Python bytecode.
doctest Test pieces of code within docstrings.
email Package supporting the parsing, manipulating, and generating email messages.
    email.charset Character Sets
    email.contentmanager Storing and Retrieving Content from MIME Parts
    email.encoders Encoders for email message payloads.
    email.errors The exception classes used by the email package.
    email.generator Generate flat text email messages from a message structure.
    email.header Representing non-ASCII headers
    email.headerregistry Automatic Parsing of headers based on the field name
    email.iterators Iterate over a message object tree.
    email.message The base class representing email messages.
    email.mime Build MIME messages.
    email.parser Parse flat text email messages to produce a message object structure.
    email.policy Controlling the parsing and generating of messages
    email.utils Miscellaneous email package utilities.
    encodings.idna Internationalized Domain Names implementation
    encodings.mbcs Windows ANSI codepage
    encodings.utf_8_sig UTF-8 codec with BOM signature
ensurepip Bootstrapping the "pip" installer into an existing Python installation or virtual environment.
enum Implementation of an enumeration class.
errno Standard errno system symbols.
faulthandler Dump the Python traceback.
fcntl (Unix) The fcntl() and ioctl() system calls.
filecmp Compare files efficiently.
fileinput Loop over standard input or a list of files.
fnmatch Unix shell style filename pattern matching.
fractions Rational numbers.
ftplib FTP protocol client (requires sockets).
functools Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects.
gc Interface to the cycle-detecting garbage collector.
getopt Portable parser for command line options; support both short and long option names.
getpass Portable reading of passwords and retrieval of the userid.
gettext Multilingual internationalization services.
glob Unix shell style pathname pattern expansion.
graphlib Functionality to operate with graph-like structures
grp (Unix) The group database (getgrnam() and friends).
gzip Interfaces for gzip compression and decompression using file objects.
hashlib Secure hash and message digest algorithms.
heapq Heap queue algorithm (a.k.a. priority queue).
hmac Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication (HMAC) implementation
html Helpers for manipulating HTML.
    html.entities Definitions of HTML general entities.
    html.parser A simple parser that can handle HTML and XHTML.
http HTTP status codes and messages
    http.client HTTP and HTTPS protocol client (requires sockets).
    http.cookiejar Classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies.
    http.cookies Support for HTTP state management (cookies).
    http.server HTTP server and request handlers.
idlelib Implementation package for the IDLE shell/editor.
imaplib IMAP4 protocol client (requires sockets).
importlib The implementation of the import machinery. Abstract base classes related to import
    importlib.machinery Importers and path hooks
    importlib.metadata Accessing package metadata
    importlib.resources Package resource reading, opening, and access Abstract base classes for resources
    importlib.util Utility code for importers
inspect Extract information and source code from live objects.
io Core tools for working with streams.
ipaddress IPv4/IPv6 manipulation library.
itertools Functions creating iterators for efficient looping.
json Encode and decode the JSON format.
    json.tool A command line to validate and pretty-print JSON.
keyword Test whether a string is a keyword in Python.
linecache Provides random access to individual lines from text files.
locale Internationalization services.
logging Flexible event logging system for applications.
    logging.config Configuration of the logging module.
    logging.handlers Handlers for the logging module.
lzma A Python wrapper for the liblzma compression library.
mailbox Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
marshal Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back (with different constraints).
math Mathematical functions (sin() etc.).
mimetypes Mapping of filename extensions to MIME types.
mmap Interface to memory-mapped files for Unix and Windows.
modulefinder Find modules used by a script.
msvcrt (Windows) Miscellaneous useful routines from the MS VC++ runtime.
multiprocessing Process-based parallelism.
    multiprocessing.connection API for dealing with sockets.
    multiprocessing.dummy Dumb wrapper around threading.
    multiprocessing.managers Share data between process with shared objects.
    multiprocessing.pool Create pools of processes.
    multiprocessing.shared_memory Provides shared memory for direct access across processes.
    multiprocessing.sharedctypes Allocate ctypes objects from shared memory.
netrc Loading of .netrc files.
numbers Numeric abstract base classes (Complex, Real, Integral, etc.).
operator Functions corresponding to the standard operators.
optparseObsolète: Command-line option parsing library.
os Miscellaneous operating system interfaces.
    os.path Operations on pathnames.
pathlib Object-oriented filesystem paths
pdb The Python debugger for interactive interpreters.
pickle Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back.
pickletools Contains extensive comments about the pickle protocols and pickle-machine opcodes, as well as some useful functions.
pkgutil Utilities for the import system.
platform Retrieves as much platform identifying data as possible.
plistlib Generate and parse Apple plist files.
poplib POP3 protocol client (requires sockets).
posix (Unix) The most common POSIX system calls (normally used via module os).
pprint Data pretty printer.
profile Python source profiler.
pstats Statistics object for use with the profiler.
pty (Unix) Pseudo-Terminal Handling for Unix.
pwd (Unix) The password database (getpwnam() and friends).
py_compile Generate byte-code files from Python source files.
pyclbr Supports information extraction for a Python module browser.
pydoc Documentation generator and online help system.
queue A synchronized queue class.
quopri Encode and decode files using the MIME quoted-printable encoding.
random Generate pseudo-random numbers with various common distributions.
re Regular expression operations.
readline (Unix) GNU readline support for Python.
reprlib Alternate repr() implementation with size limits.
resource (Unix) An interface to provide resource usage information on the current process.
rlcompleter Python identifier completion, suitable for the GNU readline library.
runpy Locate and run Python modules without importing them first.
sched General purpose event scheduler.
secrets Generate secure random numbers for managing secrets.
select Wait for I/O completion on multiple streams.
selectors High-level I/O multiplexing.
shelve Python object persistence.
shlex Simple lexical analysis for Unix shell-like languages.
shutil High-level file operations, including copying.
signal Set handlers for asynchronous events.
site Module responsible for site-specific configuration.
smtplib SMTP protocol client (requires sockets).
socket Low-level networking interface.
socketserver A framework for network servers.
sqlite3 A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
ssl TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
stat Utilities for interpreting the results of os.stat(), os.lstat() and os.fstat().
statistics Mathematical statistics functions
string Common string operations.
stringprep String preparation, as per RFC 3453
struct Interpret bytes as packed binary data.
subprocess Subprocess management.
symtable Interface to the compiler's internal symbol tables.
sys Access system-specific parameters and functions.
    sys.monitoring Access and control event monitoring
sysconfig Python's configuration information
syslog (Unix) An interface to the Unix syslog library routines.
tabnanny Tool for detecting white space related problems in Python source files in a directory tree.
tarfile Read and write tar-format archive files.
tempfile Generate temporary files and directories.
termios (Unix) POSIX style tty control.
test Regression tests package containing the testing suite for Python.
    test.regrtest Drives the regression test suite. Support for Python's regression test suite. Support tools for testing correct bytecode generation. Support for import tests. Support for os tests. Support for Python's script execution tests. Support for socket tests. Support for threading tests. Support for warnings tests.
textwrap Text wrapping and filling
threading Thread-based parallelism.
time Time access and conversions.
timeit Measure the execution time of small code snippets.
tkinter Interface to Tcl/Tk for graphical user interfaces
    tkinter.colorchooser (Tk) Color choosing dialog
    tkinter.commondialog (Tk) Tkinter base class for dialogs
    tkinter.dnd (Tk) Tkinter drag-and-drop interface
    tkinter.filedialog (Tk) Dialog classes for file selection
    tkinter.font (Tk) Tkinter font-wrapping class
    tkinter.messagebox (Tk) Various types of alert dialogs
    tkinter.scrolledtext (Tk) Text widget with a vertical scroll bar.
    tkinter.simpledialog (Tk) Simple dialog windows
    tkinter.ttk Tk themed widget set
token Constants representing terminal nodes of the parse tree.
tokenize Lexical scanner for Python source code.
tomllib Parse TOML files.
trace Trace or track Python statement execution.
traceback Print or retrieve a stack traceback.
tracemalloc Trace memory allocations.
tty (Unix) Utility functions that perform common terminal control operations.
turtle An educational framework for simple graphics applications
turtledemo A viewer for example turtle scripts
types Names for built-in types.
typing Support for type hints (see :pep:`484`).
unicodedata Access the Unicode Database.
unittest Unit testing framework for Python.
    unittest.mock Mock object library.
    urllib.error Exception classes raised by urllib.request.
    urllib.parse Parse URLs into or assemble them from components.
    urllib.request Extensible library for opening URLs.
    urllib.response Response classes used by urllib.
    urllib.robotparser Load a robots.txt file and answer questions about fetchability of other URLs.
uuid UUID objects (universally unique identifiers) according to RFC 4122
venv Creation of virtual environments.
warnings Issue warning messages and control their disposition.
wave Provide an interface to the WAV sound format.
weakref Support for weak references and weak dictionaries.
webbrowser Easy-to-use controller for web browsers.
winreg (Windows) Routines and objects for manipulating the Windows registry.
winsound (Windows) Access to the sound-playing machinery for Windows.
wsgiref WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation.
    wsgiref.handlers WSGI server/gateway base classes.
    wsgiref.headers WSGI response header tools.
    wsgiref.simple_server A simple WSGI HTTP server.
    wsgiref.types WSGI types for static type checking
    wsgiref.util WSGI environment utilities.
    wsgiref.validate WSGI conformance checker.
xml Package containing XML processing modules
    xml.dom Document Object Model API for Python.
    xml.dom.minidom Minimal Document Object Model (DOM) implementation.
    xml.dom.pulldom Support for building partial DOM trees from SAX events.
    xml.etree.ElementTree Implementation of the ElementTree API.
    xml.parsers.expat An interface to the Expat non-validating XML parser.
    xml.sax Package containing SAX2 base classes and convenience functions.
    xml.sax.handler Base classes for SAX event handlers.
    xml.sax.saxutils Convenience functions and classes for use with SAX.
    xml.sax.xmlreader Interface which SAX-compliant XML parsers must implement.
    xmlrpc.client XML-RPC client access.
    xmlrpc.server Basic XML-RPC server implementations.
zipapp Manage executable Python zip archives
zipfile Read and write ZIP-format archive files.
zipimport Support for importing Python modules from ZIP archives.
zlib Low-level interface to compression and decompression routines compatible with gzip.
zoneinfo IANA time zone support