4. Modèle d’exécution

4.1. Noms et liaisons

Names refer to objects. Names are introduced by name binding operations. Each occurrence of a name in the program text refers to the binding of that name established in the innermost function block containing the use.

A block is a piece of Python program text that is executed as a unit. The following are blocks: a module, a function body, and a class definition. Each command typed interactively is a block. A script file (a file given as standard input to the interpreter or specified on the interpreter command line the first argument) is a code block. A script command (a command specified on the interpreter command line with the “-c” option) is a code block. The file read by the built-in function execfile() is a code block. The string argument passed to the built-in function eval() and to the exec statement is a code block. The expression read and evaluated by the built-in function input() is a code block.

Un bloc de code est exécuté dans un cadre d’exécution. Un cadre contient des informations administratives (utilisées pour le débogage) et détermine où et comment l’exécution se poursuit après la fin de l’exécution du bloc de code.

A scope defines the visibility of a name within a block. If a local variable is defined in a block, its scope includes that block. If the definition occurs in a function block, the scope extends to any blocks contained within the defining one, unless a contained block introduces a different binding for the name. The scope of names defined in a class block is limited to the class block; it does not extend to the code blocks of methods – this includes generator expressions since they are implemented using a function scope. This means that the following will fail:

class A:
    a = 42
    b = list(a + i for i in range(10))

Quand un nom est utilisé dans un bloc de code, la résolution utilise la portée la plus petite. L’ensemble de toutes les portées visibles dans un bloc de code s’appelle l’environnement du bloc.

If a name is bound in a block, it is a local variable of that block. If a name is bound at the module level, it is a global variable. (The variables of the module code block are local and global.) If a variable is used in a code block but not defined there, it is a free variable.

When a name is not found at all, a NameError exception is raised. If the name refers to a local variable that has not been bound, a UnboundLocalError exception is raised. UnboundLocalError is a subclass of NameError.

The following constructs bind names: formal parameters to functions, import statements, class and function definitions (these bind the class or function name in the defining block), and targets that are identifiers if occurring in an assignment, for loop header, in the second position of an except clause header or after as in a with statement. The import statement of the form from ... import * binds all names defined in the imported module, except those beginning with an underscore. This form may only be used at the module level.

A target occurring in a del statement is also considered bound for this purpose (though the actual semantics are to unbind the name). It is illegal to unbind a name that is referenced by an enclosing scope; the compiler will report a SyntaxError.

Chaque assignation ou instruction import a lieu dans un bloc défini par une définition de classe ou de fonction ou au niveau du module (le bloc de code de plus haut niveau).

If a name binding operation occurs anywhere within a code block, all uses of the name within the block are treated as references to the current block. This can lead to errors when a name is used within a block before it is bound. This rule is subtle. Python lacks declarations and allows name binding operations to occur anywhere within a code block. The local variables of a code block can be determined by scanning the entire text of the block for name binding operations.

If the global statement occurs within a block, all uses of the name specified in the statement refer to the binding of that name in the top-level namespace. Names are resolved in the top-level namespace by searching the global namespace, i.e. the namespace of the module containing the code block, and the builtins namespace, the namespace of the module __builtin__. The global namespace is searched first. If the name is not found there, the builtins namespace is searched. The global statement must precede all uses of the name.

The builtins namespace associated with the execution of a code block is actually found by looking up the name __builtins__ in its global namespace; this should be a dictionary or a module (in the latter case the module’s dictionary is used). By default, when in the __main__ module, __builtins__ is the built-in module __builtin__ (note: no “s”); when in any other module, __builtins__ is an alias for the dictionary of the __builtin__ module itself. __builtins__ can be set to a user-created dictionary to create a weak form of restricted execution.

CPython implementation detail: Users should not touch __builtins__; it is strictly an implementation detail. Users wanting to override values in the builtins namespace should import the __builtin__ (no “s”) module and modify its attributes appropriately.

L’espace de noms pour un module est créé automatiquement la première fois que le module est importé. Le module principal d’un script s’appelle toujours __main__.

L’instruction global a la même porte qu’une opération de liaison du même bloc. Si la portée englobante la plus petite pour une variable libre contient une instruction global, la variable libre est considérée globale.

A class definition is an executable statement that may use and define names. These references follow the normal rules for name resolution. The namespace of the class definition becomes the attribute dictionary of the class. Names defined at the class scope are not visible in methods.

4.1.1. Interaction avec les fonctionnalités dynamiques

There are several cases where Python statements are illegal when used in conjunction with nested scopes that contain free variables.

If a variable is referenced in an enclosing scope, it is illegal to delete the name. An error will be reported at compile time.

If the wild card form of import — import * — is used in a function and the function contains or is a nested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a SyntaxError.

If exec is used in a function and the function contains or is a nested block with free variables, the compiler will raise a SyntaxError unless the exec explicitly specifies the local namespace for the exec. (In other words, exec obj would be illegal, but exec obj in ns would be legal.)

The eval(), execfile(), and input() functions and the exec statement do not have access to the full environment for resolving names. Names may be resolved in the local and global namespaces of the caller. Free variables are not resolved in the nearest enclosing namespace, but in the global namespace. [1] The exec statement and the eval() and execfile() functions have optional arguments to override the global and local namespace. If only one namespace is specified, it is used for both.

4.2. Exceptions

Les exceptions sont un moyen de sortir du flot normal d’exécution d’un bloc de code de manière à gérer des erreurs ou des conditions exceptionnelles. Une exception est levée au moment où l’erreur est détectée ; elle doit être gérée par le bloc de code qui l’entoure ou par tout bloc de code qui a, directement ou indirectement, invoqué le bloc de code où l’erreur s’est produite.

L’interpréteur Python lève une exception quand il détecte une erreur à l’exécution (telle qu’une division par zéro). Un programme Python peut aussi lever explicitement une exception avec l’instruction raise. Les gestionnaires d’exception sont spécifiés avec l’instruction tryexcept. La clause finally d’une telle instruction peut être utilisée pour spécifier un code de nettoyage qui ne gère pas l’exception mais qui est exécuté quoi qu’il arrive (exception ou pas).

Python utilise le modèle par terminaison de gestion des erreurs : un gestionnaire d’exception peut trouver ce qui est arrivé et continuer l’exécution à un niveau plus élevé mais il ne peut pas réparer l’origine de l’erreur et ré-essayer l’opération qui a échoué (sauf à entrer à nouveau dans le code en question par le haut).

When an exception is not handled at all, the interpreter terminates execution of the program, or returns to its interactive main loop. In either case, it prints a stack backtrace, except when the exception is SystemExit.

Les exceptions sont identifiées par des instances de classe. La clause except sélectionnée dépend de la classe de l’instance : elle doit faire référence à la classe de l’instance ou à une de ses classes ancêtres. L’instance peut être transmise au gestionnaire et peut apporter des informations complémentaires sur les conditions de l’exception.

Exceptions can also be identified by strings, in which case the except clause is selected by object identity. An arbitrary value can be raised along with the identifying string which can be passed to the handler.

Note

Messages to exceptions are not part of the Python API. Their contents may change from one version of Python to the next without warning and should not be relied on by code which will run under multiple versions of the interpreter.

Reportez-vous aussi aux descriptions de l’instruction try dans la section L’instruction try et de l’instruction raise dans la section L’instruction raise.

Notes

[1]En effet, le code qui est exécuté par ces opérations n’est pas connu au moment où le module est compilé.