os --- 各种各样的操作系统接口

源代码: Lib/os.py


本模块提供了一种使用与操作系统相关的功能的便捷式途径。 如果你只是想读写一个文件,请参阅 open(),如果你想操作文件路径,请参阅 os.path 模块,如果你想读取通过命令行给出的所有文件中的所有行,请参阅 fileinput 模块。 为了创建临时文件和目录,请参阅 tempfile 模块,对于高级文件和目录处理,请参阅 shutil 模块。

关于这些函数的可用性的说明:

  • Python中所有依赖于操作系统的内置模块的设计都是这样,只要不同的操作系统某一相同的功能可用,它就使用相同的接口。例如,函数 os.stat(path) 以相同的格式返回关于 path 的状态信息(该格式源于 POSIX 接口)。

  • 特定于某一操作系统的扩展通过操作 os 模块也是可用的,但是使用它们当然是对可移植性的一种威胁。

  • 所有接受路径或文件名的函数都同时支持字节串和字符串对象,并在返回路径或文件名时使用相应类型的对象作为结果。

  • 在 VxWorks 系统上,os.fork, os.execv 和 os.spawn*p* 不被支持。

注解

如果使用无效或无法访问的文件名与路径,或者其他类型正确但操作系统不接受的参数,此模块的所有函数都抛出 OSError (或者它的子类)。

exception os.error

内建的 OSError 异常的一个别名。

os.name

导入的依赖特定操作系统的模块的名称。以下名称目前已注册: 'posix', 'nt', 'java'.

参见

sys.platform 有更详细的描述. os.uname() 只给出系统提供的版本信息。

platform 模块对系统的标识有更详细的检查。

文件名,命令行参数,以及环境变量。

在 Python 中,使用字符串类型表示文件名、命令行参数和环境变量。 在某些系统上,在将这些字符串传递给操作系统之前,必须将这些字符串解码为字节。 Python 使用文件系统编码来执行此转换(请参阅 sys.getfilesystemencoding() )。

在 3.1 版更改: 在某些系统上,使用文件系统编码进行转换可能会失败。 在这种情况下,Python 会使用 代理转义编码错误处理器,这意味着在解码时,不可解码的字节被 Unicode 字符 U+DCxx 替换,并且这些字节在编码时再次转换为原始字节。

文件系统编码必须保证成功解码小于 128 的所有字节。如果文件系统编码无法提供此保证, API 函数可能会引发 UnicodeErrors 。

进程参数

这些函数和数据项提供了操作当前进程和用户的信息。

os.ctermid()

返回与进程控制终端对应的文件名。

可用性: Unix。

os.environ

一个表示字符串环境的 mapping 对象。 例如,environ['HOME'] 是你的主目录(在某些平台上)的路径名,相当于 C 中的 getenv("HOME")

这个映射是在第一次导入 os 模块时捕获的,通常作为 Python 启动时处理 site.py 的一部分。除了通过直接修改 os.environ 之外,在此之后对环境所做的更改不会反映在 os.environ 中。

如果平台支持 putenv() 函数,这个映射除了可以用于查询环境外还能用于修改环境。 当这个映射被修改时,putenv() 将被自动调用。

在Unix系统上,键和值会使用 sys.getfilesystemencoding()'surrogateescape' 的错误处理。如果你想使用其他的编码,使用 environb

注解

直接调用 putenv() 并不会影响 os.environ,所以推荐直接修改``os.environ``。

注解

在某些平台上,包括 FreeBSD 和 Mac OS X,设置 environ 可能导致内存泄露。参阅 putenv() 的系统文档。

如果平台没有提供 putenv(), 为了使启动的子进程使用修改后的环境,一份修改后的映射会被传给合适的进程创建函数。

如果平台支持 unsetenv() 函数,你可以通过删除映射中元素的方式来删除对应的环境变量。当一个元素被从 os.environ 删除时,以及 pop()clear() 被调用时, unsetenv() 会被自动调用。

os.environb

字节版本的 environ: 一个以字节串表示环境的 mapping 对象。 environenvironb 是同步的(修改 environb 会更新 environ,反之亦然)。

只有在 supports_bytes_environTrue 的时候 environb 才是可用的。

3.2 新版功能.

os.chdir(path)
os.fchdir(fd)
os.getcwd()

以上函数请参阅 文件和目录

os.fsencode(filename)

编码 路径类 文件名 为文件系统接受的形式,使用 'surrogateescape' 代理转义编码错误处理器,在Windows系统上会使用 'strict' ;返回 bytes 字节类型不变。

fsdecode() 是此函数的逆向函数。

3.2 新版功能.

在 3.6 版更改: 增加对实现了 os.PathLike 接口的对象的支持。

os.fsdecode(filename)

从文件系统编码方式解码为 路径类 文件名,使用 'surrogateescape' 代理转义编码错误处理器,在Windows系统上会使用 'strict' ;返回 str 字符串不变。

fsencode() 是此函数的逆向函数。

3.2 新版功能.

在 3.6 版更改: 增加对实现了 os.PathLike 接口的对象的支持。

os.fspath(path)

返回路径的文件系统表示。

如果传入的是 strbytes 类型的字符串,将原样返回。否则 __fspath__() 将被调用,如果得到的是一个 strbytes 类型的对象,那就返回这个值。其他所有情况则会抛出 TypeError  异常。

3.6 新版功能.

class os.PathLike

某些对象用于表示文件系统中的路径(如 pathlib.PurePath 对象),本类是这些对象的 抽象基类

3.6 新版功能.

abstractmethod __fspath__()

返回当前对象的文件系统表示。

这个方法只应该返回一个 str 字符串或 bytes 字节串,请优先选择 str 字符串。

os.getenv(key, default=None)

如果存在,返回环境变量 key 的值,否则返回 defaultkeydefault 和返回值均为 str 字符串类型。

在Unix系统上,键和值会使用 sys.getfilesystemencoding() 和``'surrogateescape'`` 错误处理进行解码。如果你想使用其他的编码,使用 os.getenvb()

可用性: 大部分的Unix系统,Windows。

os.getenvb(key, default=None)

如果存在环境变量 key 那么返回其值,否则返回 defaultkeydefault 和返回值均为bytes字节串类型。

getenvb() 仅在 supports_bytes_environTrue 时可用。

可用性: 大部分的Unix系统。

3.2 新版功能.

os.get_exec_path(env=None)

返回将用于搜索可执行文件的目录列表,与在外壳程序中启动一个进程时相似。指定的 env 应为用于搜索 PATH 的环境变量字典。默认情况下,当 envNone 时,将会使用 environ

3.2 新版功能.

os.getegid()

返回当前进程的有效组ID。对应当前进程执行文件的 "set id" 位。

可用性: Unix。

os.geteuid()

返回当前进程的有效用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.getgid()

返回当前进程的实际组ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.getgrouplist(user, group)

返回该用户所在的组 ID 列表。可能 group 参数没有在返回的列表中,实际上用户应该也是属于该 groupgroup 参数一般可以从储存账户信息的密码记录文件中找到。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.getgroups()

返回当前进程对应的组ID列表

可用性: Unix。

注解

在Mac OS X系统中,getgroups() 会和其他 Unix 平台有些不同。如果 Python 解释器是在 10.5 或更早版本中部署,getgroups() 返回当前用户进程相关的有效组ID列表。 该列表长度由于系统预设的接口限制,最长为 16。 而且在适当的权限下,返回结果还会因 getgroups() 而发生变化;如果 Python 解释器是在 10.5 以上版本中部署,getgroups() 返回进程所属有效用户 ID 所对应的用户的组 ID 列表,组用户列表可能因为进程的生存周期而发生变动,而且也不会因为 setgroups() 的调用而发生,返回的组用户列表长度也没有长度 16 的限制。在部署中,Python 解释器用到的变量 MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET 可以用 sysconfig.get_config_var()

os.getlogin()

返回通过控制终端进程进行登录的用户名。在多数情况下,使用 getpass.getuser() 会更有效,因为后者会通过检查环境变量 LOGNAMEUSERNAME 来查找用户,再由 pwd.getpwuid(os.getuid())[0] 来获取当前用户 ID 的登录名。

可用性: Unix, Windows。

os.getpgid(pid)

根据进程id pid 返回进程的组 ID 列表。如果 pid 为 0,则返回当前进程的进程组 ID 列表

可用性: Unix。

os.getpgrp()

返回当时进程组的ID

可用性: Unix。

os.getpid()

返回当前进程ID

os.getppid()

返回父进程ID。当父进程已经结束,在Unix中返回的ID是初始进程(1)中的一个,在Windows中仍然是同一个进程ID,该进程ID有可能已经被进行进程所占用。

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.2 版更改: 添加WIndows的支持。

os.getpriority(which, who)

获取程序调度优先级。which 参数值可以是 PRIO_PROCESSPRIO_PGRP,或 PRIO_USER 中的一个,who 是相对于 which (PRIO_PROCESS 的进程标识符,PRIO_PGRP 的进程组标识符和 PRIO_USER 的用户ID)。当 who 为 0 时(分别)表示调用的进程,调用进程的进程组或调用进程所属的真实用户 ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.PRIO_PROCESS
os.PRIO_PGRP
os.PRIO_USER

函数 getpriority()setpriority() 的参数。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.getresuid()

返回一个由 (ruid, euid, suid) 所组成的元组,分别表示当前进程的真实用户ID,有效用户ID和甲暂存用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.2 新版功能.

os.getresgid()

返回一个由 (rgid, egid, sgid) 所组成的元组,分别表示当前进程的真实组ID,有效组ID和暂存组ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.2 新版功能.

os.getuid()

返回当前进程的真实用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.initgroups(username, gid)

调用系统 initgroups(),使用指定用户所在的所有值来初始化组访问列表,包括指定的组ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.2 新版功能.

os.putenv(key, value)

将名为 key 的环境变量值设置为 value。该变量名修改会影响由 os.system()popen()fork()execv() 发起的子进程。

可用性: 大部分的Unix系统,Windows。

注解

在一些平台,包括 FreeBSD 和 Mac OS X,设置 environ 可能导致内存泄露。详情参考 putenv 相关系统文档。

当系统支持 putenv() 时,os.environ 中的参数赋值会自动转换为对 putenv() 的调用。不过 putenv() 的调用不会更新 os.environ,因此最好使用 os.environ 对变量赋值。

os.setegid(egid)

设置当前进程的有效组ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.seteuid(euid)

设置当前进程的有效用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.setgid(gid)

设置当前进程的组ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.setgroups(groups)

group 参数值设置为与当进程相关联的附加组ID列表。group 参数必须为一个序列,每个元素应为每个组的数字ID。该操作通常只适用于超级用户。

可用性: Unix。

注解

在 Mac OS X 中,groups 的长度不能超过系统定义的最大有效组 ID 个数,一般为 16。 如果它没有返回与调用 setgroups() 所设置的相同的组列表,请参阅 getgroups() 的文档。

os.setpgrp()

根据已实现的版本(如果有)来调用系统 setpgrp()setpgrp(0, 0) 。相关说明,请参考 Unix 手册。

可用性: Unix。

os.setpgid(pid, pgrp)

使用系统调用 setpgid(),将 pid 对应进程的组ID设置为 pgrp。相关说明,请参考 Unix 手册。

可用性: Unix。

os.setpriority(which, who, priority)

设置程序调度优先级。 which 的值为 PRIO_PROCESS, PRIO_PGRPPRIO_USER 之一,而 who 会相对于 which (PRIO_PROCESS 的进程标识符, PRIO_PGRP 的进程组标识符和 PRIO_USER 的用户 ID) 被解析。 who 值为零 (分别) 表示调用进程,调用进程的进程组或调用进程的真实用户 ID。 priority 是范围在 -20 至 19 的值。 默认优先级为 0;较小的优先级数值会更优先被调度。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.setregid(rgid, egid)

设置当前进程的真实和有效组ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.setresgid(rgid, egid, sgid)

设置当前进程的真实,有效和暂存组ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.2 新版功能.

os.setresuid(ruid, euid, suid)

设置当前进程的真实,有效和暂存用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

3.2 新版功能.

os.setreuid(ruid, euid)

设置当前进程的真实和有效用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.getsid(pid)

调用系统调用 getsid()。相关说明,请参考 Unix 手册。

可用性: Unix。

os.setsid()

使用系统调用 getsid()。相关说明,请参考 Unix 手册。

可用性: Unix。

os.setuid(uid)

设置当前进程的用户ID。

可用性: Unix。

os.strerror(code)

根据 code 中的错误码返回错误消息。 在某些平台上当给出未知错误码时 strerror() 将返回 NULL 并会引发 ValueError

os.supports_bytes_environ

如果操作系统上原生环境类型是字节型则为 True (例如在 Windows 上为 False)。

3.2 新版功能.

os.umask(mask)

设定当前数值掩码并返回之前的掩码。

os.uname()

返回当前操作系统的识别信息。返回值是一个有5个属性的对象:

  • sysname - 操作系统名

  • nodename - 机器在网络上的名称(需要先设定)

  • release - 操作系统发行信息

  • version - 操作系统版本信息

  • machine - 硬件标识符

为了向后兼容,该对象也是可迭代的,像是一个按照 sysnamenodenamereleaseversion,和 machine 顺序组成的元组。

有些系统会将 nodename 截短为 8 个字符或截短至前缀部分;获取主机名的一个更好方式是 socket.gethostname() 或甚至可以用 socket.gethostbyaddr(socket.gethostname())

可用性: 较新的 Unix 版本。

在 3.3 版更改: 返回结果的类型由元组变成一个类似元组的对象,同时具有命名的属性。

os.unsetenv(key)

取消设置(删除)名为 key 的环境变量。变量名的改变会影响由 os.system()popen()fork()execv() 触发的子进程。

当系统支持 unsetenv() ,删除在 os.environ 中的变量会自动转换为对 unsetenv() 的调用。但是 unsetenv() 不能更新 os.environ,因此最好直接删除 os.environ 中的变量。

可用性: 大部分的Unix系统。

创建文件对象

这些函数创建新的 file objects 。(参见 open() 以获取打开文件描述符的相关信息。)

os.fdopen(fd, *args, **kwargs)

返回打开文件描述符 fd 对应文件的对象。类似内建 open() 函数,二者接受同样的参数。不同之处在于 fdopen() 第一个参数应该为整数。

文件描述符操作

这些函数对文件描述符所引用的 I/O 流进行操作。

文件描述符是一些小的整数,对应于当前进程所打开的文件。例如,标准输入的文件描述符通常是0,标准输出是1,标准错误是2。之后被进程打开的文件的文件描述符会被依次指定为3,4,5等。“文件描述符”这个词有点误导性,在 Unix 平台中套接字和管道也被文件描述符所引用。

当需要时,可以用 fileno() 可以获得 file object 所对应的文件描述符。需要注意的是,直接使用文件描述符会绕过文件对象的方法,会忽略如数据内部缓冲等情况。

os.close(fd)

关闭文件描述符 fd

注解

该功能适用于低级 I/O 操作,必须用于 os.open()pipe() 返回的文件描述符。若要关闭由内建函数 open()popen()fdopen() 返回的 "文件对象",则应使用其相应的 close() 方法。

os.closerange(fd_low, fd_high)

关闭从 fd_low (包括)到 fd_high (排除)间的文件描述符,并忽略错误。类似(但快于):

for fd in range(fd_low, fd_high):
    try:
        os.close(fd)
    except OSError:
        pass
os.copy_file_range(src, dst, count, offset_src=None, offset_dst=None)

从文件描述符 src 复制 count 字节,从偏移量 offset_src 开始读取,到文件描述符 dst,从偏移量 offset_dst 开始写入。如果 offset_src 为 None,则 src 将从当前位置开始读取;offset_dst 同理。srcdst 指向的文件必须处于相同的文件系统,否则将会抛出一个 errno 被设为 errno.EXDEVOSError

此复制的完成没有额外的从内核到用户空间再回到内核的数据转移花费。另外,一些文件系统可能实现额外的优化。完成复制就如同打开两个二进制文件一样。

返回值是复制的字节的数目。这可能低于需求的数目。

Availability: Linux kernel >= 4.5 或 glibc >= 2.27。

3.8 新版功能.

os.device_encoding(fd)

如果连接到终端,则返回一个与 fd 关联的设备描述字符,否则返回 None

os.dup(fd)

返回一个文件描述符 fd 的副本。该文件描述符的副本是 不可继承的

在 Windows 中,当复制一个标准流(0: stdin, 1: stdout, 2: stderr)时,新的文件描述符是 可继承的

在 3.4 版更改: 新的文件描述符现在是不可继承的。

os.dup2(fd, fd2, inheritable=True)

把文件描述符 fd 复制为 fd2,必要时先关闭后者。返回 fd2。新的文件描述符默认是 可继承的,除非在 inheritableFalse 时,是不可继承的。

在 3.4 版更改: 添加可选参数 inheritable

在 3.7 版更改: 成功时返回 fd2,以过去的版本中,总是返回 None

os.fchmod(fd, mode)

fd 指定文件的权限状态修改为 mode。可以参考 chmod() 中列出 mode 的可用值。从Python 3.3开始,这相当于 os.chmod(fd, mode)

可用性: Unix。

os.fchown(fd, uid, gid)

分别将 fd 指定文件的所有者和组 ID 修改为 uidgid 的值。若不想变更其中的某个 ID,可将相应值设为 -1。参考 chown()。从 Python 3.3 开始,这相当于 os.chown(fd, uid, gid)

可用性: Unix。

os.fdatasync(fd)

强制将文件描述符 fd 指定文件写入磁盘。不强制更新元数据。

可用性: Unix。

注解

该功能在 MacOS 中不可用。

os.fpathconf(fd, name)

返回与打开的文件有关的系统配置信息。name 指定要查找的配置名称,它可以是字符串,是一个系统已定义的名称,这些名称定义在不同标准(POSIX.1,Unix 95,Unix 98 等)中。一些平台还定义了额外的其他名称。当前操作系统已定义的名称在 pathconf_names 字典中给出。对于未包含在该映射中的配置名称,也可以传递一个整数作为 name

如果 name 是一个字符串且不是已定义的名称,将抛出 ValueError 异常。如果当前系统不支持 name 指定的配置名称,即使该名称存在于 pathconf_names,也会抛出 OSError 异常,错误码为 errno.EINVAL

从 Python 3.3 起,此功能等价于 os.pathconf(fd, name)

可用性: Unix。

os.fstat(fd)

获取文件描述符 fd 的状态. 返回一个 stat_result 对象。

从 Python 3.3 起,此功能等价于 os.stat(fd)

参见

stat() 函数。

os.fstatvfs(fd)

返回文件系统的信息,该文件系统是文件描述符 fd 指向的文件所在的文件系统,与 statvfs() 一样。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.statvfs(fd)

可用性: Unix。

os.fsync(fd)

强制将文件描述符 fd 指向的文件写入磁盘。在 Unix,这将调用原生 fsync() 函数;在 Windows,则是 MS _commit() 函数。

如果要写入的是缓冲区内的 Python 文件对象 f,请先执行 f.flush(),然后执行 os.fsync(f.fileno()),以确保与 f 关联的所有内部缓冲区都写入磁盘。

可用性: Unix, Windows。

os.ftruncate(fd, length)

将文件描述符 fd 指向的文件切分开,以使其最大为 length 字节。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.truncate(fd, length)

引发一个 审核事件 os.truncate,附带参数 fd, length

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.5 版更改: 添加了 Windows 支持

os.get_blocking(fd)

获取文件描述符的阻塞模式:如果设置了 O_NONBLOCK 标志位,返回 False,如果该标志位被清除,返回 True

参见 set_blocking()socket.socket.setblocking()

可用性: Unix。

3.5 新版功能.

os.isatty(fd)

如果文件描述符 fd 打开且已连接至 tty 设备(或类 tty 设备),返回 True,否则返回 False

os.lockf(fd, cmd, len)

在打开的文件描述符上,使用、测试或删除 POSIX 锁。fd 是一个打开的文件描述符。cmd 指定要进行的操作,它们是 F_LOCKF_TLOCKF_ULOCKF_TEST 中的一个。len 指定哪部分文件需要锁定。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.F_LOCK
os.F_TLOCK
os.F_ULOCK
os.F_TEST

标志位,用于指定 lockf() 进行哪一种操作。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.lseek(fd, pos, how)

将文件描述符 fd 的当前位置设置为 pos,位置的计算方式 how 如下:设置为 SEEK_SET0 表示从文件开头计算,设置为 SEEK_CUR1 表示从文件当前位置计算,设置为 SEEK_END2 表示文件末尾计算。返回新指针位置,这个位置是从文件开头计算的,单位是字节。

os.SEEK_SET
os.SEEK_CUR
os.SEEK_END

lseek() 函数的参数,它们的值分别为 0、1 和 2。

3.3 新版功能: 某些操作系统可能支持其他值,例如 os.SEEK_HOLEos.SEEK_DATA

os.open(path, flags, mode=0o777, *, dir_fd=None)

打开文件 path,根据 flags 设置各种标志位,并根据 mode 设置其权限模式。当计算 mode 时,会首先根据当前 umask 值将部分权限去除。本方法返回新文件的描述符。新的文件描述符是 不可继承 的。

有关 flag 和 mode 取值的说明,请参见 C 运行时文档。标志位常量(如 O_RDONLYO_WRONLY)在 os 模块中定义。特别地,在 Windows 上需要添加 O_BINARY 才能以二进制模式打开文件。

本函数带有 dir_fd 参数,支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

引发一个 审核事件 open,附带参数 pathmodeflags

在 3.4 版更改: 新的文件描述符现在是不可继承的。

注解

本函数适用于底层的 I/O。常规用途请使用内置函数 open(),该函数的 read()write() 方法(及其他方法)会返回 文件对象。要将文件描述符包装在文件对象中,请使用 fdopen()

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.5 版更改: 如果系统调用被中断,但信号处理程序没有触发异常,此函数现在会重试系统调用,而不是触发 InterruptedError 异常 (原因详见 PEP 475)。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

以下常量是 open() 函数 flags 参数的选项。可以用按位或运算符 | 将它们组合使用。部分常量并非在所有平台上都可用。有关其可用性和用法的说明,请参阅 open(2) 手册(Unix 上)或 MSDN (Windows 上)。

os.O_RDONLY
os.O_WRONLY
os.O_RDWR
os.O_APPEND
os.O_CREAT
os.O_EXCL
os.O_TRUNC

上述常量在 Unix 和 Windows 上均可用。

os.O_DSYNC
os.O_RSYNC
os.O_SYNC
os.O_NDELAY
os.O_NONBLOCK
os.O_NOCTTY
os.O_CLOEXEC

这个常数仅在 Unix 系统中可用。

在 3.3 版更改: 增加 O_CLOEXEC 常量。

os.O_BINARY
os.O_NOINHERIT
os.O_SHORT_LIVED
os.O_TEMPORARY
os.O_RANDOM
os.O_SEQUENTIAL
os.O_TEXT

这个常数仅在 Windows 系统中可用。

os.O_ASYNC
os.O_DIRECT
os.O_DIRECTORY
os.O_NOFOLLOW
os.O_NOATIME
os.O_PATH
os.O_TMPFILE
os.O_SHLOCK
os.O_EXLOCK

上述常量是扩展常量,如果 C 库未定义它们,则不存在。

在 3.4 版更改: 在支持的系统上增加 O_PATH。增加 O_TMPFILE,仅在 Linux Kernel 3.11 或更高版本可用。

os.openpty()

打开一对新的伪终端,返回一对文件描述符``(主,从)``,分别为 pty 和 tty。新的文件描述符是 不可继承 的。对于(稍微)轻量一些的方法,请使用 pty 模块。

可用性: 某些 Unix。

在 3.4 版更改: 新的文件描述符不再可继承。

os.pipe()

创建一个管道,返回一对分别用于读取和写入的文件描述符 (r, w)。新的文件描述符是 不可继承 的。

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.4 版更改: 新的文件描述符不再可继承。

os.pipe2(flags)

创建带有 flags 标志位的管道。可通过对以下一个或多个值进行“或”运算来构造这些 flagsO_NONBLOCKO_CLOEXEC。返回一对分别用于读取和写入的文件描述符 (r, w)

可用性: 某些 Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.posix_fallocate(fd, offset, len)

确保为 fd 指向的文件分配了足够的磁盘空间,该空间从偏移量 offset 开始,到 len 字节为止。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.posix_fadvise(fd, offset, len, advice)

声明即将以特定模式访问数据,使内核可以提前进行优化。数据范围是从 fd 所指向文件的 offset 开始,持续 len 个字节。advice 的取值是如下之一:POSIX_FADV_NORMAL, POSIX_FADV_SEQUENTIAL, POSIX_FADV_RANDOM, POSIX_FADV_NOREUSE, POSIX_FADV_WILLNEEDPOSIX_FADV_DONTNEED

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.POSIX_FADV_NORMAL
os.POSIX_FADV_SEQUENTIAL
os.POSIX_FADV_RANDOM
os.POSIX_FADV_NOREUSE
os.POSIX_FADV_WILLNEED
os.POSIX_FADV_DONTNEED

用于 posix_fadvise()advice 参数的标志位,指定可能使用的访问模式。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.pread(fd, n, offset)

从文件描述符 fd 所指向文件的偏移位置 offset 开始,读取至多 n 个字节,而保持文件偏移量不变。

返回所读取字节的字节串 (bytestring)。如果到达了 fd 指向的文件末尾,则返回空字节对象。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.preadv(fd, buffers, offset, flags=0)

从文件描述符 fd 所指向文件的偏移位置 offset 开始,将数据读取至可变 字节类对象 缓冲区 buffers 中,保持文件偏移量不变。将数据依次存放到每个缓冲区中,填满一个后继续存放到序列中的下一个缓冲区,来保存其余数据。

flags 参数可以由零个或多个标志位进行按位或运算来得到:

返回实际读取的字节总数,该总数可以小于所有对象的总容量。

操作系统可能对允许使用的缓冲区数量有限制(使用 sysconf() 获取 'SC_IOV_MAX' 值)。

本方法结合了 os.readv()os.pread() 的功能。

可用性:Linux 2.6.30 或更高版本,FreeBSD 6.0 或更高版本,OpenBSD 2.7 或更高版本。使用标志位需要 Linux 4.6 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.RWF_NOWAIT

不要等待无法立即获得的数据。如果指定了此标志,那么当需要从后备存储器中读取数据,或等待文件锁时,系统调用将立即返回。

如果成功读取数据,则返回读取的字节数。如果未读取到数据,则返回 -1,并将错误码 errno 置为 errno.EAGAIN

可用性:Linux 4.14 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.RWF_HIPRI

高优先级读/写。允许基于块的文件系统对设备进行轮询,这样可以降低延迟,但可能会占用更多资源。

目前在 Linux 上,此功能仅在使用 O_DIRECT 标志打开的文件描述符上可用。

可用性:Linux 4.6 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.pwrite(fd, str, offset)

str 中的字节串 (bytestring) 写入文件描述符 fd 的偏移位置 offset 处,保持文件偏移量不变。

返回实际写入的字节数。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.pwritev(fd, buffers, offset, flags=0)

将缓冲区 buffers 的内容写入文件描述符 fd 的偏移位置 offset 处,保持文件偏移量不变。缓冲区 buffers 必须是由 字节类对象 组成的序列。缓冲区以数组顺序处理。先写入第一个缓冲区的全部内容,再写入第二个缓冲区,照此继续。

flags 参数可以由零个或多个标志位进行按位或运算来得到:

返回实际写入的字节总数。

操作系统可能对允许使用的缓冲区数量有限制(使用 sysconf() 获取 'SC_IOV_MAX' 值)。

本方法结合了 os.writev()os.pwrite() 的功能。

可用性:Linux 2.6.30 或更高版本,FreeBSD 6.0 或更高版本,OpenBSD 2.7 或更高版本。使用标志位需要 Linux 4.7 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.RWF_DSYNC

提供立即写入功能,等效于 O_DSYNC open(2) 标志。该标志仅作用于系统调用写入的数据。

可用性:Linux 4.7 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.RWF_SYNC

提供立即写入功能,等效于 O_SYNC open(2) 标志。该标志仅作用于系统调用写入的数据。

可用性:Linux 4.7 或更高版本。

3.7 新版功能.

os.read(fd, n)

从文件描述符 fd 中读取至多 n 个字节。

返回所读取字节的字节串 (bytestring)。如果到达了 fd 指向的文件末尾,则返回空字节对象。

注解

该功能适用于低级 I/O 操作,必须用于 os.open()pipe() 返回的文件描述符。若要读取由内建函数 open()popen()fdopen()sys.stdin 返回的 "文件对象",则应使用其相应的 read()readline() 方法。

在 3.5 版更改: 如果系统调用被中断,但信号处理程序没有触发异常,此函数现在会重试系统调用,而不是触发 InterruptedError 异常 (原因详见 PEP 475)。

os.sendfile(out, in, offset, count)
os.sendfile(out, in, offset, count, [headers, ][trailers, ]flags=0)

将文件描述符 in 中的 count 字节复制到文件描述符 out 的偏移位置 offset 处。返回复制的字节数,如果到达 EOF,返回 0。

定义了 sendfile() 的所有平台均支持第一种函数用法。

在 Linux 上,将 offset 设置为 None,则从 in 的当前位置开始读取,并更新 in 的位置。

第二种函数用法可以在 Mac OS X 和 FreeBSD 上使用,其中,headerstrailers 是任意的缓冲区序列,它们分别在写入 in 的数据前、后被写入。返回值与第一种用法相同。

在 Mac OS X 和 FreeBSD 上,将 count 设为 0 表示持续复制直到 in 的结尾。

所有平台都支持将套接字作为 out 文件描述符,有些平台也支持其他类型(如常规文件或管道)。

跨平台应用程序不应使用 headerstrailersflags 参数。

可用性: Unix。

注解

有关 sendfile() 的高级封装,参见 socket.socket.sendfile()

3.3 新版功能.

os.set_blocking(fd, blocking)

设置指定文件描述符的阻塞模式:如果 blocking 为 False,则为该描述符设置 O_NONBLOCK 标志位,反之则清除该标志位。

参见 get_blocking()socket.socket.setblocking()

可用性: Unix。

3.5 新版功能.

os.SF_NODISKIO
os.SF_MNOWAIT
os.SF_SYNC

sendfile() 函数的参数(假设当前实现支持这些参数)。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.readv(fd, buffers)

从文件描述符 fd 将数据读取至多个可变的 字节类对象 缓冲区 buffers 中。将数据依次存放到每个缓冲区中,填满一个后继续存放到序列中的下一个缓冲区,来保存其余数据。

返回实际读取的字节总数,该总数可以小于所有对象的总容量。

操作系统可能对允许使用的缓冲区数量有限制(使用 sysconf() 获取 'SC_IOV_MAX' 值)。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.tcgetpgrp(fd)

返回与 fd 指定的终端相关联的进程组(fd 是由 os.open() 返回的已打开的文件描述符)。

可用性: Unix。

os.tcsetpgrp(fd, pg)

设置与 fd 指定的终端相关联的进程组为 pg*(*fd 是由 os.open() 返回的已打开的文件描述符)。

可用性: Unix。

os.ttyname(fd)

返回一个字符串,该字符串表示与文件描述符 fd 关联的终端。如果 fd 没有与终端关联,则抛出异常。

可用性: Unix。

os.write(fd, str)

str 中的字节串 (bytestring) 写入文件描述符 fd

返回实际写入的字节数。

注解

该功能适用于低级 I/O 操作,必须用于 os.open()pipe() 返回的文件描述符。若要写入由内建函数 open()popen()fdopen()sys.stdoutsys.stderr 返回的 "文件对象",则应使用其相应的 write() 方法。

在 3.5 版更改: 如果系统调用被中断,但信号处理程序没有触发异常,此函数现在会重试系统调用,而不是触发 InterruptedError 异常 (原因详见 PEP 475)。

os.writev(fd, buffers)

将缓冲区 buffers 的内容写入文件描述符 fd。缓冲区 buffers 必须是由 字节类对象 组成的序列。缓冲区以数组顺序处理。先写入第一个缓冲区的全部内容,再写入第二个缓冲区,照此继续。

返回实际写入的字节总数。

操作系统可能对允许使用的缓冲区数量有限制(使用 sysconf() 获取 'SC_IOV_MAX' 值)。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

查询终端的尺寸

3.3 新版功能.

os.get_terminal_size(fd=STDOUT_FILENO)

返回终端窗口的尺寸,格式为 (columns, lines),它是类型为 terminal_size 的元组。

可选参数 fd``(默认为 ``STDOUT_FILENO 或标准输出)指定应查询的文件描述符。

如果文件描述符未连接到终端,则抛出 OSError 异常。

shutil.get_terminal_size() 是供常规使用的高阶函数,os.get_terminal_size 是其底层的实现。

可用性: Unix, Windows。

class os.terminal_size

元组的子类,存储终端窗口尺寸 (columns, lines)

columns

终端窗口的宽度,单位为字符。

lines

终端窗口的高度,单位为字符。

文件描述符的继承

3.4 新版功能.

每个文件描述符都有一个 "inheritable"(可继承)标志位,该标志位控制了文件描述符是否可以由子进程继承。从 Python 3.4 开始,由 Python 创建的文件描述符默认是不可继承的。

在 UNIX 上,执行新程序时,不可继承的文件描述符在子进程中是关闭的,其他文件描述符将被继承。

在 Windows 上,不可继承的句柄和文件描述符在子进程中是关闭的,但标准流(文件描述符 0、1 和 2 即标准输入、标准输出和标准错误)是始终继承的。如果使用 spawn* 函数,所有可继承的句柄和文件描述符都将被继承。如果使用 subprocess 模块,将关闭除标准流以外的所有文件描述符,并且仅当 close_fds 参数为 False 时才继承可继承的句柄。

os.get_inheritable(fd)

获取指定文件描述符的“可继承”标志位(为布尔值)。

os.set_inheritable(fd, inheritable)

设置指定文件描述符的“可继承”标志位。

os.get_handle_inheritable(handle)

获取指定句柄的“可继承”标志位(为布尔值)。

可用性: Windows。

os.set_handle_inheritable(handle, inheritable)

设置指定句柄的“可继承”标志位。

可用性: Windows。

文件和目录

在某些 Unix 平台上,许多函数支持以下一项或多项功能:

  • 指定文件描述符为参数: 通常在 os 模块中提供给函数的 path 参数必须是表示文件路径的字符串,但是,某些函数现在可以接受其 path 参数为打开文件描述符,该函数将对描述符指向的文件进行操作。(对于 POSIX 系统,Python 将调用以 f 开头的函数变体(如调用 fchdir 而不是 chdir)。)

    可以用 os.supports_fd 检查某个函数在你的平台上是否支持将 path 参数指定为文件描述符。如果不支持,使用该功能将抛出 NotImplementedError 异常。

    如果该函数还支持 dir_fdfollow_symlinks 参数,那么用文件描述符作为 path 后就不能再指定上述参数了。

  • 基于目录描述符的相对路径: 如果 dir_fd 不是 None,它就应该是一个指向目录的文件描述符,这时待操作的 path 应该是相对路径,相对路径是相对于前述目录的。如果 path 是绝对路径,则 dir_fd 将被忽略。(对于 POSIX 系统,Python 将调用该函数的变体,变体以 at 结尾,可能以 f 开头(如调用 faccessat 而不是 access)。

    可以用 os.supports_dir_fd 检查某个函数在你的平台上是否支持 dir_fd。如果不支持,使用该功能将抛出 NotImplementedError 异常。

os.access(path, mode, *, dir_fd=None, effective_ids=False, follow_symlinks=True)

使用 实际用户ID/用户组ID 测试对 path 的访问。请注意,大多数测试操作将使用 有效用户ID/用户组ID,因此可以在 suid/sgid 环境中运用此例程,来测试调用用户是否具有对 path 的指定访问权限。modeF_OK 时用于测试 path 是否存在,也可以对 R_OKW_OKX_OK 中的一个或多个进行“或”运算来测试指定权限。允许访问则返回 True,否则返回 False。更多信息请参见 Unix 手册页 access(2)

本函数支持指定 基于目录描述符的相对路径不跟踪符号链接

如果 effective_idsTrueaccess() 将使用 有效用户ID/用户组ID 而非 实际用户ID/用户组ID 进行访问检查。您的平台可能不支持 effective_ids,您可以使用 os.supports_effective_ids 检查它是否可用。如果不可用,使用它时会抛出 NotImplementedError 异常。

注解

使用 access() 来检查用户是否具有某项权限(如打开文件的权限),然后再使用 open() 打开文件,这样做存在一个安全漏洞,因为用户可能会在检查和打开文件之间的时间里做其他操作。推荐使用 EAFP 技术。如:

if os.access("myfile", os.R_OK):
    with open("myfile") as fp:
        return fp.read()
return "some default data"

最好写成:

try:
    fp = open("myfile")
except PermissionError:
    return "some default data"
else:
    with fp:
        return fp.read()

注解

即使 access() 指示 I/O 操作会成功,但实际操作仍可能失败,尤其是对网络文件系统的操作,其权限语义可能超出常规的 POSIX 权限位模型。

在 3.3 版更改: 添加 dir_fdeffective_idsfollow_symlinks 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.F_OK
os.R_OK
os.W_OK
os.X_OK

作为 access()mode 参数的可选值,分别测试 path 的存在性、可读性、可写性和可执行性。

os.chdir(path)

将当前工作目录更改为 path

本函数支持 指定文件描述符为参数。其中,描述符必须指向打开的目录,不能是打开的文件。

本函数可以抛出 OSError 及其子类的异常,如 FileNotFoundErrorPermissionErrorNotADirectoryError 异常。

3.3 新版功能: 在某些平台上新增支持将 path 参数指定为文件描述符。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.chflags(path, flags, *, follow_symlinks=True)

path 的 flags 设置为其他由数字表示的 flagsflags 可以用以下值按位或组合起来(以下值在 stat 模块中定义):

本函数支持 不跟踪符号链接

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能: follow_symlinks 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.chmod(path, mode, *, dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True)

path 的 mode 更改为其他由数字表示的 modemode 可以用以下值之一,也可以将它们按位或组合起来(以下值在 stat 模块中定义):

本函数支持 指定文件描述符指定基于目录描述符的相对路径不跟踪符号链接

注解

尽管 Windows 支持 chmod(),但只能用它设置文件的只读标志(stat.S_IWRITEstat.S_IREAD 常量或对应的整数值)。所有其他标志位都会被忽略。

3.3 新版功能: 添加了指定 path 为文件描述符的支持,以及 dir_fdfollow_symlinks 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.chown(path, uid, gid, *, dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True)

path 的用户和组 ID 分别修改为数字形式的 uidgid。若要使其中某个 ID 保持不变,请将其置为 -1。

本函数支持 指定文件描述符指定基于目录描述符的相对路径不跟踪符号链接

参见更高阶的函数 shutil.chown(),除了数字 ID 之外,它也接受名称。

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能: 添加了指定 path 为文件描述符的支持,以及 dir_fdfollow_symlinks 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 支持 类路径对象

os.chroot(path)

将当前进程的根目录更改为 path

可用性: Unix。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.fchdir(fd)

将当前工作目录更改为文件描述符 fd 指向的目录。fd 必须指向打开的目录而非文件。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.chdir(fd)

可用性: Unix。

os.getcwd()

返回表示当前工作目录的字符串。

os.getcwdb()

返回表示当前工作目录的字节串 (bytestring)。

在 3.8 版更改: 在 Windows 上,本函数现在会使用 UTF-8 编码格式而不是 ANSI 代码页:请参看 PEP 529 了解具体原因。 该函数在 Windows 上不再被弃用。

os.lchflags(path, flags)

path 的 flags 设置为其他由数字表示的 flags,与 chflags() 类似,但不跟踪符号链接。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.chflags(path, flags, follow_symlinks=False)

可用性: Unix。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.lchmod(path, mode)

path 的权限状态修改为 mode。如果 path 是符号链接,则影响符号链接本身而非链接目标。可以参考 chmod() 中列出 mode 的可用值。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.chmod(path, mode, follow_symlinks=False)

可用性: Unix。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.lchown(path, uid, gid)

path 的用户和组 ID 分别修改为数字形式的 uidgid,本函数不跟踪符号链接。从 Python 3.3 开始,它等效于 os.chown(path, uid, gid, follow_symlinks=False)

可用性: Unix。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

创建一个指向 src 的硬链接,名为 dst

本函数支持将 src_dir_fddst_dir_fd 中的一个或两个指定为 基于目录描述符的相对路径,支持 不跟踪符号链接

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.2 版更改: 添加了对 Windows 的支持。

3.3 新版功能: 添加 src_dir_fddst_dir_fdfollow_symlinks 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象 作为 srcdst

os.listdir(path='.')

返回一个列表,该列表包含了 path 中所有文件与目录的名称。该列表按任意顺序排列,并且不包含特殊条目 '.''..',即使它们确实在目录中存在。

path 可以是 路径类对象。如果 path 是(直接/间接由 PathLike 接口返回的) bytes 类型,则返回的文件名也将是 bytes 类型,其他情况下文件名类型是 str

本函数也支持 指定文件描述符为参数,其中描述符必须指向目录。

引发一个 审核事件 os.listdir,附带参数 path

注解

要将 str 类型的文件名编码为 bytes,请使用 fsencode()

参见

scandir() 函数返回目录内文件名的同时,也返回文件属性信息,它在某些具体情况下能提供更好的性能。

在 3.2 版更改: path 变为可选参数。

3.3 新版功能: 新增支持将 path 参数指定为打开的文件描述符。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.lstat(path, *, dir_fd=None)

在给定路径上执行本函数,其操作相当于 lstat() 系统调用,类似于 stat() 但不跟踪符号链接。返回值是 stat_result 对象。

在不支持符号链接的平台上,本函数是 stat() 的别名。

从 Python 3.3 起,此功能等价于 os.stat(path, dir_fd=dir_fd, follow_symlinks=False)

本函数支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

参见

stat() 函数。

在 3.2 版更改: 添加对 Windows 6.0 (Vista) 符号链接的支持。

在 3.3 版更改: 添加了 dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象 作为 srcdst

在 3.8 版更改: On Windows, now opens reparse points that represent another path (name surrogates), including symbolic links and directory junctions. Other kinds of reparse points are resolved by the operating system as for stat().

os.mkdir(path, mode=0o777, *, dir_fd=None)

Create a directory named path with numeric mode mode.

If the directory already exists, FileExistsError is raised.

On some systems, mode is ignored. Where it is used, the current umask value is first masked out. If bits other than the last 9 (i.e. the last 3 digits of the octal representation of the mode) are set, their meaning is platform-dependent. On some platforms, they are ignored and you should call chmod() explicitly to set them.

本函数支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

It is also possible to create temporary directories; see the tempfile module's tempfile.mkdtemp() function.

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.makedirs(name, mode=0o777, exist_ok=False)

Recursive directory creation function. Like mkdir(), but makes all intermediate-level directories needed to contain the leaf directory.

The mode parameter is passed to mkdir() for creating the leaf directory; see the mkdir() description for how it is interpreted. To set the file permission bits of any newly-created parent directories you can set the umask before invoking makedirs(). The file permission bits of existing parent directories are not changed.

If exist_ok is False (the default), an FileExistsError is raised if the target directory already exists.

注解

makedirs() will become confused if the path elements to create include pardir (eg. ".." on UNIX systems).

This function handles UNC paths correctly.

3.2 新版功能: The exist_ok parameter.

在 3.4.1 版更改: Before Python 3.4.1, if exist_ok was True and the directory existed, makedirs() would still raise an error if mode did not match the mode of the existing directory. Since this behavior was impossible to implement safely, it was removed in Python 3.4.1. See bpo-21082.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

在 3.7 版更改: The mode argument no longer affects the file permission bits of newly-created intermediate-level directories.

os.mkfifo(path, mode=0o666, *, dir_fd=None)

Create a FIFO (a named pipe) named path with numeric mode mode. The current umask value is first masked out from the mode.

本函数支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

FIFOs are pipes that can be accessed like regular files. FIFOs exist until they are deleted (for example with os.unlink()). Generally, FIFOs are used as rendezvous between "client" and "server" type processes: the server opens the FIFO for reading, and the client opens it for writing. Note that mkfifo() doesn't open the FIFO --- it just creates the rendezvous point.

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.mknod(path, mode=0o600, device=0, *, dir_fd=None)

Create a filesystem node (file, device special file or named pipe) named path. mode specifies both the permissions to use and the type of node to be created, being combined (bitwise OR) with one of stat.S_IFREG, stat.S_IFCHR, stat.S_IFBLK, and stat.S_IFIFO (those constants are available in stat). For stat.S_IFCHR and stat.S_IFBLK, device defines the newly created device special file (probably using os.makedev()), otherwise it is ignored.

本函数支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.major(device)

Extract the device major number from a raw device number (usually the st_dev or st_rdev field from stat).

os.minor(device)

Extract the device minor number from a raw device number (usually the st_dev or st_rdev field from stat).

os.makedev(major, minor)

Compose a raw device number from the major and minor device numbers.

os.pathconf(path, name)

Return system configuration information relevant to a named file. name specifies the configuration value to retrieve; it may be a string which is the name of a defined system value; these names are specified in a number of standards (POSIX.1, Unix 95, Unix 98, and others). Some platforms define additional names as well. The names known to the host operating system are given in the pathconf_names dictionary. For configuration variables not included in that mapping, passing an integer for name is also accepted.

如果 name 是一个字符串且不是已定义的名称,将抛出 ValueError 异常。如果当前系统不支持 name 指定的配置名称,即使该名称存在于 pathconf_names,也会抛出 OSError 异常,错误码为 errno.EINVAL

This function can support specifying a file descriptor.

可用性: Unix。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.pathconf_names

Dictionary mapping names accepted by pathconf() and fpathconf() to the integer values defined for those names by the host operating system. This can be used to determine the set of names known to the system.

可用性: Unix。

Return a string representing the path to which the symbolic link points. The result may be either an absolute or relative pathname; if it is relative, it may be converted to an absolute pathname using os.path.join(os.path.dirname(path), result).

If the path is a string object (directly or indirectly through a PathLike interface), the result will also be a string object, and the call may raise a UnicodeDecodeError. If the path is a bytes object (direct or indirectly), the result will be a bytes object.

本函数支持 基于目录描述符的相对路径

When trying to resolve a path that may contain links, use realpath() to properly handle recursion and platform differences.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.2 版更改: 添加对 Windows 6.0 (Vista) 符号链接的支持。

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: Accepts a path-like object on Unix.

在 3.8 版更改: Accepts a path-like object and a bytes object on Windows.

在 3.8 版更改: Added support for directory junctions, and changed to return the substitution path (which typically includes \\?\ prefix) rather than the optional "print name" field that was previously returned.

os.remove(path, *, dir_fd=None)

Remove (delete) the file path. If path is a directory, an IsADirectoryError is raised. Use rmdir() to remove directories.

This function can support paths relative to directory descriptors.

On Windows, attempting to remove a file that is in use causes an exception to be raised; on Unix, the directory entry is removed but the storage allocated to the file is not made available until the original file is no longer in use.

This function is semantically identical to unlink().

3.3 新版功能: dir_fd 参数。

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.removedirs(name)

Remove directories recursively. Works like rmdir() except that, if the leaf directory is successfully removed, removedirs() tries to successively remove every parent directory mentioned in path until an error is raised (which is ignored, because it generally means that a parent directory is not empty). For example, os.removedirs('foo/bar/baz') will first remove the directory 'foo/bar/baz', and then remove 'foo/bar' and 'foo' if they are empty. Raises OSError if the leaf directory could not be successfully removed.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.rename(src, dst, *, src_dir_fd=None, dst_dir_fd=None)

Rename the file or directory src to dst. If dst exists, the operation will fail with an OSError subclass in a number of cases:

On Windows, if dst exists a FileExistsError is always raised.

On Unix, if src is a file and dst is a directory or vice-versa, an IsADirectoryError or a NotADirectoryError will be raised respectively. If both are directories and dst is empty, dst will be silently replaced. If dst is a non-empty directory, an OSError is raised. If both are files, dst it will be replaced silently if the user has permission. The operation may fail on some Unix flavors if src and dst are on different filesystems. If successful, the renaming will be an atomic operation (this is a POSIX requirement).

This function can support specifying src_dir_fd and/or dst_dir_fd to supply paths relative to directory descriptors.

If you want cross-platform overwriting of the destination, use replace().

3.3 新版功能: The src_dir_fd and dst_dir_fd arguments.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象 作为 srcdst

os.renames(old, new)

Recursive directory or file renaming function. Works like rename(), except creation of any intermediate directories needed to make the new pathname good is attempted first. After the rename, directories corresponding to rightmost path segments of the old name will be pruned away using removedirs().

注解

This function can fail with the new directory structure made if you lack permissions needed to remove the leaf directory or file.

在 3.6 版更改: Accepts a path-like object for old and new.

os.replace(src, dst, *, src_dir_fd=None, dst_dir_fd=None)

Rename the file or directory src to dst. If dst is a directory, OSError will be raised. If dst exists and is a file, it will be replaced silently if the user has permission. The operation may fail if src and dst are on different filesystems. If successful, the renaming will be an atomic operation (this is a POSIX requirement).

This function can support specifying src_dir_fd and/or dst_dir_fd to supply paths relative to directory descriptors.

3.3 新版功能.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象 作为 srcdst

os.rmdir(path, *, dir_fd=None)

Remove (delete) the directory path. If the directory does not exist or is not empty, an FileNotFoundError or an OSError is raised respectively. In order to remove whole directory trees, shutil.rmtree() can be used.

This function can support paths relative to directory descriptors.

3.3 新版功能: The dir_fd parameter.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.scandir(path='.')

Return an iterator of os.DirEntry objects corresponding to the entries in the directory given by path. The entries are yielded in arbitrary order, and the special entries '.' and '..' are not included.

Using scandir() instead of listdir() can significantly increase the performance of code that also needs file type or file attribute information, because os.DirEntry objects expose this information if the operating system provides it when scanning a directory. All os.DirEntry methods may perform a system call, but is_dir() and is_file() usually only require a system call for symbolic links; os.DirEntry.stat() always requires a system call on Unix but only requires one for symbolic links on Windows.

path may be a path-like object. If path is of type bytes (directly or indirectly through the PathLike interface), the type of the name and path attributes of each os.DirEntry will be bytes; in all other circumstances, they will be of type str.

本函数也支持 指定文件描述符为参数,其中描述符必须指向目录。

引发一个 审核事件 os.scandir,附带参数 path

The scandir() iterator supports the context manager protocol and has the following method:

scandir.close()

Close the iterator and free acquired resources.

This is called automatically when the iterator is exhausted or garbage collected, or when an error happens during iterating. However it is advisable to call it explicitly or use the with statement.

3.6 新版功能.

The following example shows a simple use of scandir() to display all the files (excluding directories) in the given path that don't start with '.'. The entry.is_file() call will generally not make an additional system call:

with os.scandir(path) as it:
    for entry in it:
        if not entry.name.startswith('.') and entry.is_file():
            print(entry.name)

注解

On Unix-based systems, scandir() uses the system's opendir() and readdir() functions. On Windows, it uses the Win32 FindFirstFileW and FindNextFileW functions.

3.5 新版功能.

3.6 新版功能: Added support for the context manager protocol and the close() method. If a scandir() iterator is neither exhausted nor explicitly closed a ResourceWarning will be emitted in its destructor.

The function accepts a path-like object.

在 3.7 版更改: Added support for file descriptors on Unix.

class os.DirEntry

Object yielded by scandir() to expose the file path and other file attributes of a directory entry.

scandir() will provide as much of this information as possible without making additional system calls. When a stat() or lstat() system call is made, the os.DirEntry object will cache the result.

os.DirEntry instances are not intended to be stored in long-lived data structures; if you know the file metadata has changed or if a long time has elapsed since calling scandir(), call os.stat(entry.path) to fetch up-to-date information.

Because the os.DirEntry methods can make operating system calls, they may also raise OSError. If you need very fine-grained control over errors, you can catch OSError when calling one of the os.DirEntry methods and handle as appropriate.

To be directly usable as a path-like object, os.DirEntry implements the PathLike interface.

Attributes and methods on a os.DirEntry instance are as follows:

name

The entry's base filename, relative to the scandir() path argument.

The name attribute will be bytes if the scandir() path argument is of type bytes and str otherwise. Use fsdecode() to decode byte filenames.

path

The entry's full path name: equivalent to os.path.join(scandir_path, entry.name) where scandir_path is the scandir() path argument. The path is only absolute if the scandir() path argument was absolute. If the scandir() path argument was a file descriptor, the path attribute is the same as the name attribute.

The path attribute will be bytes if the scandir() path argument is of type bytes and str otherwise. Use fsdecode() to decode byte filenames.

inode()

Return the inode number of the entry.

The result is cached on the os.DirEntry object. Use os.stat(entry.path, follow_symlinks=False).st_ino to fetch up-to-date information.

On the first, uncached call, a system call is required on Windows but not on Unix.

is_dir(*, follow_symlinks=True)

Return True if this entry is a directory or a symbolic link pointing to a directory; return False if the entry is or points to any other kind of file, or if it doesn't exist anymore.

If follow_symlinks is False, return True only if this entry is a directory (without following symlinks); return False if the entry is any other kind of file or if it doesn't exist anymore.

The result is cached on the os.DirEntry object, with a separate cache for follow_symlinks True and False. Call os.stat() along with stat.S_ISDIR() to fetch up-to-date information.

On the first, uncached call, no system call is required in most cases. Specifically, for non-symlinks, neither Windows or Unix require a system call, except on certain Unix file systems, such as network file systems, that return dirent.d_type == DT_UNKNOWN. If the entry is a symlink, a system call will be required to follow the symlink unless follow_symlinks is False.

This method can raise OSError, such as PermissionError, but FileNotFoundError is caught and not raised.

is_file(*, follow_symlinks=True)

Return True if this entry is a file or a symbolic link pointing to a file; return False if the entry is or points to a directory or other non-file entry, or if it doesn't exist anymore.

If follow_symlinks is False, return True only if this entry is a file (without following symlinks); return False if the entry is a directory or other non-file entry, or if it doesn't exist anymore.

The result is cached on the os.DirEntry object. Caching, system calls made, and exceptions raised are as per is_dir().

Return True if this entry is a symbolic link (even if broken); return False if the entry points to a directory or any kind of file, or if it doesn't exist anymore.

The result is cached on the os.DirEntry object. Call os.path.islink() to fetch up-to-date information.

On the first, uncached call, no system call is required in most cases. Specifically, neither Windows or Unix require a system call, except on certain Unix file systems, such as network file systems, that return dirent.d_type == DT_UNKNOWN.

This method can raise OSError, such as PermissionError, but FileNotFoundError is caught and not raised.

stat(*, follow_symlinks=True)

Return a stat_result object for this entry. This method follows symbolic links by default; to stat a symbolic link add the follow_symlinks=False argument.

On Unix, this method always requires a system call. On Windows, it only requires a system call if follow_symlinks is True and the entry is a reparse point (for example, a symbolic link or directory junction).

On Windows, the st_ino, st_dev and st_nlink attributes of the stat_result are always set to zero. Call os.stat() to get these attributes.

The result is cached on the os.DirEntry object, with a separate cache for follow_symlinks True and False. Call os.stat() to fetch up-to-date information.

Note that there is a nice correspondence between several attributes and methods of os.DirEntry and of pathlib.Path. In particular, the name attribute has the same meaning, as do the is_dir(), is_file(), is_symlink() and stat() methods.

3.5 新版功能.

在 3.6 版更改: Added support for the PathLike interface. Added support for bytes paths on Windows.

os.stat(path, *, dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True)

Get the status of a file or a file descriptor. Perform the equivalent of a stat() system call on the given path. path may be specified as either a string or bytes -- directly or indirectly through the PathLike interface -- or as an open file descriptor. Return a stat_result object.

This function normally follows symlinks; to stat a symlink add the argument follow_symlinks=False, or use lstat().

This function can support specifying a file descriptor and not following symlinks.

On Windows, passing follow_symlinks=False will disable following all name-surrogate reparse points, which includes symlinks and directory junctions. Other types of reparse points that do not resemble links or that the operating system is unable to follow will be opened directly. When following a chain of multiple links, this may result in the original link being returned instead of the non-link that prevented full traversal. To obtain stat results for the final path in this case, use the os.path.realpath() function to resolve the path name as far as possible and call lstat() on the result. This does not apply to dangling symlinks or junction points, which will raise the usual exceptions.

示例:

>>> import os
>>> statinfo = os.stat('somefile.txt')
>>> statinfo
os.stat_result(st_mode=33188, st_ino=7876932, st_dev=234881026,
st_nlink=1, st_uid=501, st_gid=501, st_size=264, st_atime=1297230295,
st_mtime=1297230027, st_ctime=1297230027)
>>> statinfo.st_size
264

参见

fstat() and lstat() functions.

3.3 新版功能: Added the dir_fd and follow_symlinks arguments, specifying a file descriptor instead of a path.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

在 3.8 版更改: On Windows, all reparse points that can be resolved by the operating system are now followed, and passing follow_symlinks=False disables following all name surrogate reparse points. If the operating system reaches a reparse point that it is not able to follow, stat now returns the information for the original path as if follow_symlinks=False had been specified instead of raising an error.

class os.stat_result

Object whose attributes correspond roughly to the members of the stat structure. It is used for the result of os.stat(), os.fstat() and os.lstat().

Attributes:

st_mode

File mode: file type and file mode bits (permissions).

st_ino

Platform dependent, but if non-zero, uniquely identifies the file for a given value of st_dev. Typically:

  • the inode number on Unix,

  • the file index on Windows

st_dev

Identifier of the device on which this file resides.

Number of hard links.

st_uid

User identifier of the file owner.

st_gid

Group identifier of the file owner.

st_size

Size of the file in bytes, if it is a regular file or a symbolic link. The size of a symbolic link is the length of the pathname it contains, without a terminating null byte.

Timestamps:

st_atime

Time of most recent access expressed in seconds.

st_mtime

Time of most recent content modification expressed in seconds.

st_ctime

Platform dependent:

  • the time of most recent metadata change on Unix,

  • the time of creation on Windows, expressed in seconds.

st_atime_ns

Time of most recent access expressed in nanoseconds as an integer.

st_mtime_ns

Time of most recent content modification expressed in nanoseconds as an integer.

st_ctime_ns

Platform dependent:

  • the time of most recent metadata change on Unix,

  • the time of creation on Windows, expressed in nanoseconds as an integer.

注解

The exact meaning and resolution of the st_atime, st_mtime, and st_ctime attributes depend on the operating system and the file system. For example, on Windows systems using the FAT or FAT32 file systems, st_mtime has 2-second resolution, and st_atime has only 1-day resolution. See your operating system documentation for details.

Similarly, although st_atime_ns, st_mtime_ns, and st_ctime_ns are always expressed in nanoseconds, many systems do not provide nanosecond precision. On systems that do provide nanosecond precision, the floating-point object used to store st_atime, st_mtime, and st_ctime cannot preserve all of it, and as such will be slightly inexact. If you need the exact timestamps you should always use st_atime_ns, st_mtime_ns, and st_ctime_ns.

On some Unix systems (such as Linux), the following attributes may also be available:

st_blocks

Number of 512-byte blocks allocated for file. This may be smaller than st_size/512 when the file has holes.

st_blksize

"Preferred" blocksize for efficient file system I/O. Writing to a file in smaller chunks may cause an inefficient read-modify-rewrite.

st_rdev

Type of device if an inode device.

st_flags

User defined flags for file.

On other Unix systems (such as FreeBSD), the following attributes may be available (but may be only filled out if root tries to use them):

st_gen

File generation number.

st_birthtime

Time of file creation.

On Solaris and derivatives, the following attributes may also be available:

st_fstype

String that uniquely identifies the type of the filesystem that contains the file.

On Mac OS systems, the following attributes may also be available:

st_rsize

Real size of the file.

st_creator

Creator of the file.

st_type

File type.

On Windows systems, the following attributes are also available:

st_file_attributes

Windows file attributes: dwFileAttributes member of the BY_HANDLE_FILE_INFORMATION structure returned by GetFileInformationByHandle(). See the FILE_ATTRIBUTE_* constants in the stat module.

st_reparse_tag

When st_file_attributes has the FILE_ATTRIBUTE_REPARSE_POINT set, this field contains the tag identifying the type of reparse point. See the IO_REPARSE_TAG_* constants in the stat module.

The standard module stat defines functions and constants that are useful for extracting information from a stat structure. (On Windows, some items are filled with dummy values.)

For backward compatibility, a stat_result instance is also accessible as a tuple of at least 10 integers giving the most important (and portable) members of the stat structure, in the order st_mode, st_ino, st_dev, st_nlink, st_uid, st_gid, st_size, st_atime, st_mtime, st_ctime. More items may be added at the end by some implementations. For compatibility with older Python versions, accessing stat_result as a tuple always returns integers.

3.3 新版功能: Added the st_atime_ns, st_mtime_ns, and st_ctime_ns members.

3.5 新版功能: Added the st_file_attributes member on Windows.

在 3.5 版更改: Windows now returns the file index as st_ino when available.

3.7 新版功能: Added the st_fstype member to Solaris/derivatives.

3.8 新版功能: Added the st_reparse_tag member on Windows.

在 3.8 版更改: On Windows, the st_mode member now identifies special files as S_IFCHR, S_IFIFO or S_IFBLK as appropriate.

os.statvfs(path)

Perform a statvfs() system call on the given path. The return value is an object whose attributes describe the filesystem on the given path, and correspond to the members of the statvfs structure, namely: f_bsize, f_frsize, f_blocks, f_bfree, f_bavail, f_files, f_ffree, f_favail, f_flag, f_namemax, f_fsid.

Two module-level constants are defined for the f_flag attribute's bit-flags: if ST_RDONLY is set, the filesystem is mounted read-only, and if ST_NOSUID is set, the semantics of setuid/setgid bits are disabled or not supported.

Additional module-level constants are defined for GNU/glibc based systems. These are ST_NODEV (disallow access to device special files), ST_NOEXEC (disallow program execution), ST_SYNCHRONOUS (writes are synced at once), ST_MANDLOCK (allow mandatory locks on an FS), ST_WRITE (write on file/directory/symlink), ST_APPEND (append-only file), ST_IMMUTABLE (immutable file), ST_NOATIME (do not update access times), ST_NODIRATIME (do not update directory access times), ST_RELATIME (update atime relative to mtime/ctime).

This function can support specifying a file descriptor.

可用性: Unix。

在 3.2 版更改: The ST_RDONLY and ST_NOSUID constants were added.

3.3 新版功能: 新增支持将 path 参数指定为打开的文件描述符。

在 3.4 版更改: The ST_NODEV, ST_NOEXEC, ST_SYNCHRONOUS, ST_MANDLOCK, ST_WRITE, ST_APPEND, ST_IMMUTABLE, ST_NOATIME, ST_NODIRATIME, and ST_RELATIME constants were added.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

3.7 新版功能: Added f_fsid.

os.supports_dir_fd

A set object indicating which functions in the os module accept an open file descriptor for their dir_fd parameter. Different platforms provide different features, and the underlying functionality Python uses to implement the dir_fd parameter is not available on all platforms Python supports. For consistency's sake, functions that may support dir_fd always allow specifying the parameter, but will throw an exception if the functionality is used when it's not locally available. (Specifying None for dir_fd is always supported on all platforms.)

To check whether a particular function accepts an open file descriptor for its dir_fd parameter, use the in operator on supports_dir_fd. As an example, this expression evaluates to True if os.stat() accepts open file descriptors for dir_fd on the local platform:

os.stat in os.supports_dir_fd

Currently dir_fd parameters only work on Unix platforms; none of them work on Windows.

3.3 新版功能.

os.supports_effective_ids

A set object indicating whether os.access() permits specifying True for its effective_ids parameter on the local platform. (Specifying False for effective_ids is always supported on all platforms.) If the local platform supports it, the collection will contain os.access(); otherwise it will be empty.

This expression evaluates to True if os.access() supports effective_ids=True on the local platform:

os.access in os.supports_effective_ids

Currently effective_ids is only supported on Unix platforms; it does not work on Windows.

3.3 新版功能.

os.supports_fd

A set object indicating which functions in the os module permit specifying their path parameter as an open file descriptor on the local platform. Different platforms provide different features, and the underlying functionality Python uses to accept open file descriptors as path arguments is not available on all platforms Python supports.

To determine whether a particular function permits specifying an open file descriptor for its path parameter, use the in operator on supports_fd. As an example, this expression evaluates to True if os.chdir() accepts open file descriptors for path on your local platform:

os.chdir in os.supports_fd

3.3 新版功能.

A set object indicating which functions in the os module accept False for their follow_symlinks parameter on the local platform. Different platforms provide different features, and the underlying functionality Python uses to implement follow_symlinks is not available on all platforms Python supports. For consistency's sake, functions that may support follow_symlinks always allow specifying the parameter, but will throw an exception if the functionality is used when it's not locally available. (Specifying True for follow_symlinks is always supported on all platforms.)

To check whether a particular function accepts False for its follow_symlinks parameter, use the in operator on supports_follow_symlinks. As an example, this expression evaluates to True if you may specify follow_symlinks=False when calling os.stat() on the local platform:

os.stat in os.supports_follow_symlinks

3.3 新版功能.

Create a symbolic link pointing to src named dst.

On Windows, a symlink represents either a file or a directory, and does not morph to the target dynamically. If the target is present, the type of the symlink will be created to match. Otherwise, the symlink will be created as a directory if target_is_directory is True or a file symlink (the default) otherwise. On non-Windows platforms, target_is_directory is ignored.

This function can support paths relative to directory descriptors.

注解

On newer versions of Windows 10, unprivileged accounts can create symlinks if Developer Mode is enabled. When Developer Mode is not available/enabled, the SeCreateSymbolicLinkPrivilege privilege is required, or the process must be run as an administrator.

OSError is raised when the function is called by an unprivileged user.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.2 版更改: 添加对 Windows 6.0 (Vista) 符号链接的支持。

3.3 新版功能: Added the dir_fd argument, and now allow target_is_directory on non-Windows platforms.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象 作为 srcdst

在 3.8 版更改: Added support for unelevated symlinks on Windows with Developer Mode.

os.sync()

Force write of everything to disk.

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.truncate(path, length)

Truncate the file corresponding to path, so that it is at most length bytes in size.

This function can support specifying a file descriptor.

引发一个 审核事件 os.truncate,附带参数 path, length

可用性: Unix, Windows。

3.3 新版功能.

在 3.5 版更改: 添加了 Windows 支持

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

Remove (delete) the file path. This function is semantically identical to remove(); the unlink name is its traditional Unix name. Please see the documentation for remove() for further information.

3.3 新版功能: The dir_fd parameter.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.utime(path, times=None, *, [ns, ]dir_fd=None, follow_symlinks=True)

Set the access and modified times of the file specified by path.

utime() takes two optional parameters, times and ns. These specify the times set on path and are used as follows:

  • If ns is specified, it must be a 2-tuple of the form (atime_ns, mtime_ns) where each member is an int expressing nanoseconds.

  • If times is not None, it must be a 2-tuple of the form (atime, mtime) where each member is an int or float expressing seconds.

  • If times is None and ns is unspecified, this is equivalent to specifying ns=(atime_ns, mtime_ns) where both times are the current time.

It is an error to specify tuples for both times and ns.

Note that the exact times you set here may not be returned by a subsequent stat() call, depending on the resolution with which your operating system records access and modification times; see stat(). The best way to preserve exact times is to use the st_atime_ns and st_mtime_ns fields from the os.stat() result object with the ns parameter to utime.

本函数支持 指定文件描述符指定基于目录描述符的相对路径不跟踪符号链接

3.3 新版功能: Added support for specifying path as an open file descriptor, and the dir_fd, follow_symlinks, and ns parameters.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.walk(top, topdown=True, onerror=None, followlinks=False)

Generate the file names in a directory tree by walking the tree either top-down or bottom-up. For each directory in the tree rooted at directory top (including top itself), it yields a 3-tuple (dirpath, dirnames, filenames).

dirpath is a string, the path to the directory. dirnames is a list of the names of the subdirectories in dirpath (excluding '.' and '..'). filenames is a list of the names of the non-directory files in dirpath. Note that the names in the lists contain no path components. To get a full path (which begins with top) to a file or directory in dirpath, do os.path.join(dirpath, name).

If optional argument topdown is True or not specified, the triple for a directory is generated before the triples for any of its subdirectories (directories are generated top-down). If topdown is False, the triple for a directory is generated after the triples for all of its subdirectories (directories are generated bottom-up). No matter the value of topdown, the list of subdirectories is retrieved before the tuples for the directory and its subdirectories are generated.

When topdown is True, the caller can modify the dirnames list in-place (perhaps using del or slice assignment), and walk() will only recurse into the subdirectories whose names remain in dirnames; this can be used to prune the search, impose a specific order of visiting, or even to inform walk() about directories the caller creates or renames before it resumes walk() again. Modifying dirnames when topdown is False has no effect on the behavior of the walk, because in bottom-up mode the directories in dirnames are generated before dirpath itself is generated.

By default, errors from the scandir() call are ignored. If optional argument onerror is specified, it should be a function; it will be called with one argument, an OSError instance. It can report the error to continue with the walk, or raise the exception to abort the walk. Note that the filename is available as the filename attribute of the exception object.

By default, walk() will not walk down into symbolic links that resolve to directories. Set followlinks to True to visit directories pointed to by symlinks, on systems that support them.

注解

Be aware that setting followlinks to True can lead to infinite recursion if a link points to a parent directory of itself. walk() does not keep track of the directories it visited already.

注解

If you pass a relative pathname, don't change the current working directory between resumptions of walk(). walk() never changes the current directory, and assumes that its caller doesn't either.

This example displays the number of bytes taken by non-directory files in each directory under the starting directory, except that it doesn't look under any CVS subdirectory:

import os
from os.path import join, getsize
for root, dirs, files in os.walk('python/Lib/email'):
    print(root, "consumes", end=" ")
    print(sum(getsize(join(root, name)) for name in files), end=" ")
    print("bytes in", len(files), "non-directory files")
    if 'CVS' in dirs:
        dirs.remove('CVS')  # don't visit CVS directories

In the next example (simple implementation of shutil.rmtree()), walking the tree bottom-up is essential, rmdir() doesn't allow deleting a directory before the directory is empty:

# Delete everything reachable from the directory named in "top",
# assuming there are no symbolic links.
# CAUTION:  This is dangerous!  For example, if top == '/', it
# could delete all your disk files.
import os
for root, dirs, files in os.walk(top, topdown=False):
    for name in files:
        os.remove(os.path.join(root, name))
    for name in dirs:
        os.rmdir(os.path.join(root, name))

在 3.5 版更改: This function now calls os.scandir() instead of os.listdir(), making it faster by reducing the number of calls to os.stat().

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.fwalk(top='.', topdown=True, onerror=None, *, follow_symlinks=False, dir_fd=None)

This behaves exactly like walk(), except that it yields a 4-tuple (dirpath, dirnames, filenames, dirfd), and it supports dir_fd.

dirpath, dirnames and filenames are identical to walk() output, and dirfd is a file descriptor referring to the directory dirpath.

This function always supports paths relative to directory descriptors and not following symlinks. Note however that, unlike other functions, the fwalk() default value for follow_symlinks is False.

注解

Since fwalk() yields file descriptors, those are only valid until the next iteration step, so you should duplicate them (e.g. with dup()) if you want to keep them longer.

This example displays the number of bytes taken by non-directory files in each directory under the starting directory, except that it doesn't look under any CVS subdirectory:

import os
for root, dirs, files, rootfd in os.fwalk('python/Lib/email'):
    print(root, "consumes", end="")
    print(sum([os.stat(name, dir_fd=rootfd).st_size for name in files]),
          end="")
    print("bytes in", len(files), "non-directory files")
    if 'CVS' in dirs:
        dirs.remove('CVS')  # don't visit CVS directories

In the next example, walking the tree bottom-up is essential: rmdir() doesn't allow deleting a directory before the directory is empty:

# Delete everything reachable from the directory named in "top",
# assuming there are no symbolic links.
# CAUTION:  This is dangerous!  For example, if top == '/', it
# could delete all your disk files.
import os
for root, dirs, files, rootfd in os.fwalk(top, topdown=False):
    for name in files:
        os.unlink(name, dir_fd=rootfd)
    for name in dirs:
        os.rmdir(name, dir_fd=rootfd)

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

在 3.7 版更改: Added support for bytes paths.

os.memfd_create(name[, flags=os.MFD_CLOEXEC])

Create an anonymous file and return a file descriptor that refers to it. flags must be one of the os.MFD_* constants available on the system (or a bitwise ORed combination of them). By default, the new file descriptor is non-inheritable.

The name supplied in name is used as a filename and will be displayed as the target of the corresponding symbolic link in the directory /proc/self/fd/. The displayed name is always prefixed with memfd: and serves only for debugging purposes. Names do not affect the behavior of the file descriptor, and as such multiple files can have the same name without any side effects.

Availability: Linux 3.17 or newer with glibc 2.27 or newer.

3.8 新版功能.

os.MFD_CLOEXEC
os.MFD_ALLOW_SEALING
os.MFD_HUGETLB
os.MFD_HUGE_SHIFT
os.MFD_HUGE_MASK
os.MFD_HUGE_64KB
os.MFD_HUGE_512KB
os.MFD_HUGE_1MB
os.MFD_HUGE_2MB
os.MFD_HUGE_8MB
os.MFD_HUGE_16MB
os.MFD_HUGE_32MB
os.MFD_HUGE_256MB
os.MFD_HUGE_512MB
os.MFD_HUGE_1GB
os.MFD_HUGE_2GB
os.MFD_HUGE_16GB

These flags can be passed to memfd_create().

Availability: Linux 3.17 or newer with glibc 2.27 or newer. The MFD_HUGE* flags are only available since Linux 4.14.

3.8 新版功能.

Linux 扩展属性

3.3 新版功能.

These functions are all available on Linux only.

os.getxattr(path, attribute, *, follow_symlinks=True)

Return the value of the extended filesystem attribute attribute for path. attribute can be bytes or str (directly or indirectly through the PathLike interface). If it is str, it is encoded with the filesystem encoding.

This function can support specifying a file descriptor and not following symlinks.

在 3.6 版更改: Accepts a path-like object for path and attribute.

os.listxattr(path=None, *, follow_symlinks=True)

Return a list of the extended filesystem attributes on path. The attributes in the list are represented as strings decoded with the filesystem encoding. If path is None, listxattr() will examine the current directory.

This function can support specifying a file descriptor and not following symlinks.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.removexattr(path, attribute, *, follow_symlinks=True)

Removes the extended filesystem attribute attribute from path. attribute should be bytes or str (directly or indirectly through the PathLike interface). If it is a string, it is encoded with the filesystem encoding.

This function can support specifying a file descriptor and not following symlinks.

在 3.6 版更改: Accepts a path-like object for path and attribute.

os.setxattr(path, attribute, value, flags=0, *, follow_symlinks=True)

Set the extended filesystem attribute attribute on path to value. attribute must be a bytes or str with no embedded NULs (directly or indirectly through the PathLike interface). If it is a str, it is encoded with the filesystem encoding. flags may be XATTR_REPLACE or XATTR_CREATE. If XATTR_REPLACE is given and the attribute does not exist, EEXISTS will be raised. If XATTR_CREATE is given and the attribute already exists, the attribute will not be created and ENODATA will be raised.

This function can support specifying a file descriptor and not following symlinks.

注解

A bug in Linux kernel versions less than 2.6.39 caused the flags argument to be ignored on some filesystems.

在 3.6 版更改: Accepts a path-like object for path and attribute.

os.XATTR_SIZE_MAX

The maximum size the value of an extended attribute can be. Currently, this is 64 KiB on Linux.

os.XATTR_CREATE

This is a possible value for the flags argument in setxattr(). It indicates the operation must create an attribute.

os.XATTR_REPLACE

This is a possible value for the flags argument in setxattr(). It indicates the operation must replace an existing attribute.

Process Management

These functions may be used to create and manage processes.

The various exec* functions take a list of arguments for the new program loaded into the process. In each case, the first of these arguments is passed to the new program as its own name rather than as an argument a user may have typed on a command line. For the C programmer, this is the argv[0] passed to a program's main(). For example, os.execv('/bin/echo', ['foo', 'bar']) will only print bar on standard output; foo will seem to be ignored.

os.abort()

Generate a SIGABRT signal to the current process. On Unix, the default behavior is to produce a core dump; on Windows, the process immediately returns an exit code of 3. Be aware that calling this function will not call the Python signal handler registered for SIGABRT with signal.signal().

os.add_dll_directory(path)

Add a path to the DLL search path.

This search path is used when resolving dependencies for imported extension modules (the module itself is resolved through sys.path), and also by ctypes.

Remove the directory by calling close() on the returned object or using it in a with statement.

See the Microsoft documentation for more information about how DLLs are loaded.

可用性: Windows。

3.8 新版功能: Previous versions of CPython would resolve DLLs using the default behavior for the current process. This led to inconsistencies, such as only sometimes searching PATH or the current working directory, and OS functions such as AddDllDirectory having no effect.

In 3.8, the two primary ways DLLs are loaded now explicitly override the process-wide behavior to ensure consistency. See the porting notes for information on updating libraries.

os.execl(path, arg0, arg1, ...)
os.execle(path, arg0, arg1, ..., env)
os.execlp(file, arg0, arg1, ...)
os.execlpe(file, arg0, arg1, ..., env)
os.execv(path, args)
os.execve(path, args, env)
os.execvp(file, args)
os.execvpe(file, args, env)

These functions all execute a new program, replacing the current process; they do not return. On Unix, the new executable is loaded into the current process, and will have the same process id as the caller. Errors will be reported as OSError exceptions.

The current process is replaced immediately. Open file objects and descriptors are not flushed, so if there may be data buffered on these open files, you should flush them using sys.stdout.flush() or os.fsync() before calling an exec* function.

The "l" and "v" variants of the exec* functions differ in how command-line arguments are passed. The "l" variants are perhaps the easiest to work with if the number of parameters is fixed when the code is written; the individual parameters simply become additional parameters to the execl*() functions. The "v" variants are good when the number of parameters is variable, with the arguments being passed in a list or tuple as the args parameter. In either case, the arguments to the child process should start with the name of the command being run, but this is not enforced.

The variants which include a "p" near the end (execlp(), execlpe(), execvp(), and execvpe()) will use the PATH environment variable to locate the program file. When the environment is being replaced (using one of the exec*e variants, discussed in the next paragraph), the new environment is used as the source of the PATH variable. The other variants, execl(), execle(), execv(), and execve(), will not use the PATH variable to locate the executable; path must contain an appropriate absolute or relative path.

For execle(), execlpe(), execve(), and execvpe() (note that these all end in "e"), the env parameter must be a mapping which is used to define the environment variables for the new process (these are used instead of the current process' environment); the functions execl(), execlp(), execv(), and execvp() all cause the new process to inherit the environment of the current process.

For execve() on some platforms, path may also be specified as an open file descriptor. This functionality may not be supported on your platform; you can check whether or not it is available using os.supports_fd. If it is unavailable, using it will raise a NotImplementedError.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

3.3 新版功能: Added support for specifying path as an open file descriptor for execve().

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os._exit(n)

Exit the process with status n, without calling cleanup handlers, flushing stdio buffers, etc.

注解

The standard way to exit is sys.exit(n). _exit() should normally only be used in the child process after a fork().

The following exit codes are defined and can be used with _exit(), although they are not required. These are typically used for system programs written in Python, such as a mail server's external command delivery program.

注解

Some of these may not be available on all Unix platforms, since there is some variation. These constants are defined where they are defined by the underlying platform.

os.EX_OK

Exit code that means no error occurred.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_USAGE

Exit code that means the command was used incorrectly, such as when the wrong number of arguments are given.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_DATAERR

Exit code that means the input data was incorrect.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_NOINPUT

Exit code that means an input file did not exist or was not readable.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_NOUSER

Exit code that means a specified user did not exist.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_NOHOST

Exit code that means a specified host did not exist.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_UNAVAILABLE

Exit code that means that a required service is unavailable.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_SOFTWARE

Exit code that means an internal software error was detected.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_OSERR

Exit code that means an operating system error was detected, such as the inability to fork or create a pipe.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_OSFILE

Exit code that means some system file did not exist, could not be opened, or had some other kind of error.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_CANTCREAT

Exit code that means a user specified output file could not be created.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_IOERR

Exit code that means that an error occurred while doing I/O on some file.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_TEMPFAIL

Exit code that means a temporary failure occurred. This indicates something that may not really be an error, such as a network connection that couldn't be made during a retryable operation.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_PROTOCOL

Exit code that means that a protocol exchange was illegal, invalid, or not understood.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_NOPERM

Exit code that means that there were insufficient permissions to perform the operation (but not intended for file system problems).

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_CONFIG

Exit code that means that some kind of configuration error occurred.

可用性: Unix。

os.EX_NOTFOUND

Exit code that means something like "an entry was not found".

可用性: Unix。

os.fork()

Fork a child process. Return 0 in the child and the child's process id in the parent. If an error occurs OSError is raised.

Note that some platforms including FreeBSD <= 6.3 and Cygwin have known issues when using fork() from a thread.

在 3.8 版更改: Calling fork() in a subinterpreter is no longer supported (RuntimeError is raised).

警告

See ssl for applications that use the SSL module with fork().

可用性: Unix。

os.forkpty()

Fork a child process, using a new pseudo-terminal as the child's controlling terminal. Return a pair of (pid, fd), where pid is 0 in the child, the new child's process id in the parent, and fd is the file descriptor of the master end of the pseudo-terminal. For a more portable approach, use the pty module. If an error occurs OSError is raised.

在 3.8 版更改: Calling forkpty() in a subinterpreter is no longer supported (RuntimeError is raised).

可用性: 某些 Unix。

os.kill(pid, sig)

Send signal sig to the process pid. Constants for the specific signals available on the host platform are defined in the signal module.

Windows: The signal.CTRL_C_EVENT and signal.CTRL_BREAK_EVENT signals are special signals which can only be sent to console processes which share a common console window, e.g., some subprocesses. Any other value for sig will cause the process to be unconditionally killed by the TerminateProcess API, and the exit code will be set to sig. The Windows version of kill() additionally takes process handles to be killed.

See also signal.pthread_kill().

3.2 新版功能: Windows support.

os.killpg(pgid, sig)

Send the signal sig to the process group pgid.

可用性: Unix。

os.nice(increment)

Add increment to the process's "niceness". Return the new niceness.

可用性: Unix。

os.plock(op)

Lock program segments into memory. The value of op (defined in <sys/lock.h>) determines which segments are locked.

可用性: Unix。

os.popen(cmd, mode='r', buffering=-1)

Open a pipe to or from command cmd. The return value is an open file object connected to the pipe, which can be read or written depending on whether mode is 'r' (default) or 'w'. The buffering argument has the same meaning as the corresponding argument to the built-in open() function. The returned file object reads or writes text strings rather than bytes.

The close method returns None if the subprocess exited successfully, or the subprocess's return code if there was an error. On POSIX systems, if the return code is positive it represents the return value of the process left-shifted by one byte. If the return code is negative, the process was terminated by the signal given by the negated value of the return code. (For example, the return value might be - signal.SIGKILL if the subprocess was killed.) On Windows systems, the return value contains the signed integer return code from the child process.

This is implemented using subprocess.Popen; see that class's documentation for more powerful ways to manage and communicate with subprocesses.

os.posix_spawn(path, argv, env, *, file_actions=None, setpgroup=None, resetids=False, setsid=False, setsigmask=(), setsigdef=(), scheduler=None)

Wraps the posix_spawn() C library API for use from Python.

Most users should use subprocess.run() instead of posix_spawn().

The positional-only arguments path, args, and env are similar to execve().

The path parameter is the path to the executable file.The path should contain a directory.Use posix_spawnp() to pass an executable file without directory.

The file_actions argument may be a sequence of tuples describing actions to take on specific file descriptors in the child process between the C library implementation's fork() and exec() steps. The first item in each tuple must be one of the three type indicator listed below describing the remaining tuple elements:

os.POSIX_SPAWN_OPEN

(os.POSIX_SPAWN_OPEN, fd, path, flags, mode)

Performs os.dup2(os.open(path, flags, mode), fd).

os.POSIX_SPAWN_CLOSE

(os.POSIX_SPAWN_CLOSE, fd)

Performs os.close(fd).

os.POSIX_SPAWN_DUP2

(os.POSIX_SPAWN_DUP2, fd, new_fd)

Performs os.dup2(fd, new_fd).

These tuples correspond to the C library posix_spawn_file_actions_addopen(), posix_spawn_file_actions_addclose(), and posix_spawn_file_actions_adddup2() API calls used to prepare for the posix_spawn() call itself.

The setpgroup argument will set the process group of the child to the value specified. If the value specified is 0, the child's process group ID will be made the same as its process ID. If the value of setpgroup is not set, the child will inherit the parent's process group ID. This argument corresponds to the C library POSIX_SPAWN_SETPGROUP flag.

If the resetids argument is True it will reset the effective UID and GID of the child to the real UID and GID of the parent process. If the argument is False, then the child retains the effective UID and GID of the parent. In either case, if the set-user-ID and set-group-ID permission bits are enabled on the executable file, their effect will override the setting of the effective UID and GID. This argument corresponds to the C library POSIX_SPAWN_RESETIDS flag.

If the setsid argument is True, it will create a new session ID for posix_spawn. setsid requires POSIX_SPAWN_SETSID or POSIX_SPAWN_SETSID_NP flag. Otherwise, NotImplementedError is raised.

The setsigmask argument will set the signal mask to the signal set specified. If the parameter is not used, then the child inherits the parent's signal mask. This argument corresponds to the C library POSIX_SPAWN_SETSIGMASK flag.

The sigdef argument will reset the disposition of all signals in the set specified. This argument corresponds to the C library POSIX_SPAWN_SETSIGDEF flag.

The scheduler argument must be a tuple containing the (optional) scheduler policy and an instance of sched_param with the scheduler parameters. A value of None in the place of the scheduler policy indicates that is not being provided. This argument is a combination of the C library POSIX_SPAWN_SETSCHEDPARAM and POSIX_SPAWN_SETSCHEDULER flags.

3.8 新版功能.

可用性: Unix。

os.posix_spawnp(path, argv, env, *, file_actions=None, setpgroup=None, resetids=False, setsid=False, setsigmask=(), setsigdef=(), scheduler=None)

Wraps the posix_spawnp() C library API for use from Python.

Similar to posix_spawn() except that the system searches for the executable file in the list of directories specified by the PATH environment variable (in the same way as for execvp(3)).

3.8 新版功能.

Availability: See posix_spawn() documentation.

os.register_at_fork(*, before=None, after_in_parent=None, after_in_child=None)

Register callables to be executed when a new child process is forked using os.fork() or similar process cloning APIs. The parameters are optional and keyword-only. Each specifies a different call point.

  • before is a function called before forking a child process.

  • after_in_parent is a function called from the parent process after forking a child process.

  • after_in_child is a function called from the child process.

These calls are only made if control is expected to return to the Python interpreter. A typical subprocess launch will not trigger them as the child is not going to re-enter the interpreter.

Functions registered for execution before forking are called in reverse registration order. Functions registered for execution after forking (either in the parent or in the child) are called in registration order.

Note that fork() calls made by third-party C code may not call those functions, unless it explicitly calls PyOS_BeforeFork(), PyOS_AfterFork_Parent() and PyOS_AfterFork_Child().

There is no way to unregister a function.

可用性: Unix。

3.7 新版功能.

os.spawnl(mode, path, ...)
os.spawnle(mode, path, ..., env)
os.spawnlp(mode, file, ...)
os.spawnlpe(mode, file, ..., env)
os.spawnv(mode, path, args)
os.spawnve(mode, path, args, env)
os.spawnvp(mode, file, args)
os.spawnvpe(mode, file, args, env)

Execute the program path in a new process.

(Note that the subprocess module provides more powerful facilities for spawning new processes and retrieving their results; using that module is preferable to using these functions. Check especially the Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module section.)

If mode is P_NOWAIT, this function returns the process id of the new process; if mode is P_WAIT, returns the process's exit code if it exits normally, or -signal, where signal is the signal that killed the process. On Windows, the process id will actually be the process handle, so can be used with the waitpid() function.

Note on VxWorks, this function doesn't return -signal when the new process is killed. Instead it raises OSError exception.

The "l" and "v" variants of the spawn* functions differ in how command-line arguments are passed. The "l" variants are perhaps the easiest to work with if the number of parameters is fixed when the code is written; the individual parameters simply become additional parameters to the spawnl*() functions. The "v" variants are good when the number of parameters is variable, with the arguments being passed in a list or tuple as the args parameter. In either case, the arguments to the child process must start with the name of the command being run.

The variants which include a second "p" near the end (spawnlp(), spawnlpe(), spawnvp(), and spawnvpe()) will use the PATH environment variable to locate the program file. When the environment is being replaced (using one of the spawn*e variants, discussed in the next paragraph), the new environment is used as the source of the PATH variable. The other variants, spawnl(), spawnle(), spawnv(), and spawnve(), will not use the PATH variable to locate the executable; path must contain an appropriate absolute or relative path.

For spawnle(), spawnlpe(), spawnve(), and spawnvpe() (note that these all end in "e"), the env parameter must be a mapping which is used to define the environment variables for the new process (they are used instead of the current process' environment); the functions spawnl(), spawnlp(), spawnv(), and spawnvp() all cause the new process to inherit the environment of the current process. Note that keys and values in the env dictionary must be strings; invalid keys or values will cause the function to fail, with a return value of 127.

As an example, the following calls to spawnlp() and spawnvpe() are equivalent:

import os
os.spawnlp(os.P_WAIT, 'cp', 'cp', 'index.html', '/dev/null')

L = ['cp', 'index.html', '/dev/null']
os.spawnvpe(os.P_WAIT, 'cp', L, os.environ)

Availability: Unix, Windows. spawnlp(), spawnlpe(), spawnvp() and spawnvpe() are not available on Windows. spawnle() and spawnve() are not thread-safe on Windows; we advise you to use the subprocess module instead.

在 3.6 版更改: 接受一个 类路径对象

os.P_NOWAIT
os.P_NOWAITO

Possible values for the mode parameter to the spawn* family of functions. If either of these values is given, the spawn*() functions will return as soon as the new process has been created, with the process id as the return value.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

os.P_WAIT

Possible value for the mode parameter to the spawn* family of functions. If this is given as mode, the spawn*() functions will not return until the new process has run to completion and will return the exit code of the process the run is successful, or -signal if a signal kills the process.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

os.P_DETACH
os.P_OVERLAY

Possible values for the mode parameter to the spawn* family of functions. These are less portable than those listed above. P_DETACH is similar to P_NOWAIT, but the new process is detached from the console of the calling process. If P_OVERLAY is used, the current process will be replaced; the spawn* function will not return.

可用性: Windows。

os.startfile(path[, operation])

Start a file with its associated application.

When operation is not specified or 'open', this acts like double-clicking the file in Windows Explorer, or giving the file name as an argument to the start command from the interactive command shell: the file is opened with whatever application (if any) its extension is associated.

When another operation is given, it must be a "command verb" that specifies what should be done with the file. Common verbs documented by Microsoft are 'print' and 'edit' (to be used on files) as well as 'explore' and 'find' (to be used on directories).

startfile() returns as soon as the associated application is launched. There is no option to wait for the application to close, and no way to retrieve the application's exit status. The path parameter is relative to the current directory. If you want to use an absolute path, make sure the first character is not a slash ('/'); the underlying Win32 ShellExecute() function doesn't work if it is. Use the os.path.normpath() function to ensure that the path is properly encoded for Win32.

To reduce interpreter startup overhead, the Win32 ShellExecute() function is not resolved until this function is first called. If the function cannot be resolved, NotImplementedError will be raised.

可用性: Windows。

os.system(command)

Execute the command (a string) in a subshell. This is implemented by calling the Standard C function system(), and has the same limitations. Changes to sys.stdin, etc. are not reflected in the environment of the executed command. If command generates any output, it will be sent to the interpreter standard output stream.

On Unix, the return value is the exit status of the process encoded in the format specified for wait(). Note that POSIX does not specify the meaning of the return value of the C system() function, so the return value of the Python function is system-dependent.

On Windows, the return value is that returned by the system shell after running command. The shell is given by the Windows environment variable COMSPEC: it is usually cmd.exe, which returns the exit status of the command run; on systems using a non-native shell, consult your shell documentation.

The subprocess module provides more powerful facilities for spawning new processes and retrieving their results; using that module is preferable to using this function. See the Replacing Older Functions with the subprocess Module section in the subprocess documentation for some helpful recipes.

引发一个 审核事件 os.system,附带参数 command

可用性: Unix, Windows。

os.times()

Returns the current global process times. The return value is an object with five attributes:

  • user - user time

  • system - system time

  • children_user - user time of all child processes

  • children_system - system time of all child processes

  • elapsed - elapsed real time since a fixed point in the past

For backwards compatibility, this object also behaves like a five-tuple containing user, system, children_user, children_system, and elapsed in that order.

See the Unix manual page times(2) and times(3) manual page on Unix or the GetProcessTimes MSDN <https://docs.microsoft.com/windows/win32/api/processthreadsapi/nf-processthreadsapi-getprocesstimes> _ on Windows. On Windows, only user and system are known; the other attributes are zero.

可用性: Unix, Windows。

在 3.3 版更改: 返回结果的类型由元组变成一个类似元组的对象,同时具有命名的属性。

os.wait()

Wait for completion of a child process, and return a tuple containing its pid and exit status indication: a 16-bit number, whose low byte is the signal number that killed the process, and whose high byte is the exit status (if the signal number is zero); the high bit of the low byte is set if a core file was produced.

可用性: Unix。

os.waitid(idtype, id, options)

Wait for the completion of one or more child processes. idtype can be P_PID, P_PGID or P_ALL. id specifies the pid to wait on. options is constructed from the ORing of one or more of WEXITED, WSTOPPED or WCONTINUED and additionally may be ORed with WNOHANG or WNOWAIT. The return value is an object representing the data contained in the siginfo_t structure, namely: si_pid, si_uid, si_signo, si_status, si_code or None if WNOHANG is specified and there are no children in a waitable state.

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.P_PID
os.P_PGID
os.P_ALL

These are the possible values for idtype in waitid(). They affect how id is interpreted.

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.WEXITED
os.WSTOPPED
os.WNOWAIT

Flags that can be used in options in waitid() that specify what child signal to wait for.

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.CLD_EXITED
os.CLD_DUMPED
os.CLD_TRAPPED
os.CLD_CONTINUED

These are the possible values for si_code in the result returned by waitid().

可用性: Unix。

3.3 新版功能.

os.waitpid(pid, options)

The details of this function differ on Unix and Windows.

On Unix: Wait for completion of a child process given by process id pid, and return a tuple containing its process id and exit status indication (encoded as for wait()). The semantics of the call are affected by the value of the integer options, which should be 0 for normal operation.

If pid is greater than 0, waitpid() requests status information for that specific process. If pid is 0, the request is for the status of any child in the process group of the current process. If pid is -1, the request pertains to any child of the current process. If pid is less than -1, status is requested for any process in the process group -pid (the absolute value of pid).

An OSError is raised with the value of errno when the syscall returns -1.

On Windows: Wait for completion of a process given by process handle pid, and return a tuple containing pid, and its exit status shifted left by 8 bits (shifting makes cross-platform use of the function easier). A pid less than or equal to 0 has no special meaning on Windows, and raises an exception. The value of integer options has no effect. pid can refer to any process whose id is known, not necessarily a child process. The spawn* functions called with P_NOWAIT return suitable process handles.

在 3.5 版更改: 如果系统调用被中断,但信号处理程序没有触发异常,此函数现在会重试系统调用,而不是触发 InterruptedError 异常 (原因详见 PEP 475)。

os.wait3(options)

Similar to waitpid(), except no process id argument is given and a 3-element tuple containing the child's process id, exit status indication, and resource usage information is returned. Refer to resource.getrusage() for details on resource usage information. The option argument is the same as that provided to waitpid() and wait4().

可用性: Unix。

os.wait4(pid, options)

Similar to waitpid(), except a 3-element tuple, containing the child's process id, exit status indication, and resource usage information is returned. Refer to resource.getrusage() for details on resource usage information. The arguments to wait4() are the same as those provided to waitpid().

可用性: Unix。

os.WNOHANG

The option for waitpid() to return immediately if no child process status is available immediately. The function returns (0, 0) in this case.

可用性: Unix。

os.WCONTINUED

This option causes child processes to be reported if they have been continued from a job control stop since their status was last reported.

可用性: 部分 Unix 系统。

os.WUNTRACED

This option causes child processes to be reported if they have been stopped but their current state has not been reported since they were stopped.

可用性: Unix。

The following functions take a process status code as returned by system(), wait(), or waitpid() as a parameter. They may be used to determine the disposition of a process.

os.WCOREDUMP(status)

Return True if a core dump was generated for the process, otherwise return False.

可用性: Unix。

os.WIFCONTINUED(status)

Return True if the process has been continued from a job control stop, otherwise return False.

可用性: Unix。

os.WIFSTOPPED(status)

Return True if the process has been stopped, otherwise return False.

可用性: Unix。

os.WIFSIGNALED(status)

Return True if the process exited due to a signal, otherwise return False.

可用性: Unix。

os.WIFEXITED(status)

Return True if the process exited using the exit(2) system call, otherwise return False.

可用性: Unix。

os.WEXITSTATUS(status)

如果 WIFEXITED(status) 为值,则将整数形参返回给 exit(2) 系统调用。 否则,返回值将没有任何意义。

可用性: Unix。

os.WSTOPSIG(status)

返回导致进程停止的信号。

可用性: Unix。

os.WTERMSIG(status)

返回导致进程退出的信号。

可用性: Unix。

调度器接口

这些函数控制操作系统如何为进程分配 CPU 时间。 它们仅在某些 Unix 平台上可用。 更多细节信息请查阅你所用 Unix 的指南页面。

3.3 新版功能.

以下调度策略如果被操作系统支持就会对外公开。

os.SCHED_OTHER

默认调度策略。

os.SCHED_BATCH

用于 CPU 密集型进程的调度策略,它会尽量为计算机中的其余任务保留交互性。

os.SCHED_IDLE

用于极低优先级的后台任务的调度策略。

os.SCHED_SPORADIC

用于偶发型服务程序的调度策略。

os.SCHED_FIFO

先进先出的调度策略。

os.SCHED_RR

循环式的调度策略。

os.SCHED_RESET_ON_FORK

此旗标可与任何其他调度策略进行 OR 运算。 当带有此旗标的进程设置分叉时,其子进程的调度策略和优先级会被重置为默认值。

class os.sched_param(sched_priority)

这个类表示在 sched_setparam(), sched_setscheduler()sched_getparam() 中使用的可修改调度形参。 它属于不可变对象。

目前它只有一个可能的形参:

sched_priority

一个调度策略的调度优先级。

os.sched_get_priority_min(policy)

获取 policy 的最小优先级数值。 policy 是以上调度策略常量之一。

os.sched_get_priority_max(policy)

获取 policy 的最高优先级数值。 policy 是以上调度策略常量之一。

os.sched_setscheduler(pid, policy, param)

Set the scheduling policy for the process with PID pid. A pid of 0 means the calling process. policy is one of the scheduling policy constants above. param is a sched_param instance.

os.sched_getscheduler(pid)

Return the scheduling policy for the process with PID pid. A pid of 0 means the calling process. The result is one of the scheduling policy constants above.

os.sched_setparam(pid, param)

Set a scheduling parameters for the process with PID pid. A pid of 0 means the calling process. param is a sched_param instance.

os.sched_getparam(pid)

Return the scheduling parameters as a sched_param instance for the process with PID pid. A pid of 0 means the calling process.

os.sched_rr_get_interval(pid)

Return the round-robin quantum in seconds for the process with PID pid. A pid of 0 means the calling process.

os.sched_yield()

Voluntarily relinquish the CPU.

os.sched_setaffinity(pid, mask)

Restrict the process with PID pid (or the current process if zero) to a set of CPUs. mask is an iterable of integers representing the set of CPUs to which the process should be restricted.

os.sched_getaffinity(pid)

Return the set of CPUs the process with PID pid (or the current process if zero) is restricted to.

Miscellaneous System Information

os.confstr(name)

Return string-valued system configuration values. name specifies the configuration value to retrieve; it may be a string which is the name of a defined system value; these names are specified in a number of standards (POSIX, Unix 95, Unix 98, and others). Some platforms define additional names as well. The names known to the host operating system are given as the keys of the confstr_names dictionary. For configuration variables not included in that mapping, passing an integer for name is also accepted.

If the configuration value specified by name isn't defined, None is returned.

If name is a string and is not known, ValueError is raised. If a specific value for name is not supported by the host system, even if it is included in confstr_names, an OSError is raised with errno.EINVAL for the error number.

可用性: Unix。

os.confstr_names

Dictionary mapping names accepted by confstr() to the integer values defined for those names by the host operating system. This can be used to determine the set of names known to the system.

可用性: Unix。

os.cpu_count()

Return the number of CPUs in the system. Returns None if undetermined.

该数量不同于当前进程可以使用的CPU数量。可用的CPU数量可以由 len(os.sched_getaffinity(0)) 方法获得。

3.4 新版功能.

os.getloadavg()

Return the number of processes in the system run queue averaged over the last 1, 5, and 15 minutes or raises OSError if the load average was unobtainable.

可用性: Unix。

os.sysconf(name)

Return integer-valued system configuration values. If the configuration value specified by name isn't defined, -1 is returned. The comments regarding the name parameter for confstr() apply here as well; the dictionary that provides information on the known names is given by sysconf_names.

可用性: Unix。

os.sysconf_names

Dictionary mapping names accepted by sysconf() to the integer values defined for those names by the host operating system. This can be used to determine the set of names known to the system.

可用性: Unix。

The following data values are used to support path manipulation operations. These are defined for all platforms.

Higher-level operations on pathnames are defined in the os.path module.

os.curdir

The constant string used by the operating system to refer to the current directory. This is '.' for Windows and POSIX. Also available via os.path.

os.pardir

The constant string used by the operating system to refer to the parent directory. This is '..' for Windows and POSIX. Also available via os.path.

os.sep

The character used by the operating system to separate pathname components. This is '/' for POSIX and '\\' for Windows. Note that knowing this is not sufficient to be able to parse or concatenate pathnames --- use os.path.split() and os.path.join() --- but it is occasionally useful. Also available via os.path.

os.altsep

An alternative character used by the operating system to separate pathname components, or None if only one separator character exists. This is set to '/' on Windows systems where sep is a backslash. Also available via os.path.

os.extsep

The character which separates the base filename from the extension; for example, the '.' in os.py. Also available via os.path.

os.pathsep

The character conventionally used by the operating system to separate search path components (as in PATH), such as ':' for POSIX or ';' for Windows. Also available via os.path.

os.defpath

The default search path used by exec*p* and spawn*p* if the environment doesn't have a 'PATH' key. Also available via os.path.

os.linesep

The string used to separate (or, rather, terminate) lines on the current platform. This may be a single character, such as '\n' for POSIX, or multiple characters, for example, '\r\n' for Windows. Do not use os.linesep as a line terminator when writing files opened in text mode (the default); use a single '\n' instead, on all platforms.

os.devnull

The file path of the null device. For example: '/dev/null' for POSIX, 'nul' for Windows. Also available via os.path.

os.RTLD_LAZY
os.RTLD_NOW
os.RTLD_GLOBAL
os.RTLD_LOCAL
os.RTLD_NODELETE
os.RTLD_NOLOAD
os.RTLD_DEEPBIND

Flags for use with the setdlopenflags() and getdlopenflags() functions. See the Unix manual page dlopen(3) for what the different flags mean.

3.3 新版功能.

Random numbers

os.getrandom(size, flags=0)

Get up to size random bytes. The function can return less bytes than requested.

These bytes can be used to seed user-space random number generators or for cryptographic purposes.

getrandom() relies on entropy gathered from device drivers and other sources of environmental noise. Unnecessarily reading large quantities of data will have a negative impact on other users of the /dev/random and /dev/urandom devices.

The flags argument is a bit mask that can contain zero or more of the following values ORed together: os.GRND_RANDOM and GRND_NONBLOCK.

See also the Linux getrandom() manual page.

Availability: Linux 3.17 and newer.

3.6 新版功能.

os.urandom(size)

Return a string of size random bytes suitable for cryptographic use.

This function returns random bytes from an OS-specific randomness source. The returned data should be unpredictable enough for cryptographic applications, though its exact quality depends on the OS implementation.

On Linux, if the getrandom() syscall is available, it is used in blocking mode: block until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized (128 bits of entropy are collected by the kernel). See the PEP 524 for the rationale. On Linux, the getrandom() function can be used to get random bytes in non-blocking mode (using the GRND_NONBLOCK flag) or to poll until the system urandom entropy pool is initialized.

On a Unix-like system, random bytes are read from the /dev/urandom device. If the /dev/urandom device is not available or not readable, the NotImplementedError exception is raised.

On Windows, it will use CryptGenRandom().

参见

The secrets module provides higher level functions. For an easy-to-use interface to the random number generator provided by your platform, please see random.SystemRandom.

在 3.6.0 版更改: On Linux, getrandom() is now used in blocking mode to increase the security.

在 3.5.2 版更改: On Linux, if the getrandom() syscall blocks (the urandom entropy pool is not initialized yet), fall back on reading /dev/urandom.

在 3.5 版更改: On Linux 3.17 and newer, the getrandom() syscall is now used when available. On OpenBSD 5.6 and newer, the C getentropy() function is now used. These functions avoid the usage of an internal file descriptor.

os.GRND_NONBLOCK

By default, when reading from /dev/random, getrandom() blocks if no random bytes are available, and when reading from /dev/urandom, it blocks if the entropy pool has not yet been initialized.

If the GRND_NONBLOCK flag is set, then getrandom() does not block in these cases, but instead immediately raises BlockingIOError.

3.6 新版功能.

os.GRND_RANDOM

If this bit is set, then random bytes are drawn from the /dev/random pool instead of the /dev/urandom pool.

3.6 新版功能.