ctypes --- Python 的外部函数库


ctypes 是 Python 的外部函数库。它提供了与 C 兼容的数据类型,并允许调用 DLL 或共享库中的函数。可使用该模块以纯 Python 形式对这些库进行封装。

ctypes 教程

注意:在本教程中的示例代码使用 doctest 进行过测试,保证其正确运行。由于有些代码在Linux,Windows或Mac OS X下的表现不同,这些代码会在 doctest 中包含相关的指令注解。

注意:部分示例代码引用了 ctypes c_int 类型。在 sizeof(long) == sizeof(int) 的平台上此类型是 c_long 的一个别名。所以,在程序输出 c_long 而不是你期望的 c_int 时不必感到迷惑 --- 它们实际上是同一种类型。

操作导入的动态链接库中的函数

通过操作dll对象的属性来操作这些函数。

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> libc.printf
<_FuncPtr object at 0x...>
>>> print(windll.kernel32.GetModuleHandleA)  
<_FuncPtr object at 0x...>
>>> print(windll.kernel32.MyOwnFunction)     
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "ctypes.py", line 239, in __getattr__
    func = _StdcallFuncPtr(name, self)
AttributeError: function 'MyOwnFunction' not found
>>>

注意:Win32系统的动态库,比如 kernel32user32,通常会同时导出同一个函数的 ANSI 版本和 UNICODE 版本。UNICODE 版本通常会在名字最后以 W 结尾,而 ANSI 版本的则以 A 结尾。 win32的 GetModuleHandle 函数会根据一个模块名返回一个 模块句柄,该函数暨同时包含这样的两个版本的原型函数,并通过宏 UNICODE 是否定义,来决定宏 GetModuleHandle 导出的是哪个具体函数。

/* ANSI version */
HMODULE GetModuleHandleA(LPCSTR lpModuleName);
/* UNICODE version */
HMODULE GetModuleHandleW(LPCWSTR lpModuleName);

windll 不会通过这样的魔法手段来帮你决定选择哪一种函数,你必须显式的调用 GetModuleHandleAGetModuleHandleW,并分别使用字节对象或字符串对象作参数。

有时候,dlls的导出的函数名不符合 Python 的标识符规范,比如 "??2@YAPAXI@Z"。此时,你必须使用 getattr() 方法来获得该函数。

>>> getattr(cdll.msvcrt, "??2@YAPAXI@Z")  
<_FuncPtr object at 0x...>
>>>

Windows 下,有些 dll 导出的函数没有函数名,而是通过其顺序号调用。对此类函数,你也可以通过 dll 对象的数值索引来操作这些函数。

>>> cdll.kernel32[1]  
<_FuncPtr object at 0x...>
>>> cdll.kernel32[0]  
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "ctypes.py", line 310, in __getitem__
    func = _StdcallFuncPtr(name, self)
AttributeError: function ordinal 0 not found
>>>

调用函数

你可以貌似是调用其它 Python 函数那样直接调用这些函数。在这个例子中,我们调用了 time() 函数,该函数返回一个系统时间戳(从 Unix 时间起点到现在的秒数),而``GetModuleHandleA()`` 函数返回一个 win32 模块句柄。

此函数中调用的两个函数都使用了空指针(用 None 作为空指针):

>>> print(libc.time(None))  
1150640792
>>> print(hex(windll.kernel32.GetModuleHandleA(None)))  
0x1d000000
>>>

如果你用 cdecl 调用方式调用 stdcall 约定的函数,则会甩出一个异常 ValueError。反之亦然。

>>> cdll.kernel32.GetModuleHandleA(None)  
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ValueError: Procedure probably called with not enough arguments (4 bytes missing)
>>>

>>> windll.msvcrt.printf(b"spam")  
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ValueError: Procedure probably called with too many arguments (4 bytes in excess)
>>>

你必须阅读这些库的头文件或说明文档来确定它们的正确的调用协议。

在Windows中,ctypes 使用 win32 结构化异常处理来防止由于在调用函数时使用非法参数导致的程序崩溃。

>>> windll.kernel32.GetModuleHandleA(32)  
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
OSError: exception: access violation reading 0x00000020
>>>

然而,总有许多办法,通过调用 ctypes 使得 Python 程序崩溃。因此,你必须小心使用。 faulthandler 模块可以用于帮助诊断程序崩溃的原因。(比如由于错误的C库函数调用导致的段错误)。

None,整型,字节对象和(UNICODE)字符串是仅有的可以直接作为函数参数使用的四种Python本地数据类型。None` 作为C的空指针 (NULL),字节和字符串类型作为一个指向其保存数据的内存块指针 (char *wchar_t *)。Python 的整型则作为平台默认的C的 int 类型,他们的数值被截断以适应C类型的整型长度。

在我们开始调用函数前,我们必须先了解作为函数参数的 ctypes 数据类型。

基础数据类型

ctypes 定义了一些和C兼容的基本数据类型:

ctypes 类型

C 类型

Python 类型

c_bool

_Bool

bool (1)

c_char

char

单字符字节对象

c_wchar

wchar_t

单字符字符串

c_byte

char

int

c_ubyte

unsigned char

int

c_short

short

int

c_ushort

unsigned short

int

c_int

int

int

c_uint

unsigned int

int

c_long

long

int

c_ulong

unsigned long

int

c_longlong

__int64long long

int

c_ulonglong

unsigned __int64unsigned long long

int

c_size_t

size_t

int

c_ssize_t

ssize_tPy_ssize_t

int

c_float

float

float

c_double

double

float

c_longdouble

long double

float

c_char_p

char * (以 NUL 结尾)

字节串对象或 None

c_wchar_p

wchar_t * (以 NUL 结尾)

字符串或 None

c_void_p

void *

int 或 None

  1. 构造函数接受任何具有真值的对象。

所有这些类型都可以通过使用正确类型和值的可选初始值调用它们来创建:

>>> c_int()
c_long(0)
>>> c_wchar_p("Hello, World")
c_wchar_p(140018365411392)
>>> c_ushort(-3)
c_ushort(65533)
>>>

由于这些类型是可变的,它们的值也可以在以后更改:

>>> i = c_int(42)
>>> print(i)
c_long(42)
>>> print(i.value)
42
>>> i.value = -99
>>> print(i.value)
-99
>>>

当给指针类型的对象 c_char_p, c_wchar_pc_void_p 等赋值时,将改变它们所指向的 内存地址,而 不是 它们所指向的内存区域的 内容 (这是理所当然的,因为 Python 的 bytes 对象是不可变的):

>>> s = "Hello, World"
>>> c_s = c_wchar_p(s)
>>> print(c_s)
c_wchar_p(139966785747344)
>>> print(c_s.value)
Hello World
>>> c_s.value = "Hi, there"
>>> print(c_s)              # the memory location has changed
c_wchar_p(139966783348904)
>>> print(c_s.value)
Hi, there
>>> print(s)                # first object is unchanged
Hello, World
>>>

但你要注意不能将它们传递给会改变指针所指内存的函数。如果你需要可改变的内存块,ctypes 提供了 create_string_buffer() 函数,它提供多种方式创建这种内存块。当前的内存块内容可以通过 raw 属性存取,如果你希望将它作为NUL结束的字符串,请使用 value 属性:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> p = create_string_buffer(3)            # create a 3 byte buffer, initialized to NUL bytes
>>> print(sizeof(p), repr(p.raw))
3 b'\x00\x00\x00'
>>> p = create_string_buffer(b"Hello")     # create a buffer containing a NUL terminated string
>>> print(sizeof(p), repr(p.raw))
6 b'Hello\x00'
>>> print(repr(p.value))
b'Hello'
>>> p = create_string_buffer(b"Hello", 10) # create a 10 byte buffer
>>> print(sizeof(p), repr(p.raw))
10 b'Hello\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
>>> p.value = b"Hi"
>>> print(sizeof(p), repr(p.raw))
10 b'Hi\x00lo\x00\x00\x00\x00\x00'
>>>

create_string_buffer() 函数替代以前的ctypes版本中的 c_buffer() 函数 (仍然可当作别名使用)和 c_string() 函数。create_unicode_buffer() 函数创建包含 unicode 字符的可变内存块,与之对应的C语言类型是 wchar_t

调用函数,继续

注意 printf 将打印到真正标准输出设备,而*不是* sys.stdout,因此这些实例只能在控制台提示符下工作,而不能在 IDLEPythonWin 中运行。

>>> printf = libc.printf
>>> printf(b"Hello, %s\n", b"World!")
Hello, World!
14
>>> printf(b"Hello, %S\n", "World!")
Hello, World!
14
>>> printf(b"%d bottles of beer\n", 42)
42 bottles of beer
19
>>> printf(b"%f bottles of beer\n", 42.5)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ArgumentError: argument 2: exceptions.TypeError: Don't know how to convert parameter 2
>>>

正如前面所提到过的,除了整数、字符串以及字节串之外,所有的 Python 类型都必须使用它们对应的 ctypes 类型包装,才能够被正确地转换为所需的C语言类型。

>>> printf(b"An int %d, a double %f\n", 1234, c_double(3.14))
An int 1234, a double 3.140000
31
>>>

使用自定义的数据类型调用函数

你也可以通过自定义 ctypes 参数转换方式来允许自定义类型作为参数。 ctypes 会寻找 _as_parameter_ 属性并使用它作为函数参数。当然,它必须是数字、字符串或者二进制字符串:

>>> class Bottles:
...     def __init__(self, number):
...         self._as_parameter_ = number
...
>>> bottles = Bottles(42)
>>> printf(b"%d bottles of beer\n", bottles)
42 bottles of beer
19
>>>

如果你不想把实例的数据存储到 _as_parameter_ 属性。可以通过定义 property 函数计算出这个属性。

指定必选参数的类型(函数原型)

可以通过设置 argtypes 属性的方法指定从 DLL 中导出函数的必选参数类型。

argtypes 必须是一个 C 数据类型的序列 (这里的 printf 可能不是个好例子,因为它是变长参数,而且每个参数的类型依赖于格式化字符串,不过尝试这个功能也很方便):

>>> printf.argtypes = [c_char_p, c_char_p, c_int, c_double]
>>> printf(b"String '%s', Int %d, Double %f\n", b"Hi", 10, 2.2)
String 'Hi', Int 10, Double 2.200000
37
>>>

指定数据类型可以防止不合理的参数传递(就像C函数的函数签名),并且会自动尝试将参数转换为需要的类型:

>>> printf(b"%d %d %d", 1, 2, 3)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ArgumentError: argument 2: exceptions.TypeError: wrong type
>>> printf(b"%s %d %f\n", b"X", 2, 3)
X 2 3.000000
13
>>>

如果你想通过自定义类型传递参数给函数,必须实现 from_param() 类方法,才能够将此自定义类型用于 argtypes 序列。from_param() 类方法接受一个 Python 对象作为函数输入,它应该进行类型检查或者其他必要的操作以保证接收到的对象是合法的,然后返回这个对象,或者它的 _as_parameter_ 属性,或者其他你想要传递给 C 函数的参数。这里也一样,返回的结果必须是整型、字符串、二进制字符串、 ctypes 类型,或者一个具有 _as_parameter_ 属性的对象。

返回类型

默认情况下都会假定函数返回C int 类型。其他返回类型可以通过设置函数对象的 restype 属性来指定。

这是个更高级的例子,它调用了 strchr 函数,这个函数接收一个字符串指针以及一个字符作为参数,返回另一个字符串指针。

>>> strchr = libc.strchr
>>> strchr(b"abcdef", ord("d"))  
8059983
>>> strchr.restype = c_char_p    # c_char_p is a pointer to a string
>>> strchr(b"abcdef", ord("d"))
b'def'
>>> print(strchr(b"abcdef", ord("x")))
None
>>>

如果希望避免上述的 ord("x") 调用,可以设置 argtypes  属性,第二个参数就会将单字符的 Python 二进制字符对象转换为 C 字符:

>>> strchr.restype = c_char_p
>>> strchr.argtypes = [c_char_p, c_char]
>>> strchr(b"abcdef", b"d")
'def'
>>> strchr(b"abcdef", b"def")
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ArgumentError: argument 2: exceptions.TypeError: one character string expected
>>> print(strchr(b"abcdef", b"x"))
None
>>> strchr(b"abcdef", b"d")
'def'
>>>

如果外部函数返回了一个整数,你也可以使用要给可调用的 Python 对象(比如函数或者类)作为 restype 属性的值。将会以 C 函数返回的 整数 对象作为参数调用这个可调用对象,执行后的结果作为最终函数返回值。这在错误返回值校验和自动抛出异常等方面比较有用。

>>> GetModuleHandle = windll.kernel32.GetModuleHandleA  
>>> def ValidHandle(value):
...     if value == 0:
...         raise WinError()
...     return value
...
>>>
>>> GetModuleHandle.restype = ValidHandle  
>>> GetModuleHandle(None)  
486539264
>>> GetModuleHandle("something silly")  
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "<stdin>", line 3, in ValidHandle
OSError: [Errno 126] The specified module could not be found.
>>>

WinError 函数可以调用 Windows 的 FormatMessage() API 获取错误码的字符串说明,然后 返回 一个异常。 WinError 接收一个可选的错误码作为参数,如果没有的话,它将调用 GetLastError() 获取错误码。

请注意,使用 errcheck 属性可以实现更强大的错误检查手段;详情请见参考手册。

传递指针(或者传递引用)

有时候 C 函数接口可能由于要往某个地址写入值,或者数据太大不适合作为值传递,从而希望接收一个 指针 作为数据参数类型。这和 传递参数引用 类似。

ctypes 暴露了 byref() 函数用于通过引用传递参数,使用 pointer() 函数也能达到同样的效果,只不过 pointer() 需要更多步骤,因为它要先构造一个真实指针对象。所以在 Python 代码本身不需要使用这个指针对象的情况下,使用 byref() 效率更高。

>>> i = c_int()
>>> f = c_float()
>>> s = create_string_buffer(b'\000' * 32)
>>> print(i.value, f.value, repr(s.value))
0 0.0 b''
>>> libc.sscanf(b"1 3.14 Hello", b"%d %f %s",
...             byref(i), byref(f), s)
3
>>> print(i.value, f.value, repr(s.value))
1 3.1400001049 b'Hello'
>>>

结构体和联合

结构体和联合必须继承自 ctypes 模块中的 StructureUnion 。子类必须定义 _fields_ 属性。 _fields_ 是一个二元组列表,二元组中包含 field namefield type

type 字段必须是一个 ctypes 类型,比如 c_int,或者其他 ctypes 类型: 结构体、联合、数组、指针。

这是一个简单的 POINT 结构体,它包含名称为 xy 的两个变量,还展示了如何通过构造函数初始化结构体。

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> class POINT(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("x", c_int),
...                 ("y", c_int)]
...
>>> point = POINT(10, 20)
>>> print(point.x, point.y)
10 20
>>> point = POINT(y=5)
>>> print(point.x, point.y)
0 5
>>> POINT(1, 2, 3)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: too many initializers
>>>

当然,你可以构造更复杂的结构体。一个结构体可以通过设置 type 字段包含其他结构体或者自身。

这是以一个 RECT 结构体,他包含了两个 POINT ,分别叫 upperleftlowerright:

>>> class RECT(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("upperleft", POINT),
...                 ("lowerright", POINT)]
...
>>> rc = RECT(point)
>>> print(rc.upperleft.x, rc.upperleft.y)
0 5
>>> print(rc.lowerright.x, rc.lowerright.y)
0 0
>>>

嵌套结构体可以通过几种方式构造初始化:

>>> r = RECT(POINT(1, 2), POINT(3, 4))
>>> r = RECT((1, 2), (3, 4))

可以通过 获取字段 descriptor ,它能提供很多有用的调试信息。

>>> print(POINT.x)
<Field type=c_long, ofs=0, size=4>
>>> print(POINT.y)
<Field type=c_long, ofs=4, size=4>
>>>

警告

ctypes 不支持带位域的结构体、联合以值的方式传给函数。这可能在 32 位 x86 平台上可以正常工作,但是对于一般情况,这种行为是未定义的。带位域的结构体、联合应该总是通过指针传递给函数。

结构体/联合 字段对齐及字节顺序

默认情况下,结构体和联合的字段与C的字节对齐是一样的。也可以在定义子类的时候指定类的 _pack_ 属性来覆盖这种行为。它必须设置为一个正整数,表示字段的最大对齐字节。这和 MSVC 中的 #pragma pack(n) 功能一样。

ctypes 中的结构体和联合使用的是本地字节序。要使用非本地字节序,可以使用 BigEndianStructure, LittleEndianStructure, BigEndianUnion, and LittleEndianUnion 作为基类。这些类不能包含指针字段。

结构体和联合中的位域

结构体和联合中是可以包含位域字段的。位域只能用于整型字段,位长度通过 _fields_ 中的第三个参数指定:

>>> class Int(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("first_16", c_int, 16),
...                 ("second_16", c_int, 16)]
...
>>> print(Int.first_16)
<Field type=c_long, ofs=0:0, bits=16>
>>> print(Int.second_16)
<Field type=c_long, ofs=0:16, bits=16>
>>>

数组

数组是一个序列,包含指定个数元素,且必须类型相同。

创建数组类型的推荐方式是使用一个类型乘以一个正数:

TenPointsArrayType = POINT * 10

下面是一个构造的数据案例,结构体中包含了4个 POINT 和一些其他东西。

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> class POINT(Structure):
...     _fields_ = ("x", c_int), ("y", c_int)
...
>>> class MyStruct(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("a", c_int),
...                 ("b", c_float),
...                 ("point_array", POINT * 4)]
>>>
>>> print(len(MyStruct().point_array))
4
>>>

和平常一样,通过调用它创建实例:

arr = TenPointsArrayType()
for pt in arr:
    print(pt.x, pt.y)

以上代码会打印几行 0 0 ,因为数组内容被初始化为 0.

也能通过指定正确类型的数据来初始化:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> TenIntegers = c_int * 10
>>> ii = TenIntegers(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10)
>>> print(ii)
<c_long_Array_10 object at 0x...>
>>> for i in ii: print(i, end=" ")
...
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
>>>

指针

指针可以通过 ctypes 中的 pointer() 函数进行创建:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> i = c_int(42)
>>> pi = pointer(i)
>>>

指针实例拥有 contents 属性,它存储了指针指向的真实对象,如上面的 i 对象:

>>> pi.contents
c_long(42)
>>>

注意 ctypes 并没有 OOR (返回原始对象), 每次访问这个属性时都会构造返回一个新的相同对象:

>>> pi.contents is i
False
>>> pi.contents is pi.contents
False
>>>

将这个指针的 contents 属性赋值为另一个 c_int 实例将会导致该指针指向该实例的内存地址:

>>> i = c_int(99)
>>> pi.contents = i
>>> pi.contents
c_long(99)
>>>

指针对象也可以通过整数下标进行访问:

>>> pi[0]
99
>>>

通过整数下标赋值可以改变内容。

>>> print(i)
c_long(99)
>>> pi[0] = 22
>>> print(i)
c_long(22)
>>>

使用0以外的索引也是合法的,但是你必须确保这么做的后果,就像 C 语言中: 你可以访问或者修改任意内存内容。通常只会在函数接收指针是才会使用这种特性,而且你 知道 这个指针指向的是一个数组而不是单个值。

内部细节, pointer() 函数不只是创建了一个指针实例,它首先创建了一个指针 类型 。这是通过调用 POINTER() 函数实现的,它接收 ctypes 类型为参数,返回一个新的类型:

>>> PI = POINTER(c_int)
>>> PI
<class 'ctypes.LP_c_long'>
>>> PI(42)
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: expected c_long instead of int
>>> PI(c_int(42))
<ctypes.LP_c_long object at 0x...>
>>>

无参调用指针类型可以创建一个 NULL 指针。 NULL 指针的布尔值是 False

>>> null_ptr = POINTER(c_int)()
>>> print(bool(null_ptr))
False
>>>

解引用指针的时候, ctypes 会帮你检测是否指针为 NULL (但是解引用无效的 非 NULL 指针仍会导致 Python 崩溃):

>>> null_ptr[0]
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ....
ValueError: NULL pointer access
>>>

>>> null_ptr[0] = 1234
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ....
ValueError: NULL pointer access
>>>

类型强制转换

通常情况下, ctypes 具有严格的类型检查。这代表着, 如果在函数 argtypes 中或者结构体定义成员中有 POINTER(c_int) 类型,只有相同类型的实例才会被接受。 也有一些例外。比如,你可以传递兼容的数组实例给指针类型。所以,对于 POINTER(c_int) ,ctypes 也可以接受 c_int 类型的数组:

>>> class Bar(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("count", c_int), ("values", POINTER(c_int))]
...
>>> bar = Bar()
>>> bar.values = (c_int * 3)(1, 2, 3)
>>> bar.count = 3
>>> for i in range(bar.count):
...     print(bar.values[i])
...
1
2
3
>>>

另外,如果一个函数 argtypes 列表中的参数显式的定义为指针类型(如 POINTER(c_int) ),指针所指向的 类型 (这个例子中是 c_int )也可以传递给函数。ctypes 会自动调用对应的 byref() 转换。

可以给指针内容赋值为 None 将其设置为 Null

>>> bar.values = None
>>>

有时候你拥有一个不完整的类型。在 C 中,你可以将一个类型强制转换为另一个。 ctypes  中的 a cast() 函数提供了相同的功能。上面的结构体 Barvalue 字段接收 POINTER(c_int) 指针或者 c_int  数组,但是不能接受其他类型的实例:

>>> bar.values = (c_byte * 4)()
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: incompatible types, c_byte_Array_4 instance instead of LP_c_long instance
>>>

这种情况下, 需要手动使用 cast() 函数。

cast() 函数可以将一个指针实例强制转换为另一种 ctypes 类型。 cast()  接收两个参数,一个 ctypes 指针对象或者可以被转换为指针的其他类型对象,和一个 ctypes 指针类型。返回第二个类型的一个实例,该返回实例和第一个参数指向同一片内存空间:

>>> a = (c_byte * 4)()
>>> cast(a, POINTER(c_int))
<ctypes.LP_c_long object at ...>
>>>

所以 cast() 可以用来给结构体 Barvalues 字段赋值:

>>> bar = Bar()
>>> bar.values = cast((c_byte * 4)(), POINTER(c_int))
>>> print(bar.values[0])
0
>>>

不完整类型

不完整类型 即还没有定义成员的结构体、联合或者数组。在 C 中,它们通常用于前置声明,然后在后面定义:

struct cell; /* forward declaration */

struct cell {
    char *name;
    struct cell *next;
};

直接翻译成 ctypes 的代码如下,但是这行不通:

>>> class cell(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("name", c_char_p),
...                 ("next", POINTER(cell))]
...
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "<stdin>", line 2, in cell
NameError: name 'cell' is not defined
>>>

因为新的 cell 在 class 语句结束之前还没有完成定义。在 ctypes 中,我们可以先定义 cell 类,在 class 语句结束之后再设置 _fields_ 属性:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> class cell(Structure):
...     pass
...
>>> cell._fields_ = [("name", c_char_p),
...                  ("next", POINTER(cell))]
>>>

让我们试试。我们定义两个 cell 实例,让它们互相指向对方,然后通过指针链式访问几次:

>>> c1 = cell()
>>> c1.name = "foo"
>>> c2 = cell()
>>> c2.name = "bar"
>>> c1.next = pointer(c2)
>>> c2.next = pointer(c1)
>>> p = c1
>>> for i in range(8):
...     print(p.name, end=" ")
...     p = p.next[0]
...
foo bar foo bar foo bar foo bar
>>>

回调函数

ctypes 允许创建一个指向 Python 可调用对象的 C 函数。它们有时候被称为 回调函数

首先,你必须为回调函数创建一个类,这个类知道调用约定,包括返回值类型以及函数接收的参数类型及个数。

CFUNCTYPE() 工厂函数使用 cdecl 调用约定创建回调函数类型。在 Windows 上, WINFUNCTYPE() 工厂函数使用 stdcall 调用约定为回调函数创建类型。

这些工厂函数都是用返回值类型作为第一个参数,回掉函数的参数类型作为剩余参数。

这里展示一个使用 C 标准库函数 qsort()  的例子,它使用一个回掉函数对数据进行排序。 qsort() 将用来给整数数组排序:

>>> IntArray5 = c_int * 5
>>> ia = IntArray5(5, 1, 7, 33, 99)
>>> qsort = libc.qsort
>>> qsort.restype = None
>>>

qsort() 必须接收的参数,一个指向待排序数据的指针,元素个数,每个元素的大小,以及一个指向排序函数的指针,即回调函数。然后回调函数接收两个元素的指针,如果第一个元素小于第二个,则返回一个负整数,如果相等则返回0,否则返回一个正整数。

所以,我们的回调函数要接收两个整数指针,返回一个整数。首先我们创建回调函数的 类型

>>> CMPFUNC = CFUNCTYPE(c_int, POINTER(c_int), POINTER(c_int))
>>>

首先,这是一个简单的回调,它会显示传入的值:

>>> def py_cmp_func(a, b):
...     print("py_cmp_func", a[0], b[0])
...     return 0
...
>>> cmp_func = CMPFUNC(py_cmp_func)
>>>

结果:

>>> qsort(ia, len(ia), sizeof(c_int), cmp_func)  
py_cmp_func 5 1
py_cmp_func 33 99
py_cmp_func 7 33
py_cmp_func 5 7
py_cmp_func 1 7
>>>

现在我们可以比较两个元素并返回有用的结果了:

>>> def py_cmp_func(a, b):
...     print("py_cmp_func", a[0], b[0])
...     return a[0] - b[0]
...
>>>
>>> qsort(ia, len(ia), sizeof(c_int), CMPFUNC(py_cmp_func)) 
py_cmp_func 5 1
py_cmp_func 33 99
py_cmp_func 7 33
py_cmp_func 1 7
py_cmp_func 5 7
>>>

我们可以轻易地验证,现在数组是有序的了:

>>> for i in ia: print(i, end=" ")
...
1 5 7 33 99
>>>

这些工厂函数可以当作装饰器工厂,所以可以这样写:

>>> @CFUNCTYPE(c_int, POINTER(c_int), POINTER(c_int))
... def py_cmp_func(a, b):
...     print("py_cmp_func", a[0], b[0])
...     return a[0] - b[0]
...
>>> qsort(ia, len(ia), sizeof(c_int), py_cmp_func)
py_cmp_func 5 1
py_cmp_func 33 99
py_cmp_func 7 33
py_cmp_func 1 7
py_cmp_func 5 7
>>>

注解

请确保你维持 CFUNCTYPE() 对象的引用与它们在 C 代码中的使用期一样长。 ctypes 不会确保这一点,而如果你不这样做,它们可能会被垃圾回收,导致你的程序在执行回调函数时发生崩溃。

注意,如果回调函数在Python之外的另外一个线程使用(比如,外部代码调用这个回调函数), ctypes 会在每一次调用上创建一个虚拟 Python 线程。这个行为在大多数情况下是合理的,但也意味着如果有数据使用 threading.local 方式存储,将无法访问,就算它们是在同一个 C 线程中调用的 。

访问 dll 中导出的值

一些动态链接库不仅仅导出函数,也会导出变量。一个例子就是 Python 库本身的 Py_OptimizeFlag ,根据启动选项 -O-OO 的不同,它是值可能为 0、1、2 的整型。

ctypes 可以通过 in_dll() 类方法访问这类变量 。 pythonapi 是用于访问 Python C 接口的预定义符号:

>>> opt_flag = c_int.in_dll(pythonapi, "Py_OptimizeFlag")
>>> print(opt_flag)
c_long(0)
>>>

如果解释器使用 -O 选项启动,这个例子会打印 c_long(1) , 如果使用 -OO 启动,则会打印 c_long(2)

一个扩展例子, 同时也展示了使用指针访问 Python 导出的 PyImport_FrozenModules 指针对象。

对文档中这个值的解释说明

该指针被初始化为指向 struct _frozen 数组,以 NULL 或者 0 作为结束标记。当一个冻结模块被导入,首先要在这个表中搜索。第三方库可以以此来提供动态创建的冻结模块集合。

这足以证明修改这个指针是很有用的。为了让实例大小不至于太长,这里只展示如何使用 ctypes 读取这个表:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>>
>>> class struct_frozen(Structure):
...     _fields_ = [("name", c_char_p),
...                 ("code", POINTER(c_ubyte)),
...                 ("size", c_int)]
...
>>>

我们定义了 struct _frozen  数据类型,接着就可以获取这张表的指针了:

>>> FrozenTable = POINTER(struct_frozen)
>>> table = FrozenTable.in_dll(pythonapi, "PyImport_FrozenModules")
>>>

由于 table 是指向 struct_frozen 数组的 指针 ,我们可以遍历它,只不过需要自己判断循环是否结束,因为指针本身并不包含长度。它早晚会因为访问到野指针或者什么的把自己搞崩溃,所以我们最好在遇到 NULL 后就让它退出循环:

>>> for item in table:
...     if item.name is None:
...         break
...     print(item.name.decode("ascii"), item.size)
...
_frozen_importlib 31764
_frozen_importlib_external 41499
__hello__ 161
__phello__ -161
__phello__.spam 161
>>>

Python 的冻结模块和冻结包(由负 size 成员表示)并不是广为人知的事情,它们仅仅用于实验。例如,可以使用 import __hello__ 尝试一下这个功能。

意外

ctypes 也有自己的边界,有时候会发生一些意想不到的事情。

比如下面的例子:

>>> from ctypes import *
>>> class POINT(Structure):
...     _fields_ = ("x", c_int), ("y", c_int)
...
>>> class RECT(Structure):
...     _fields_ = ("a", POINT), ("b", POINT)
...
>>> p1 = POINT(1, 2)
>>> p2 = POINT(3, 4)
>>> rc = RECT(p1, p2)
>>> print(rc.a.x, rc.a.y, rc.b.x, rc.b.y)
1 2 3 4
>>> # now swap the two points
>>> rc.a, rc.b = rc.b, rc.a
>>> print(rc.a.x, rc.a.y, rc.b.x, rc.b.y)
3 4 3 4
>>>

嗯。我们预想应该打印 3 4 1 2 。但是为什么呢? 这是 rc.a, rc.b = rc.b, rc.a 这行代码展开后的步骤:

>>> temp0, temp1 = rc.b, rc.a
>>> rc.a = temp0
>>> rc.b = temp1
>>>

注意 temp0temp1 对象始终引用了对象 rc 的内容。然后执行 rc.a = temp0 会把 temp0 的内容拷贝到 rc 的空间。这也改变了 temp1 的内容。最终导致赋值语句 rc.b = temp1 没有产生预想的效果。

记住,访问被包含在结构体、联合、数组中的对象并不会将其 复制 出来,而是得到了一个代理对象,它是对根对象的内部内容进行了一层包装。

另一个和预期可能有偏差的例子是这样:

>>> s = c_char_p()
>>> s.value = b"abc def ghi"
>>> s.value
b'abc def ghi'
>>> s.value is s.value
False
>>>

注解

使用 c_char_p  实例化的对象只能将其值设置为 bytes 或者整数。

为什么这里打印了 False ? ctypes 实例是一些内存块加上一些用于访问这些内存块的 descriptor 组成。将 Python 对象存储在内存块并不会存储对象本身,而是存储了对象的 内容 。每次访问对象的内容都会构造一个新的 Python 对象。

变长数据类型

ctypes 对变长数组和结构体提供了一些支持 。

The resize() function can be used to resize the memory buffer of an existing ctypes object. The function takes the object as first argument, and the requested size in bytes as the second argument. The memory block cannot be made smaller than the natural memory block specified by the objects type, a ValueError is raised if this is tried:

>>> short_array = (c_short * 4)()
>>> print(sizeof(short_array))
8
>>> resize(short_array, 4)
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
ValueError: minimum size is 8
>>> resize(short_array, 32)
>>> sizeof(short_array)
32
>>> sizeof(type(short_array))
8
>>>

这非常好,但是要怎么访问数组中额外的元素呢?因为数组类型已经定义包含4个元素,women访问新增元素会产生以下错误:

>>> short_array[:]
[0, 0, 0, 0]
>>> short_array[7]
Traceback (most recent call last):
    ...
IndexError: invalid index
>>>

使用 ctypes 访问变长数据类型的一个可行方法是利用 Python 的动态特性,根据具体情况,在知道这个数据的大小后,(重新)指定这个数据的类型。

ctypes 参考手册

寻找动态链接库

在编译型语言中,动态链接库会在编译、链接或者程序运行时访问。

The purpose of the find_library() function is to locate a library in a way similar to what the compiler or runtime loader does (on platforms with several versions of a shared library the most recent should be loaded), while the ctypes library loaders act like when a program is run, and call the runtime loader directly.

ctypes.util 模块提供了一个函数,可以帮助确定需要加载的库。

ctypes.util.find_library(name)

尝试寻找一个库然后返回其路径名, name 是库名称, 且去除了 lib 等前缀和 .so.dylib 、版本号等后缀(这是 posix 连接器 -l 选项使用的格式)。如果没有找到对应的库,则返回 None

确切的功能取决于系统。

在 Linux 上, find_library() 会尝试运行外部程序(/sbin/ldconfig, gcc, objdump 以及 ld) 来寻找库文件。返回库文件的文件名。

在 3.6 版更改: 在Linux 上,如果其他方式找不到的话,会使用环境变量 LD_LIBRARY_PATH 搜索动态链接库。

这是一些例子:

>>> from ctypes.util import find_library
>>> find_library("m")
'libm.so.6'
>>> find_library("c")
'libc.so.6'
>>> find_library("bz2")
'libbz2.so.1.0'
>>>

在 OS X 上, find_library() 会尝试几种预定义的命名方案和路径来查找库,如果成功,则返回完整的路径名:

>>> from ctypes.util import find_library
>>> find_library("c")
'/usr/lib/libc.dylib'
>>> find_library("m")
'/usr/lib/libm.dylib'
>>> find_library("bz2")
'/usr/lib/libbz2.dylib'
>>> find_library("AGL")
'/System/Library/Frameworks/AGL.framework/AGL'
>>>

在 Windows 上, find_library() 在系统路径中搜索,然后返回全路径,但是如果没有预定义的命名方案, find_library("c") 调用会返回 None

使用 ctypes 包装动态链接库,更好的方式 可能 是在开发的时候就确定名称,然后硬编码到包装模块中去,而不是在运行时使用 find_library() 寻找库。

加载动态链接库

有很多方式可以将动态链接库加载到 Python 进程。其中之一是实例化以下类的其中一个:

class ctypes.CDLL(name, mode=DEFAULT_MODE, handle=None, use_errno=False, use_last_error=False, winmode=0)

此类的实例即已加载的动态链接库。库中的函数使用标准 C 调用约定,并假定返回 int

class ctypes.OleDLL(name, mode=DEFAULT_MODE, handle=None, use_errno=False, use_last_error=False, winmode=0)

仅 Windows : 此类的实例即加载好的动态链接库,其中的函数使用 stdcall 调用约定,并且假定返回 windows 指定的 HRESULT 返回码。 HRESULT 的值包含的信息说明函数调用成功还是失败,以及额外错误码。 如果返回值表示失败,会自动抛出 OSError 异常。

在 3.3 版更改: 以前是引发 WindowsError

class ctypes.WinDLL(name, mode=DEFAULT_MODE, handle=None, use_errno=False, use_last_error=False, winmode=0)

仅 Windows: 此类的实例即加载好的动态链接库,其中的函数使用 stdcall 调用约定,并假定默认返回 int

在 Windows CE 上,只能使用 stdcall 调用约定,为了方便, WinDLLOleDLL 在这个平台上都使用标准调用约定。

调用动态库导出的函数之前,Python会释放 global interpreter lock ,并在调用后重新获取。

class ctypes.PyDLL(name, mode=DEFAULT_MODE, handle=None)

这个类实例的行为与 CDLL 类似,只不过 不会 在调用函数的时候释放 GIL 锁,且调用结束后会检查 Python 错误码。 如果错误码被设置,会抛出一个 Python 异常。

所以,它只在直接调用 Python C 接口函数的时候有用。

通过使用至少一个参数(共享库的路径名)调用它们,可以实例化所有这些类。也可以传入一个已加载的动态链接库作为 handler 参数,其他情况会调用系统底层的 dlopenLoadLibrary 函数将库加载到进程,并获取其句柄。

mode 可以指定库加载方式。详情请参见 dlopen(3) 手册页。 在 Windows 上, 会忽略 mode ,在 posix 系统上, 总是会加上 RTLD_NOW ,且无法配置。

use_errno 参数如果设置为 true,可以启用ctypes的机制,通过一种安全的方法获取系统的 errno 错误码。 ctypes 维护了一个线程局部变量,它是系统 errno 的一份拷贝;如果调用了使用 use_errno=True 创建的外部函数, errno 的值会与 ctypes 自己拷贝的那一份进行交换,函数执行完后立即再交换一次。

The function ctypes.get_errno() returns the value of the ctypes private copy, and the function ctypes.set_errno() changes the ctypes private copy to a new value and returns the former value.

use_last_error 参数如果设置为 true,可以在 Windows 上启用相同的策略,它是通过 Windows API 函数 GetLastError()  和 SetLastError() 管理的。 ctypes.get_last_error()ctypes.set_last_error() 可用于获取和设置 ctypes 自己维护的 windows 错误码拷贝。

winmode 参数用于在 Windows 平台上指定库的加载方式( 因为 mode 会被忽略)。他接受任何与 Win32 API 的 LoadLibraryEx 的标志兼容的值作为参数。省略时,默认设置使用最安全的DLL加载的标志,以避免DLL劫持等问题。传入 DLL 的全路径是保证正确加载库及其依赖最安全的方法。

在 3.8 版更改: 增加了 winmode 参数。

ctypes.RTLD_GLOBAL

用于 mode 参数的标识值。在此标识不可用的系统上,它被定义为整数0。

ctypes.RTLD_LOCAL

Flag to use as mode parameter. On platforms where this is not available, it is the same as RTLD_GLOBAL.

ctypes.DEFAULT_MODE

加载动态链接库的默认模式。在 OSX 10.3 上,它是 RTLD_GLOBAL ,其余系统上是 RTLD_LOCAL

这些类的实例没有共用方法。动态链接库的导出函数可以通过属性或者数组下标的方式访问。注意,通过属性的方式访问会缓存这个函数,因而每次访问它时返回的都是同一个对象。另一方面,通过数组下标访问,每次都会返回一个新的对象:

>>> from ctypes import CDLL
>>> libc = CDLL("libc.so.6")  # On Linux
>>> libc.time == libc.time
True
>>> libc['time'] == libc['time']
False

还有下面这些属性可用,他们的名称以下划线开头,以避免和导出函数重名:

PyDLL._handle

用于访问库的系统句柄。

PyDLL._name

传入构造函数的库名称。

Shared libraries can also be loaded by using one of the prefabricated objects, which are instances of the LibraryLoader class, either by calling the LoadLibrary() method, or by retrieving the library as attribute of the loader instance.

class ctypes.LibraryLoader(dlltype)

Class which loads shared libraries. dlltype should be one of the CDLL, PyDLL, WinDLL, or OleDLL types.

__getattr__() has special behavior: It allows loading a shared library by accessing it as attribute of a library loader instance. The result is cached, so repeated attribute accesses return the same library each time.

LoadLibrary(name)

Load a shared library into the process and return it. This method always returns a new instance of the library.

These prefabricated library loaders are available:

ctypes.cdll

Creates CDLL instances.

ctypes.windll

仅Windows中: 创建 WinDLL 实例.

ctypes.oledll

仅Windows中: 创建 OleDLL 实例。

ctypes.pydll

创建 PyDLL 实例。

For accessing the C Python api directly, a ready-to-use Python shared library object is available:

ctypes.pythonapi

An instance of PyDLL that exposes Python C API functions as attributes. Note that all these functions are assumed to return C int, which is of course not always the truth, so you have to assign the correct restype attribute to use these functions.

Loading a library through any of these objects raises an auditing event ctypes.dlopen with string argument name, the name used to load the library.

Accessing a function on a loaded library raises an auditing event ctypes.dlsym with arguments library (the library object) and name (the symbol's name as a string or integer).

In cases when only the library handle is available rather than the object, accessing a function raises an auditing event ctypes.dlsym/handle with arguments handle (the raw library handle) and name.

Foreign functions

As explained in the previous section, foreign functions can be accessed as attributes of loaded shared libraries. The function objects created in this way by default accept any number of arguments, accept any ctypes data instances as arguments, and return the default result type specified by the library loader. They are instances of a private class:

class ctypes._FuncPtr

Base class for C callable foreign functions.

Instances of foreign functions are also C compatible data types; they represent C function pointers.

This behavior can be customized by assigning to special attributes of the foreign function object.

restype

Assign a ctypes type to specify the result type of the foreign function. Use None for void, a function not returning anything.

It is possible to assign a callable Python object that is not a ctypes type, in this case the function is assumed to return a C int, and the callable will be called with this integer, allowing further processing or error checking. Using this is deprecated, for more flexible post processing or error checking use a ctypes data type as restype and assign a callable to the errcheck attribute.

argtypes

Assign a tuple of ctypes types to specify the argument types that the function accepts. Functions using the stdcall calling convention can only be called with the same number of arguments as the length of this tuple; functions using the C calling convention accept additional, unspecified arguments as well.

When a foreign function is called, each actual argument is passed to the from_param() class method of the items in the argtypes tuple, this method allows adapting the actual argument to an object that the foreign function accepts. For example, a c_char_p item in the argtypes tuple will convert a string passed as argument into a bytes object using ctypes conversion rules.

New: It is now possible to put items in argtypes which are not ctypes types, but each item must have a from_param() method which returns a value usable as argument (integer, string, ctypes instance). This allows defining adapters that can adapt custom objects as function parameters.

errcheck

Assign a Python function or another callable to this attribute. The callable will be called with three or more arguments:

callable(result, func, arguments)

result is what the foreign function returns, as specified by the restype attribute.

func is the foreign function object itself, this allows reusing the same callable object to check or post process the results of several functions.

arguments is a tuple containing the parameters originally passed to the function call, this allows specializing the behavior on the arguments used.

The object that this function returns will be returned from the foreign function call, but it can also check the result value and raise an exception if the foreign function call failed.

exception ctypes.ArgumentError

This exception is raised when a foreign function call cannot convert one of the passed arguments.

On Windows, when a foreign function call raises a system exception (for example, due to an access violation), it will be captured and replaced with a suitable Python exception. Further, an auditing event ctypes.seh_exception with argument code will be raised, allowing an audit hook to replace the exception with its own.

Some ways to invoke foreign function calls may raise an auditing event ctypes.call_function with arguments function pointer and arguments.

Function prototypes

Foreign functions can also be created by instantiating function prototypes. Function prototypes are similar to function prototypes in C; they describe a function (return type, argument types, calling convention) without defining an implementation. The factory functions must be called with the desired result type and the argument types of the function, and can be used as decorator factories, and as such, be applied to functions through the @wrapper syntax. See 回调函数 for examples.

ctypes.CFUNCTYPE(restype, *argtypes, use_errno=False, use_last_error=False)

The returned function prototype creates functions that use the standard C calling convention. The function will release the GIL during the call. If use_errno is set to true, the ctypes private copy of the system errno variable is exchanged with the real errno value before and after the call; use_last_error does the same for the Windows error code.

ctypes.WINFUNCTYPE(restype, *argtypes, use_errno=False, use_last_error=False)

Windows only: The returned function prototype creates functions that use the stdcall calling convention, except on Windows CE where WINFUNCTYPE() is the same as CFUNCTYPE(). The function will release the GIL during the call. use_errno and use_last_error have the same meaning as above.

ctypes.PYFUNCTYPE(restype, *argtypes)

The returned function prototype creates functions that use the Python calling convention. The function will not release the GIL during the call.

Function prototypes created by these factory functions can be instantiated in different ways, depending on the type and number of the parameters in the call:

prototype(address)

Returns a foreign function at the specified address which must be an integer.

prototype(callable)

Create a C callable function (a callback function) from a Python callable.

prototype(func_spec[, paramflags])

Returns a foreign function exported by a shared library. func_spec must be a 2-tuple (name_or_ordinal, library). The first item is the name of the exported function as string, or the ordinal of the exported function as small integer. The second item is the shared library instance.

prototype(vtbl_index, name[, paramflags[, iid]])

Returns a foreign function that will call a COM method. vtbl_index is the index into the virtual function table, a small non-negative integer. name is name of the COM method. iid is an optional pointer to the interface identifier which is used in extended error reporting.

COM methods use a special calling convention: They require a pointer to the COM interface as first argument, in addition to those parameters that are specified in the argtypes tuple.

The optional paramflags parameter creates foreign function wrappers with much more functionality than the features described above.

paramflags must be a tuple of the same length as argtypes.

Each item in this tuple contains further information about a parameter, it must be a tuple containing one, two, or three items.

The first item is an integer containing a combination of direction flags for the parameter:

1

Specifies an input parameter to the function.

2

Output parameter. The foreign function fills in a value.

4

Input parameter which defaults to the integer zero.

The optional second item is the parameter name as string. If this is specified, the foreign function can be called with named parameters.

The optional third item is the default value for this parameter.

This example demonstrates how to wrap the Windows MessageBoxW function so that it supports default parameters and named arguments. The C declaration from the windows header file is this:

WINUSERAPI int WINAPI
MessageBoxW(
    HWND hWnd,
    LPCWSTR lpText,
    LPCWSTR lpCaption,
    UINT uType);

Here is the wrapping with ctypes:

>>> from ctypes import c_int, WINFUNCTYPE, windll
>>> from ctypes.wintypes import HWND, LPCWSTR, UINT
>>> prototype = WINFUNCTYPE(c_int, HWND, LPCWSTR, LPCWSTR, UINT)
>>> paramflags = (1, "hwnd", 0), (1, "text", "Hi"), (1, "caption", "Hello from ctypes"), (1, "flags", 0)
>>> MessageBox = prototype(("MessageBoxW", windll.user32), paramflags)

The MessageBox foreign function can now be called in these ways:

>>> MessageBox()
>>> MessageBox(text="Spam, spam, spam")
>>> MessageBox(flags=2, text="foo bar")

A second example demonstrates output parameters. The win32 GetWindowRect function retrieves the dimensions of a specified window by copying them into RECT structure that the caller has to supply. Here is the C declaration:

WINUSERAPI BOOL WINAPI
GetWindowRect(
     HWND hWnd,
     LPRECT lpRect);

Here is the wrapping with ctypes:

>>> from ctypes import POINTER, WINFUNCTYPE, windll, WinError
>>> from ctypes.wintypes import BOOL, HWND, RECT
>>> prototype = WINFUNCTYPE(BOOL, HWND, POINTER(RECT))
>>> paramflags = (1, "hwnd"), (2, "lprect")
>>> GetWindowRect = prototype(("GetWindowRect", windll.user32), paramflags)
>>>

Functions with output parameters will automatically return the output parameter value if there is a single one, or a tuple containing the output parameter values when there are more than one, so the GetWindowRect function now returns a RECT instance, when called.

Output parameters can be combined with the errcheck protocol to do further output processing and error checking. The win32 GetWindowRect api function returns a BOOL to signal success or failure, so this function could do the error checking, and raises an exception when the api call failed:

>>> def errcheck(result, func, args):
...     if not result:
...         raise WinError()
...     return args
...
>>> GetWindowRect.errcheck = errcheck
>>>

If the errcheck function returns the argument tuple it receives unchanged, ctypes continues the normal processing it does on the output parameters. If you want to return a tuple of window coordinates instead of a RECT instance, you can retrieve the fields in the function and return them instead, the normal processing will no longer take place:

>>> def errcheck(result, func, args):
...     if not result:
...         raise WinError()
...     rc = args[1]
...     return rc.left, rc.top, rc.bottom, rc.right
...
>>> GetWindowRect.errcheck = errcheck
>>>

Utility functions

ctypes.addressof(obj)

Returns the address of the memory buffer as integer. obj must be an instance of a ctypes type.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.addressof with argument obj.

ctypes.alignment(obj_or_type)

Returns the alignment requirements of a ctypes type. obj_or_type must be a ctypes type or instance.

ctypes.byref(obj[, offset])

Returns a light-weight pointer to obj, which must be an instance of a ctypes type. offset defaults to zero, and must be an integer that will be added to the internal pointer value.

byref(obj, offset) corresponds to this C code:

(((char *)&obj) + offset)

The returned object can only be used as a foreign function call parameter. It behaves similar to pointer(obj), but the construction is a lot faster.

ctypes.cast(obj, type)

This function is similar to the cast operator in C. It returns a new instance of type which points to the same memory block as obj. type must be a pointer type, and obj must be an object that can be interpreted as a pointer.

ctypes.create_string_buffer(init_or_size, size=None)

This function creates a mutable character buffer. The returned object is a ctypes array of c_char.

init_or_size must be an integer which specifies the size of the array, or a bytes object which will be used to initialize the array items.

If a bytes object is specified as first argument, the buffer is made one item larger than its length so that the last element in the array is a NUL termination character. An integer can be passed as second argument which allows specifying the size of the array if the length of the bytes should not be used.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.create_string_buffer with arguments init, size.

ctypes.create_unicode_buffer(init_or_size, size=None)

This function creates a mutable unicode character buffer. The returned object is a ctypes array of c_wchar.

init_or_size must be an integer which specifies the size of the array, or a string which will be used to initialize the array items.

If a string is specified as first argument, the buffer is made one item larger than the length of the string so that the last element in the array is a NUL termination character. An integer can be passed as second argument which allows specifying the size of the array if the length of the string should not be used.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.create_unicode_buffer with arguments init, size.

ctypes.DllCanUnloadNow()

Windows only: This function is a hook which allows implementing in-process COM servers with ctypes. It is called from the DllCanUnloadNow function that the _ctypes extension dll exports.

ctypes.DllGetClassObject()

Windows only: This function is a hook which allows implementing in-process COM servers with ctypes. It is called from the DllGetClassObject function that the _ctypes extension dll exports.

ctypes.util.find_library(name)

Try to find a library and return a pathname. name is the library name without any prefix like lib, suffix like .so, .dylib or version number (this is the form used for the posix linker option -l). If no library can be found, returns None.

确切的功能取决于系统。

ctypes.util.find_msvcrt()

Windows only: return the filename of the VC runtime library used by Python, and by the extension modules. If the name of the library cannot be determined, None is returned.

If you need to free memory, for example, allocated by an extension module with a call to the free(void *), it is important that you use the function in the same library that allocated the memory.

ctypes.FormatError([code])

Windows only: Returns a textual description of the error code code. If no error code is specified, the last error code is used by calling the Windows api function GetLastError.

ctypes.GetLastError()

Windows only: Returns the last error code set by Windows in the calling thread. This function calls the Windows GetLastError() function directly, it does not return the ctypes-private copy of the error code.

ctypes.get_errno()

Returns the current value of the ctypes-private copy of the system errno variable in the calling thread.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.get_errno with no arguments.

ctypes.get_last_error()

Windows only: returns the current value of the ctypes-private copy of the system LastError variable in the calling thread.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.get_last_error with no arguments.

ctypes.memmove(dst, src, count)

Same as the standard C memmove library function: copies count bytes from src to dst. dst and src must be integers or ctypes instances that can be converted to pointers.

ctypes.memset(dst, c, count)

Same as the standard C memset library function: fills the memory block at address dst with count bytes of value c. dst must be an integer specifying an address, or a ctypes instance.

ctypes.POINTER(type)

This factory function creates and returns a new ctypes pointer type. Pointer types are cached and reused internally, so calling this function repeatedly is cheap. type must be a ctypes type.

ctypes.pointer(obj)

This function creates a new pointer instance, pointing to obj. The returned object is of the type POINTER(type(obj)).

Note: If you just want to pass a pointer to an object to a foreign function call, you should use byref(obj) which is much faster.

ctypes.resize(obj, size)

This function resizes the internal memory buffer of obj, which must be an instance of a ctypes type. It is not possible to make the buffer smaller than the native size of the objects type, as given by sizeof(type(obj)), but it is possible to enlarge the buffer.

ctypes.set_errno(value)

Set the current value of the ctypes-private copy of the system errno variable in the calling thread to value and return the previous value.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.set_errno with argument errno.

ctypes.set_last_error(value)

Windows only: set the current value of the ctypes-private copy of the system LastError variable in the calling thread to value and return the previous value.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.set_last_error with argument error.

ctypes.sizeof(obj_or_type)

Returns the size in bytes of a ctypes type or instance memory buffer. Does the same as the C sizeof operator.

ctypes.string_at(address, size=-1)

This function returns the C string starting at memory address address as a bytes object. If size is specified, it is used as size, otherwise the string is assumed to be zero-terminated.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.string_at with arguments address, size.

ctypes.WinError(code=None, descr=None)

Windows only: this function is probably the worst-named thing in ctypes. It creates an instance of OSError. If code is not specified, GetLastError is called to determine the error code. If descr is not specified, FormatError() is called to get a textual description of the error.

在 3.3 版更改: An instance of WindowsError used to be created.

ctypes.wstring_at(address, size=-1)

This function returns the wide character string starting at memory address address as a string. If size is specified, it is used as the number of characters of the string, otherwise the string is assumed to be zero-terminated.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.wstring_at with arguments address, size.

Data types

class ctypes._CData

This non-public class is the common base class of all ctypes data types. Among other things, all ctypes type instances contain a memory block that hold C compatible data; the address of the memory block is returned by the addressof() helper function. Another instance variable is exposed as _objects; this contains other Python objects that need to be kept alive in case the memory block contains pointers.

Common methods of ctypes data types, these are all class methods (to be exact, they are methods of the metaclass):

from_buffer(source[, offset])

This method returns a ctypes instance that shares the buffer of the source object. The source object must support the writeable buffer interface. The optional offset parameter specifies an offset into the source buffer in bytes; the default is zero. If the source buffer is not large enough a ValueError is raised.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.cdata/buffer with arguments pointer, size, offset.

from_buffer_copy(source[, offset])

This method creates a ctypes instance, copying the buffer from the source object buffer which must be readable. The optional offset parameter specifies an offset into the source buffer in bytes; the default is zero. If the source buffer is not large enough a ValueError is raised.

Raises an auditing event ctypes.cdata/buffer with arguments pointer, size, offset.

from_address(address)

This method returns a ctypes type instance using the memory specified by address which must be an integer.

This method, and others that indirectly call this method, raises an auditing event ctypes.cdata with argument address.

from_param(obj)

This method adapts obj to a ctypes type. It is called with the actual object used in a foreign function call when the type is present in the foreign function's argtypes tuple; it must return an object that can be used as a function call parameter.

All ctypes data types have a default implementation of this classmethod that normally returns obj if that is an instance of the type. Some types accept other objects as well.

in_dll(library, name)

This method returns a ctypes type instance exported by a shared library. name is the name of the symbol that exports the data, library is the loaded shared library.

Common instance variables of ctypes data types:

_b_base_

Sometimes ctypes data instances do not own the memory block they contain, instead they share part of the memory block of a base object. The _b_base_ read-only member is the root ctypes object that owns the memory block.

_b_needsfree_

This read-only variable is true when the ctypes data instance has allocated the memory block itself, false otherwise.

_objects

This member is either None or a dictionary containing Python objects that need to be kept alive so that the memory block contents is kept valid. This object is only exposed for debugging; never modify the contents of this dictionary.

基础数据类型

class ctypes._SimpleCData

This non-public class is the base class of all fundamental ctypes data types. It is mentioned here because it contains the common attributes of the fundamental ctypes data types. _SimpleCData is a subclass of _CData, so it inherits their methods and attributes. ctypes data types that are not and do not contain pointers can now be pickled.

Instances have a single attribute:

value

This attribute contains the actual value of the instance. For integer and pointer types, it is an integer, for character types, it is a single character bytes object or string, for character pointer types it is a Python bytes object or string.

When the value attribute is retrieved from a ctypes instance, usually a new object is returned each time. ctypes does not implement original object return, always a new object is constructed. The same is true for all other ctypes object instances.

Fundamental data types, when returned as foreign function call results, or, for example, by retrieving structure field members or array items, are transparently converted to native Python types. In other words, if a foreign function has a restype of c_char_p, you will always receive a Python bytes object, not a c_char_p instance.

Subclasses of fundamental data types do not inherit this behavior. So, if a foreign functions restype is a subclass of c_void_p, you will receive an instance of this subclass from the function call. Of course, you can get the value of the pointer by accessing the value attribute.

These are the fundamental ctypes data types:

class ctypes.c_byte

Represents the C signed char datatype, and interprets the value as small integer. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_char

Represents the C char datatype, and interprets the value as a single character. The constructor accepts an optional string initializer, the length of the string must be exactly one character.

class ctypes.c_char_p

Represents the C char * datatype when it points to a zero-terminated string. For a general character pointer that may also point to binary data, POINTER(c_char) must be used. The constructor accepts an integer address, or a bytes object.

class ctypes.c_double

Represents the C double datatype. The constructor accepts an optional float initializer.

class ctypes.c_longdouble

Represents the C long double datatype. The constructor accepts an optional float initializer. On platforms where sizeof(long double) == sizeof(double) it is an alias to c_double.

class ctypes.c_float

Represents the C float datatype. The constructor accepts an optional float initializer.

class ctypes.c_int

Represents the C signed int datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done. On platforms where sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) it is an alias to c_long.

class ctypes.c_int8

Represents the C 8-bit signed int datatype. Usually an alias for c_byte.

class ctypes.c_int16

Represents the C 16-bit signed int datatype. Usually an alias for c_short.

class ctypes.c_int32

Represents the C 32-bit signed int datatype. Usually an alias for c_int.

class ctypes.c_int64

Represents the C 64-bit signed int datatype. Usually an alias for c_longlong.

class ctypes.c_long

Represents the C signed long datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_longlong

Represents the C signed long long datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_short

Represents the C signed short datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_size_t

Represents the C size_t datatype.

class ctypes.c_ssize_t

Represents the C ssize_t datatype.

3.2 新版功能.

class ctypes.c_ubyte

Represents the C unsigned char datatype, it interprets the value as small integer. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_uint

Represents the C unsigned int datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done. On platforms where sizeof(int) == sizeof(long) it is an alias for c_ulong.

class ctypes.c_uint8

Represents the C 8-bit unsigned int datatype. Usually an alias for c_ubyte.

class ctypes.c_uint16

Represents the C 16-bit unsigned int datatype. Usually an alias for c_ushort.

class ctypes.c_uint32

Represents the C 32-bit unsigned int datatype. Usually an alias for c_uint.

class ctypes.c_uint64

Represents the C 64-bit unsigned int datatype. Usually an alias for c_ulonglong.

class ctypes.c_ulong

Represents the C unsigned long datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_ulonglong

Represents the C unsigned long long datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_ushort

Represents the C unsigned short datatype. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer; no overflow checking is done.

class ctypes.c_void_p

Represents the C void * type. The value is represented as integer. The constructor accepts an optional integer initializer.

class ctypes.c_wchar

Represents the C wchar_t datatype, and interprets the value as a single character unicode string. The constructor accepts an optional string initializer, the length of the string must be exactly one character.

class ctypes.c_wchar_p

Represents the C wchar_t * datatype, which must be a pointer to a zero-terminated wide character string. The constructor accepts an integer address, or a string.

class ctypes.c_bool

Represent the C bool datatype (more accurately, _Bool from C99). Its value can be True or False, and the constructor accepts any object that has a truth value.

class ctypes.HRESULT

Windows only: Represents a HRESULT value, which contains success or error information for a function or method call.

class ctypes.py_object

Represents the C PyObject * datatype. Calling this without an argument creates a NULL PyObject * pointer.

The ctypes.wintypes module provides quite some other Windows specific data types, for example HWND, WPARAM, or DWORD. Some useful structures like MSG or RECT are also defined.

Structured data types

class ctypes.Union(*args, **kw)

Abstract base class for unions in native byte order.

class ctypes.BigEndianStructure(*args, **kw)

Abstract base class for structures in big endian byte order.

class ctypes.LittleEndianStructure(*args, **kw)

Abstract base class for structures in little endian byte order.

Structures with non-native byte order cannot contain pointer type fields, or any other data types containing pointer type fields.

class ctypes.Structure(*args, **kw)

Abstract base class for structures in native byte order.

Concrete structure and union types must be created by subclassing one of these types, and at least define a _fields_ class variable. ctypes will create descriptors which allow reading and writing the fields by direct attribute accesses. These are the

_fields_

A sequence defining the structure fields. The items must be 2-tuples or 3-tuples. The first item is the name of the field, the second item specifies the type of the field; it can be any ctypes data type.

For integer type fields like c_int, a third optional item can be given. It must be a small positive integer defining the bit width of the field.

Field names must be unique within one structure or union. This is not checked, only one field can be accessed when names are repeated.

It is possible to define the _fields_ class variable after the class statement that defines the Structure subclass, this allows creating data types that directly or indirectly reference themselves:

class List(Structure):
    pass
List._fields_ = [("pnext", POINTER(List)),
                 ...
                ]

The _fields_ class variable must, however, be defined before the type is first used (an instance is created, sizeof() is called on it, and so on). Later assignments to the _fields_ class variable will raise an AttributeError.

It is possible to define sub-subclasses of structure types, they inherit the fields of the base class plus the _fields_ defined in the sub-subclass, if any.

_pack_

An optional small integer that allows overriding the alignment of structure fields in the instance. _pack_ must already be defined when _fields_ is assigned, otherwise it will have no effect.

_anonymous_

An optional sequence that lists the names of unnamed (anonymous) fields. _anonymous_ must be already defined when _fields_ is assigned, otherwise it will have no effect.

The fields listed in this variable must be structure or union type fields. ctypes will create descriptors in the structure type that allows accessing the nested fields directly, without the need to create the structure or union field.

Here is an example type (Windows):

class _U(Union):
    _fields_ = [("lptdesc", POINTER(TYPEDESC)),
                ("lpadesc", POINTER(ARRAYDESC)),
                ("hreftype", HREFTYPE)]

class TYPEDESC(Structure):
    _anonymous_ = ("u",)
    _fields_ = [("u", _U),
                ("vt", VARTYPE)]

The TYPEDESC structure describes a COM data type, the vt field specifies which one of the union fields is valid. Since the u field is defined as anonymous field, it is now possible to access the members directly off the TYPEDESC instance. td.lptdesc and td.u.lptdesc are equivalent, but the former is faster since it does not need to create a temporary union instance:

td = TYPEDESC()
td.vt = VT_PTR
td.lptdesc = POINTER(some_type)
td.u.lptdesc = POINTER(some_type)

It is possible to define sub-subclasses of structures, they inherit the fields of the base class. If the subclass definition has a separate _fields_ variable, the fields specified in this are appended to the fields of the base class.

Structure and union constructors accept both positional and keyword arguments. Positional arguments are used to initialize member fields in the same order as they are appear in _fields_. Keyword arguments in the constructor are interpreted as attribute assignments, so they will initialize _fields_ with the same name, or create new attributes for names not present in _fields_.

Arrays and pointers

class ctypes.Array(*args)

Abstract base class for arrays.

The recommended way to create concrete array types is by multiplying any ctypes data type with a positive integer. Alternatively, you can subclass this type and define _length_ and _type_ class variables. Array elements can be read and written using standard subscript and slice accesses; for slice reads, the resulting object is not itself an Array.

_length_

A positive integer specifying the number of elements in the array. Out-of-range subscripts result in an IndexError. Will be returned by len().

_type_

Specifies the type of each element in the array.

Array subclass constructors accept positional arguments, used to initialize the elements in order.

class ctypes._Pointer

Private, abstract base class for pointers.

Concrete pointer types are created by calling POINTER() with the type that will be pointed to; this is done automatically by pointer().

If a pointer points to an array, its elements can be read and written using standard subscript and slice accesses. Pointer objects have no size, so len() will raise TypeError. Negative subscripts will read from the memory before the pointer (as in C), and out-of-range subscripts will probably crash with an access violation (if you're lucky).

_type_

Specifies the type pointed to.

contents

Returns the object to which to pointer points. Assigning to this attribute changes the pointer to point to the assigned object.