공통 객체 구조체

파이썬의 객체 형 정의에 사용되는 많은 구조체가 있습니다. 이 섹션에서는 이러한 구조체와 사용 방법에 관해 설명합니다.

기본 객체 형과 매크로

All Python objects ultimately share a small number of fields at the beginning of the object’s representation in memory. These are represented by the PyObject and PyVarObject types, which are defined, in turn, by the expansions of some macros also used, whether directly or indirectly, in the definition of all other Python objects. Additional macros can be found under reference counting.

type PyObject
Part of the Limited API. (Only some members are part of the stable ABI.)

All object types are extensions of this type. This is a type which contains the information Python needs to treat a pointer to an object as an object. In a normal “release” build, it contains only the object’s reference count and a pointer to the corresponding type object. Nothing is actually declared to be a PyObject, but every pointer to a Python object can be cast to a PyObject*. Access to the members must be done by using the macros Py_REFCNT and Py_TYPE.

type PyVarObject
Part of the Limited API. (Only some members are part of the stable ABI.)

This is an extension of PyObject that adds the ob_size field. This is only used for objects that have some notion of length. This type does not often appear in the Python/C API. Access to the members must be done by using the macros Py_REFCNT, Py_TYPE, and Py_SIZE.

PyObject_HEAD

길이가 변하지 않는 객체를 나타내는 새로운 형을 선언할 때 사용되는 매크로입니다. PyObject_HEAD 매크로는 다음과 같이 확장됩니다:

PyObject ob_base;

위의 PyObject 설명서를 참조하십시오.

PyObject_VAR_HEAD

인스턴스마다 길이가 다른 객체를 나타내는 새로운 형을 선언할 때 사용되는 매크로입니다. PyObject_VAR_HEAD 매크로는 다음과 같이 확장됩니다:

PyVarObject ob_base;

위의 PyVarObject 설명서를 참조하십시오.

int Py_Is(PyObject *x, PyObject *y)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Test if the x object is the y object, the same as x is y in Python.

버전 3.10에 추가.

int Py_IsNone(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Test if an object is the None singleton, the same as x is None in Python.

버전 3.10에 추가.

int Py_IsTrue(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Test if an object is the True singleton, the same as x is True in Python.

버전 3.10에 추가.

int Py_IsFalse(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Test if an object is the False singleton, the same as x is False in Python.

버전 3.10에 추가.

PyTypeObject *Py_TYPE(PyObject *o)

Get the type of the Python object o.

Return a borrowed reference.

Use the Py_SET_TYPE() function to set an object type.

버전 3.11에서 변경: Py_TYPE() is changed to an inline static function. The parameter type is no longer const PyObject*.

int Py_IS_TYPE(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)

객체 o의 형이 type이면 0이 아닌 값을 반환합니다. 그렇지 않으면 0을 반환합니다. Py_TYPE(o) == type과 동등합니다.

버전 3.9에 추가.

void Py_SET_TYPE(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)

객체 o의 형을 type으로 설정합니다.

버전 3.9에 추가.

Py_ssize_t Py_SIZE(PyVarObject *o)

Get the size of the Python object o.

Use the Py_SET_SIZE() function to set an object size.

버전 3.11에서 변경: Py_SIZE() is changed to an inline static function. The parameter type is no longer const PyVarObject*.

void Py_SET_SIZE(PyVarObject *o, Py_ssize_t size)

객체 o의 크기를 size로 설정합니다.

버전 3.9에 추가.

PyObject_HEAD_INIT(type)

이것은 새로운 PyObject 형의 초기화 값으로 확장되는 매크로입니다. 이 매크로는 다음으로 확장됩니다:

_PyObject_EXTRA_INIT
1, type,
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(type, size)

This is a macro which expands to initialization values for a new PyVarObject type, including the ob_size field. This macro expands to:

_PyObject_EXTRA_INIT
1, type, size,

함수와 메서드 구현

type PyCFunction
Part of the Stable ABI.

Type of the functions used to implement most Python callables in C. Functions of this type take two PyObject* parameters and return one such value. If the return value is NULL, an exception shall have been set. If not NULL, the return value is interpreted as the return value of the function as exposed in Python. The function must return a new reference.

함수 서명은 다음과 같습니다:

PyObject *PyCFunction(PyObject *self,
                      PyObject *args);
type PyCFunctionWithKeywords
Part of the Stable ABI.

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *PyCFunctionWithKeywords(PyObject *self,
                                  PyObject *args,
                                  PyObject *kwargs);
type _PyCFunctionFast

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_FASTCALL. The function signature is:

PyObject *_PyCFunctionFast(PyObject *self,
                           PyObject *const *args,
                           Py_ssize_t nargs);
type _PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *_PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords(PyObject *self,
                                       PyObject *const *args,
                                       Py_ssize_t nargs,
                                       PyObject *kwnames);
type PyCMethod

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *PyCMethod(PyObject *self,
                    PyTypeObject *defining_class,
                    PyObject *const *args,
                    Py_ssize_t nargs,
                    PyObject *kwnames)

버전 3.9에 추가.

type PyMethodDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

확장형의 메서드를 기술하는 데 사용되는 구조체. 이 구조체에는 네 개의 필드가 있습니다:

const char *ml_name

Name of the method.

PyCFunction ml_meth

Pointer to the C implementation.

int ml_flags

Flags bits indicating how the call should be constructed.

const char *ml_doc

Points to the contents of the docstring.

The ml_meth is a C function pointer. The functions may be of different types, but they always return PyObject*. If the function is not of the PyCFunction, the compiler will require a cast in the method table. Even though PyCFunction defines the first parameter as PyObject*, it is common that the method implementation uses the specific C type of the self object.

The ml_flags field is a bitfield which can include the following flags. The individual flags indicate either a calling convention or a binding convention.

다음과 같은 호출 규칙이 있습니다:

METH_VARARGS

This is the typical calling convention, where the methods have the type PyCFunction. The function expects two PyObject* values. The first one is the self object for methods; for module functions, it is the module object. The second parameter (often called args) is a tuple object representing all arguments. This parameter is typically processed using PyArg_ParseTuple() or PyArg_UnpackTuple().

METH_KEYWORDS

Can only be used in certain combinations with other flags: METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS, METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS and METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS.

METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS

이러한 플래그가 있는 메서드는 PyCFunctionWithKeywords 형이어야 합니다. 이 함수는 세 개의 매개 변수를 기대합니다: self, args, kwargs. 여기서 kwargs는 모든 키워드 인자의 딕셔너리이거나 키워드 인자가 없으면 NULL일 수 있습니다. 매개 변수는 일반적으로 PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords()를 사용하여 처리됩니다.

METH_FASTCALL

Fast calling convention supporting only positional arguments. The methods have the type _PyCFunctionFast. The first parameter is self, the second parameter is a C array of PyObject* values indicating the arguments and the third parameter is the number of arguments (the length of the array).

버전 3.7에 추가.

버전 3.10에서 변경: METH_FASTCALL is now part of the stable ABI.

METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS

Extension of METH_FASTCALL supporting also keyword arguments, with methods of type _PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords. Keyword arguments are passed the same way as in the vectorcall protocol: there is an additional fourth PyObject* parameter which is a tuple representing the names of the keyword arguments (which are guaranteed to be strings) or possibly NULL if there are no keywords. The values of the keyword arguments are stored in the args array, after the positional arguments.

버전 3.7에 추가.

METH_METHOD

Can only be used in the combination with other flags: METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS.

METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS

Extension of METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS supporting the defining class, that is, the class that contains the method in question. The defining class might be a superclass of Py_TYPE(self).

메서드는 PyCMethod 형이어야 하는데, self 뒤에 defining_class 인자가 추가된 METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS와 같습니다.

버전 3.9에 추가.

METH_NOARGS

Methods without parameters don’t need to check whether arguments are given if they are listed with the METH_NOARGS flag. They need to be of type PyCFunction. The first parameter is typically named self and will hold a reference to the module or object instance. In all cases the second parameter will be NULL.

The function must have 2 parameters. Since the second parameter is unused, Py_UNUSED can be used to prevent a compiler warning.

METH_O

Methods with a single object argument can be listed with the METH_O flag, instead of invoking PyArg_ParseTuple() with a "O" argument. They have the type PyCFunction, with the self parameter, and a PyObject* parameter representing the single argument.

이 두 상수는 호출 규칙을 나타내는 데 사용되지 않고 클래스의 메서드와 함께 사용할 때 바인딩을 나타냅니다. 모듈에 정의된 함수에는 사용할 수 없습니다. 이러한 플래그 중 최대 하나를 주어진 메서드에 대해 설정할 수 있습니다.

METH_CLASS

메서드로 형의 인스턴스가 아닌 형 객체가 첫 번째 매개 변수로 전달됩니다. classmethod() 내장 함수를 사용할 때 만들어지는 것과 유사한 클래스 메서드(class methods)를 만드는 데 사용됩니다.

METH_STATIC

메서드로 형의 인스턴스가 아닌 NULL이 첫 번째 매개 변수로 전달됩니다. staticmethod() 내장 함수를 사용할 때 만들어지는 것과 유사한 정적 메서드(static methods)를 만드는 데 사용됩니다.

하나의 다른 상수는 같은 메서드 이름을 가진 다른 정의 대신 메서드가 로드되는지를 제어합니다.

METH_COEXIST

The method will be loaded in place of existing definitions. Without METH_COEXIST, the default is to skip repeated definitions. Since slot wrappers are loaded before the method table, the existence of a sq_contains slot, for example, would generate a wrapped method named __contains__() and preclude the loading of a corresponding PyCFunction with the same name. With the flag defined, the PyCFunction will be loaded in place of the wrapper object and will co-exist with the slot. This is helpful because calls to PyCFunctions are optimized more than wrapper object calls.

PyObject *PyCMethod_New(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self, PyObject *module, PyTypeObject *cls)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.9.

Turn ml into a Python callable object. The caller must ensure that ml outlives the callable. Typically, ml is defined as a static variable.

The self parameter will be passed as the self argument to the C function in ml->ml_meth when invoked. self can be NULL.

The callable object’s __module__ attribute can be set from the given module argument. module should be a Python string, which will be used as name of the module the function is defined in. If unavailable, it can be set to None or NULL.

더 보기

function.__module__

The cls parameter will be passed as the defining_class argument to the C function. Must be set if METH_METHOD is set on ml->ml_flags.

버전 3.9에 추가.

PyObject *PyCFunction_NewEx(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self, PyObject *module)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI.

Equivalent to PyCMethod_New(ml, self, module, NULL).

PyObject *PyCFunction_New(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.4.

Equivalent to PyCMethod_New(ml, self, NULL, NULL).

확장형의 어트리뷰트 액세스

type PyMemberDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Structure which describes an attribute of a type which corresponds to a C struct member. When defining a class, put a NULL-terminated array of these structures in the tp_members slot.

Its fields are, in order:

const char *name

Name of the member. A NULL value marks the end of a PyMemberDef[] array.

The string should be static, no copy is made of it.

int type

The type of the member in the C struct. See Member types for the possible values.

Py_ssize_t offset

The offset in bytes that the member is located on the type’s object struct.

int flags

Zero or more of the Member flags, combined using bitwise OR.

const char *doc

The docstring, or NULL. The string should be static, no copy is made of it. Typically, it is defined using PyDoc_STR.

By default (when flags is 0), members allow both read and write access. Use the Py_READONLY flag for read-only access. Certain types, like Py_T_STRING, imply Py_READONLY. Only Py_T_OBJECT_EX (and legacy T_OBJECT) members can be deleted.

For heap-allocated types (created using PyType_FromSpec() or similar), PyMemberDef may contain a definition for the special member "__vectorcalloffset__", corresponding to tp_vectorcall_offset in type objects. These must be defined with Py_T_PYSSIZET and Py_READONLY, for example:

static PyMemberDef spam_type_members[] = {
    {"__vectorcalloffset__", Py_T_PYSSIZET,
     offsetof(Spam_object, vectorcall), Py_READONLY},
    {NULL}  /* Sentinel */
};

(You may need to #include <stddef.h> for offsetof().)

The legacy offsets tp_dictoffset and tp_weaklistoffset can be defined similarly using "__dictoffset__" and "__weaklistoffset__" members, but extensions are strongly encouraged to use Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT and Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF instead.

버전 3.12에서 변경: PyMemberDef is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

PyObject *PyMember_GetOne(const char *obj_addr, struct PyMemberDef *m)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Get an attribute belonging to the object at address obj_addr. The attribute is described by PyMemberDef m. Returns NULL on error.

버전 3.12에서 변경: PyMember_GetOne is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

int PyMember_SetOne(char *obj_addr, struct PyMemberDef *m, PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Set an attribute belonging to the object at address obj_addr to object o. The attribute to set is described by PyMemberDef m. Returns 0 if successful and a negative value on failure.

버전 3.12에서 변경: PyMember_SetOne is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

Member flags

The following flags can be used with PyMemberDef.flags:

Py_READONLY

Not writable.

Py_AUDIT_READ

Emit an object.__getattr__ audit event before reading.

Py_RELATIVE_OFFSET

Indicates that the offset of this PyMemberDef entry indicates an offset from the subclass-specific data, rather than from PyObject.

Can only be used as part of Py_tp_members slot when creating a class using negative basicsize. It is mandatory in that case.

This flag is only used in PyType_Slot. When setting tp_members during class creation, Python clears it and sets PyMemberDef.offset to the offset from the PyObject struct.

버전 3.10에서 변경: The RESTRICTED, READ_RESTRICTED and WRITE_RESTRICTED macros available with #include "structmember.h" are deprecated. READ_RESTRICTED and RESTRICTED are equivalent to Py_AUDIT_READ; WRITE_RESTRICTED does nothing.

버전 3.12에서 변경: The READONLY macro was renamed to Py_READONLY. The PY_AUDIT_READ macro was renamed with the Py_ prefix. The new names are now always available. Previously, these required #include "structmember.h". The header is still available and it provides the old names.

Member types

PyMemberDef.type can be one of the following macros corresponding to various C types. When the member is accessed in Python, it will be converted to the equivalent Python type. When it is set from Python, it will be converted back to the C type. If that is not possible, an exception such as TypeError or ValueError is raised.

Unless marked (D), attributes defined this way cannot be deleted using e.g. del or delattr().

매크로 이름

C 형

Python type

Py_T_BYTE

char

int

Py_T_SHORT

short

int

Py_T_INT

int

int

Py_T_LONG

long

int

Py_T_LONGLONG

long long

int

Py_T_UBYTE

unsigned char

int

Py_T_UINT

unsigned int

int

Py_T_USHORT

unsigned short

int

Py_T_ULONG

unsigned long

int

Py_T_ULONGLONG

unsigned long long

int

Py_T_PYSSIZET

Py_ssize_t

int

Py_T_FLOAT

float

float

Py_T_DOUBLE

double

float

Py_T_BOOL

char (written as 0 or 1)

bool

Py_T_STRING

const char* (*)

str (RO)

Py_T_STRING_INPLACE

const char[] (*)

str (RO)

Py_T_CHAR

char (0-127)

str (**)

Py_T_OBJECT_EX

PyObject*

object (D)

(*): Zero-terminated, UTF8-encoded C string. With Py_T_STRING the C representation is a pointer; with Py_T_STRING_INPLACE the string is stored directly in the structure.

(**): String of length 1. Only ASCII is accepted.

(RO): Implies Py_READONLY.

(D): Can be deleted, in which case the pointer is set to NULL. Reading a NULL pointer raises AttributeError.

버전 3.12에 추가: In previous versions, the macros were only available with #include "structmember.h" and were named without the Py_ prefix (e.g. as T_INT). The header is still available and contains the old names, along with the following deprecated types:

T_OBJECT

Like Py_T_OBJECT_EX, but NULL is converted to None. This results in surprising behavior in Python: deleting the attribute effectively sets it to None.

T_NONE

Always None. Must be used with Py_READONLY.

Defining Getters and Setters

type PyGetSetDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

형에 대한 프로퍼티 같은 액세스를 정의하는 구조체. PyTypeObject.tp_getset 슬롯에 대한 설명도 참조하십시오.

const char *name

어트리뷰트 이름

getter get

C function to get the attribute.

setter set

Optional C function to set or delete the attribute. If NULL, the attribute is read-only.

const char *doc

선택적 독스트링

void *closure

Optional function pointer, providing additional data for getter and setter.

typedef PyObject *(*getter)(PyObject*, void*)
Part of the Stable ABI.

The get function takes one PyObject* parameter (the instance) and a function pointer (the associated closure):

성공하면 새 참조를 반환하고, 실패하면 설정된 예외와 함께 NULL을 반환해야 합니다.

typedef int (*setter)(PyObject*, PyObject*, void*)
Part of the Stable ABI.

set functions take two PyObject* parameters (the instance and the value to be set) and a function pointer (the associated closure):

어트리뷰트를 삭제해야 하는 경우 두 번째 매개 변수는 NULL입니다. 성공하면 0을, 실패하면 설정된 예외와 함께 -1을 반환해야 합니다.