28.11. __future__ — Définitions des futurs

Source code: Lib/_future_.py


__future__ is a real module, and serves three purposes:

  • To avoid confusing existing tools that analyze import statements and expect to find the modules they’re importing.
  • To ensure that future statements run under releases prior to 2.1 at least yield runtime exceptions (the import of __future__ will fail, because there was no module of that name prior to 2.1).
  • To document when incompatible changes were introduced, and when they will be — or were — made mandatory. This is a form of executable documentation, and can be inspected programmatically via importing __future__ and examining its contents.

Each statement in __future__.py is of the form:

FeatureName = _Feature(OptionalRelease, MandatoryRelease,
                       CompilerFlag)

where, normally, OptionalRelease is less than MandatoryRelease, and both are 5-tuples of the same form as sys.version_info:

(PY_MAJOR_VERSION, # the 2 in 2.1.0a3; an int
 PY_MINOR_VERSION, # the 1; an int
 PY_MICRO_VERSION, # the 0; an int
 PY_RELEASE_LEVEL, # "alpha", "beta", "candidate" or "final"; string
 PY_RELEASE_SERIAL # the 3; an int
)

OptionalRelease records the first release in which the feature was accepted.

In the case of a MandatoryRelease that has not yet occurred, MandatoryRelease predicts the release in which the feature will become part of the language.

Else MandatoryRelease records when the feature became part of the language; in releases at or after that, modules no longer need a future statement to use the feature in question, but may continue to use such imports.

MandatoryRelease may also be None, meaning that a planned feature got dropped.

Instances of class _Feature have two corresponding methods, getOptionalRelease() and getMandatoryRelease().

CompilerFlag is the (bitfield) flag that should be passed in the fourth argument to the built-in function compile() to enable the feature in dynamically compiled code. This flag is stored in the compiler_flag attribute on _Feature instances.

Aucune fonctionnalité ne sera jamais supprimée de __future__. Depuis son introduction dans Python 2.1, les fonctionnalités suivantes ont trouvé leur places dans le langage utilisant ce mécanisme :

fonctionnalité optionnel dans obligatoire dans effet
nested_scopes 2.1.0b1 2.2 PEP 227: Statically Nested Scopes
générateurs 2.2.0a1 2.3 PEP 255 : Générateurs simples
division 2.2.0a2 3.0 PEP 328 : Changer l’opérateur de division
absolute_import 2.5.0a1 3.0 PEP 328: Imports: Multi-Line and Absolute/Relative
with_statement 2.5.0a1 2.6 PEP 343 : L’instruction « with »
print_function 2.6.0a2 3.0 PEP 3105: Make print a function
unicode_literals 2.6.0a2 3.0 PEP 3112 : Obtets littéraux en Python 3000

Voir aussi

Future statements
Comment le compilateur gère les imports du futur.