Estructuras de objetos comunes

Hay un gran número de estructuras que se utilizan en la definición de los tipos de objetos de Python. Esta sección describe estas estructuras y la forma en que se utilizan.

Tipos objeto base y macros

All Python objects ultimately share a small number of fields at the beginning of the object’s representation in memory. These are represented by the PyObject and PyVarObject types, which are defined, in turn, by the expansions of some macros also used, whether directly or indirectly, in the definition of all other Python objects. Additional macros can be found under reference counting.

type PyObject
Part of the Limited API. (Only some members are part of the stable ABI.)

All object types are extensions of this type. This is a type which contains the information Python needs to treat a pointer to an object as an object. In a normal «release» build, it contains only the object’s reference count and a pointer to the corresponding type object. Nothing is actually declared to be a PyObject, but every pointer to a Python object can be cast to a PyObject*. Access to the members must be done by using the macros Py_REFCNT and Py_TYPE.

type PyVarObject
Part of the Limited API. (Only some members are part of the stable ABI.)

This is an extension of PyObject that adds the ob_size field. This is only used for objects that have some notion of length. This type does not often appear in the Python/C API. Access to the members must be done by using the macros Py_REFCNT, Py_TYPE, and Py_SIZE.

PyObject_HEAD

Esta es una macro utilizado cuando se declara nuevos tipos que representan objetos sin una longitud variable. La macro PyObject_HEAD se expande a:

PyObject ob_base;

Consulte la documentación de PyObject en secciones anteriores.

PyObject_VAR_HEAD

Esta es una macro utilizado cuando se declara nuevos tipos que representan objetos con una longitud que varía de una instancia a otra instancia. La macro PyObject_VAR_HEAD se expande a:

PyVarObject ob_base;

Consulte la documentación de PyVarObject anteriormente.

int Py_Is(PyObject *x, PyObject *y)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Prueba si el objeto x es el objeto y, lo mismo que x is y en Python.

Nuevo en la versión 3.10.

int Py_IsNone(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Prueba si un objeto es la instancia única None, lo mismo que x is None en Python.

Nuevo en la versión 3.10.

int Py_IsTrue(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Prueba si un objeto es la instancia única True, lo mismo que x is True en Python.

Nuevo en la versión 3.10.

int Py_IsFalse(PyObject *x)
Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.10.

Prueba si un objeto es la instancia única False, lo mismo que x is False en Python.

Nuevo en la versión 3.10.

PyTypeObject *Py_TYPE(PyObject *o)

Obtiene el tipo de objeto Python o.

Retorna una referencia prestada (borrowed reference).

Use the Py_SET_TYPE() function to set an object type.

Distinto en la versión 3.11: Py_TYPE() se cambia a una función estática inline. El tipo de parámetro ya no es const PyObject*.

int Py_IS_TYPE(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)

Retorna un valor distinto de cero si el objeto o tipo es type. Retorna cero en caso contrario. Equivalente a: Py_TYPE(o) == type.

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

void Py_SET_TYPE(PyObject *o, PyTypeObject *type)

Establece el tipo del objeto o a type.

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

Py_ssize_t Py_SIZE(PyVarObject *o)

Obtiene el tamaño del objeto Python o.

Use the Py_SET_SIZE() function to set an object size.

Distinto en la versión 3.11: Py_SIZE() se cambia a una función estática inline. El tipo de parámetro ya no es const PyVarObject*.

void Py_SET_SIZE(PyVarObject *o, Py_ssize_t size)

Establece el tamaño del objeto o a size.

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

PyObject_HEAD_INIT(type)

Esta es una macro que se expande para valores de inicialización para un nuevo tipo PyObject. Esta macro expande:

_PyObject_EXTRA_INIT
1, type,
PyVarObject_HEAD_INIT(type, size)

This is a macro which expands to initialization values for a new PyVarObject type, including the ob_size field. This macro expands to:

_PyObject_EXTRA_INIT
1, type, size,

Implementando funciones y métodos

type PyCFunction
Part of the Stable ABI.

Type of the functions used to implement most Python callables in C. Functions of this type take two PyObject* parameters and return one such value. If the return value is NULL, an exception shall have been set. If not NULL, the return value is interpreted as the return value of the function as exposed in Python. The function must return a new reference.

La firma de la función es:

PyObject *PyCFunction(PyObject *self,
                      PyObject *args);
type PyCFunctionWithKeywords
Part of the Stable ABI.

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *PyCFunctionWithKeywords(PyObject *self,
                                  PyObject *args,
                                  PyObject *kwargs);
type _PyCFunctionFast

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_FASTCALL. The function signature is:

PyObject *_PyCFunctionFast(PyObject *self,
                           PyObject *const *args,
                           Py_ssize_t nargs);
type _PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *_PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords(PyObject *self,
                                       PyObject *const *args,
                                       Py_ssize_t nargs,
                                       PyObject *kwnames);
type PyCMethod

Type of the functions used to implement Python callables in C with signature METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS. The function signature is:

PyObject *PyCMethod(PyObject *self,
                    PyTypeObject *defining_class,
                    PyObject *const *args,
                    Py_ssize_t nargs,
                    PyObject *kwnames)

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

type PyMethodDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Estructura utiliza para describir un método de un tipo de extensión. Esta estructura tiene cuatro campos:

const char *ml_name

Name of the method.

PyCFunction ml_meth

Pointer to the C implementation.

int ml_flags

Flags bits indicating how the call should be constructed.

const char *ml_doc

Points to the contents of the docstring.

The ml_meth is a C function pointer. The functions may be of different types, but they always return PyObject*. If the function is not of the PyCFunction, the compiler will require a cast in the method table. Even though PyCFunction defines the first parameter as PyObject*, it is common that the method implementation uses the specific C type of the self object.

The ml_flags field is a bitfield which can include the following flags. The individual flags indicate either a calling convention or a binding convention.

Existen estas convenciones de llamada:

METH_VARARGS

This is the typical calling convention, where the methods have the type PyCFunction. The function expects two PyObject* values. The first one is the self object for methods; for module functions, it is the module object. The second parameter (often called args) is a tuple object representing all arguments. This parameter is typically processed using PyArg_ParseTuple() or PyArg_UnpackTuple().

METH_KEYWORDS

Can only be used in certain combinations with other flags: METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS, METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS and METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS.

METH_VARARGS | METH_KEYWORDS

Los métodos con estas flags deben ser del tipo PyCFunctionWithKeywords. La función espera tres parámetros: self, args, kwargs donde kwargs es un diccionario de todos los argumentos de palabras clave o, posiblemente, NULL si no hay argumentos de palabra clave. Los parámetros se procesan típicamente usando PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords().

METH_FASTCALL

Fast calling convention supporting only positional arguments. The methods have the type _PyCFunctionFast. The first parameter is self, the second parameter is a C array of PyObject* values indicating the arguments and the third parameter is the number of arguments (the length of the array).

Nuevo en la versión 3.7.

Distinto en la versión 3.10: METH_FASTCALL is now part of the stable ABI.

METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS

Extension of METH_FASTCALL supporting also keyword arguments, with methods of type _PyCFunctionFastWithKeywords. Keyword arguments are passed the same way as in the vectorcall protocol: there is an additional fourth PyObject* parameter which is a tuple representing the names of the keyword arguments (which are guaranteed to be strings) or possibly NULL if there are no keywords. The values of the keyword arguments are stored in the args array, after the positional arguments.

Nuevo en la versión 3.7.

METH_METHOD

Can only be used in the combination with other flags: METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS.

METH_METHOD | METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS

Extension of METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS supporting the defining class, that is, the class that contains the method in question. The defining class might be a superclass of Py_TYPE(self).

El método debe ser de tipo PyCMethod, lo mismo que para METH_FASTCALL | METH_KEYWORDS con el argumento defining_clase añadido después de self.

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

METH_NOARGS

Methods without parameters don’t need to check whether arguments are given if they are listed with the METH_NOARGS flag. They need to be of type PyCFunction. The first parameter is typically named self and will hold a reference to the module or object instance. In all cases the second parameter will be NULL.

La función debe tener 2 parámetros. Dado que el segundo parámetro no se usa, Py_UNUSED se puede usar para evitar una advertencia del compilador.

METH_O

Methods with a single object argument can be listed with the METH_O flag, instead of invoking PyArg_ParseTuple() with a "O" argument. They have the type PyCFunction, with the self parameter, and a PyObject* parameter representing the single argument.

Estas dos constantes no se utilizan para indicar la convención de llamada si no la vinculación cuando su usan con métodos de las clases. Estos no se pueden usar para funciones definidas para módulos. A lo sumo uno de estos flags puede establecerse en un método dado.

METH_CLASS

Al método se le pasará el objeto tipo como primer parámetro, en lugar de una instancia del tipo. Esto se utiliza para crear métodos de clase (class methods), similar a lo que se crea cuando se utiliza la función classmethod() incorporada.

METH_STATIC

El método pasará NULL como el primer parámetro en lugar de una instancia del tipo. Esto se utiliza para crear métodos estáticos (static methods), similar a lo que se crea cuando se utiliza la función staticmethod() incorporada.

En otros controles constantes dependiendo si se carga un método en su lugar (in place) de otra definición con el mismo nombre del método.

METH_COEXIST

The method will be loaded in place of existing definitions. Without METH_COEXIST, the default is to skip repeated definitions. Since slot wrappers are loaded before the method table, the existence of a sq_contains slot, for example, would generate a wrapped method named __contains__() and preclude the loading of a corresponding PyCFunction with the same name. With the flag defined, the PyCFunction will be loaded in place of the wrapper object and will co-exist with the slot. This is helpful because calls to PyCFunctions are optimized more than wrapper object calls.

PyObject *PyCMethod_New(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self, PyObject *module, PyTypeObject *cls)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.9.

Turn ml into a Python callable object. The caller must ensure that ml outlives the callable. Typically, ml is defined as a static variable.

The self parameter will be passed as the self argument to the C function in ml->ml_meth when invoked. self can be NULL.

The callable object’s __module__ attribute can be set from the given module argument. module should be a Python string, which will be used as name of the module the function is defined in. If unavailable, it can be set to None or NULL.

Ver también

function.__module__

The cls parameter will be passed as the defining_class argument to the C function. Must be set if METH_METHOD is set on ml->ml_flags.

Nuevo en la versión 3.9.

PyObject *PyCFunction_NewEx(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self, PyObject *module)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI.

Equivalent to PyCMethod_New(ml, self, module, NULL).

PyObject *PyCFunction_New(PyMethodDef *ml, PyObject *self)
Return value: New reference. Part of the Stable ABI since version 3.4.

Equivalent to PyCMethod_New(ml, self, NULL, NULL).

Acceder a atributos de tipos de extensión

type PyMemberDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Structure which describes an attribute of a type which corresponds to a C struct member. When defining a class, put a NULL-terminated array of these structures in the tp_members slot.

Its fields are, in order:

const char *name

Name of the member. A NULL value marks the end of a PyMemberDef[] array.

The string should be static, no copy is made of it.

int type

The type of the member in the C struct. See Member types for the possible values.

Py_ssize_t offset

The offset in bytes that the member is located on the type’s object struct.

int flags

Zero or more of the Member flags, combined using bitwise OR.

const char *doc

The docstring, or NULL. The string should be static, no copy is made of it. Typically, it is defined using PyDoc_STR.

By default (when flags is 0), members allow both read and write access. Use the Py_READONLY flag for read-only access. Certain types, like Py_T_STRING, imply Py_READONLY. Only Py_T_OBJECT_EX (and legacy T_OBJECT) members can be deleted.

For heap-allocated types (created using PyType_FromSpec() or similar), PyMemberDef may contain a definition for the special member "__vectorcalloffset__", corresponding to tp_vectorcall_offset in type objects. These must be defined with Py_T_PYSSIZET and Py_READONLY, for example:

static PyMemberDef spam_type_members[] = {
    {"__vectorcalloffset__", Py_T_PYSSIZET,
     offsetof(Spam_object, vectorcall), Py_READONLY},
    {NULL}  /* Sentinel */
};

(You may need to #include <stddef.h> for offsetof().)

The legacy offsets tp_dictoffset and tp_weaklistoffset can be defined similarly using "__dictoffset__" and "__weaklistoffset__" members, but extensions are strongly encouraged to use Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_DICT and Py_TPFLAGS_MANAGED_WEAKREF instead.

Distinto en la versión 3.12: PyMemberDef is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

PyObject *PyMember_GetOne(const char *obj_addr, struct PyMemberDef *m)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Obtiene un atributo que pertenece al objeto en la dirección obj_addr. El atributo se describe por PyMemberDef m. Retorna NULL en caso de error.

Distinto en la versión 3.12: PyMember_GetOne is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

int PyMember_SetOne(char *obj_addr, struct PyMemberDef *m, PyObject *o)
Part of the Stable ABI.

Establece un atributo que pertenece al objeto en la dirección obj_addr al objeto o. El atributo a establecer se describe por PyMemberDef m. Retorna 0 si tiene éxito y un valor negativo si falla.

Distinto en la versión 3.12: PyMember_SetOne is always available. Previously, it required including "structmember.h".

Member flags

The following flags can be used with PyMemberDef.flags:

Py_READONLY

Not writable.

Py_AUDIT_READ

Emit an object.__getattr__ audit event before reading.

Py_RELATIVE_OFFSET

Indicates that the offset of this PyMemberDef entry indicates an offset from the subclass-specific data, rather than from PyObject.

Can only be used as part of Py_tp_members slot when creating a class using negative basicsize. It is mandatory in that case.

This flag is only used in PyType_Slot. When setting tp_members during class creation, Python clears it and sets PyMemberDef.offset to the offset from the PyObject struct.

Distinto en la versión 3.10: The RESTRICTED, READ_RESTRICTED and WRITE_RESTRICTED macros available with #include "structmember.h" are deprecated. READ_RESTRICTED and RESTRICTED are equivalent to Py_AUDIT_READ; WRITE_RESTRICTED does nothing.

Distinto en la versión 3.12: The READONLY macro was renamed to Py_READONLY. The PY_AUDIT_READ macro was renamed with the Py_ prefix. The new names are now always available. Previously, these required #include "structmember.h". The header is still available and it provides the old names.

Member types

PyMemberDef.type can be one of the following macros corresponding to various C types. When the member is accessed in Python, it will be converted to the equivalent Python type. When it is set from Python, it will be converted back to the C type. If that is not possible, an exception such as TypeError or ValueError is raised.

Unless marked (D), attributes defined this way cannot be deleted using e.g. del or delattr().

Nombre de la macro

Tipo C

Python type

Py_T_BYTE

char

int

Py_T_SHORT

short

int

Py_T_INT

int

int

Py_T_LONG

long

int

Py_T_LONGLONG

long long

int

Py_T_UBYTE

unsigned char

int

Py_T_UINT

unsigned int

int

Py_T_USHORT

unsigned short

int

Py_T_ULONG

unsigned long

int

Py_T_ULONGLONG

unsigned long long

int

Py_T_PYSSIZET

Py_ssize_t

int

Py_T_FLOAT

float

float

Py_T_DOUBLE

double

float

Py_T_BOOL

char (written as 0 or 1)

bool

Py_T_STRING

const char* (*)

str (RO)

Py_T_STRING_INPLACE

const char[] (*)

str (RO)

Py_T_CHAR

char (0-127)

str (**)

Py_T_OBJECT_EX

PyObject*

object (D)

(*): Zero-terminated, UTF8-encoded C string. With Py_T_STRING the C representation is a pointer; with Py_T_STRING_INPLACE the string is stored directly in the structure.

(**): String of length 1. Only ASCII is accepted.

(RO): Implies Py_READONLY.

(D): Can be deleted, in which case the pointer is set to NULL. Reading a NULL pointer raises AttributeError.

Nuevo en la versión 3.12: In previous versions, the macros were only available with #include "structmember.h" and were named without the Py_ prefix (e.g. as T_INT). The header is still available and contains the old names, along with the following deprecated types:

T_OBJECT

Like Py_T_OBJECT_EX, but NULL is converted to None. This results in surprising behavior in Python: deleting the attribute effectively sets it to None.

T_NONE

Always None. Must be used with Py_READONLY.

Defining Getters and Setters

type PyGetSetDef
Part of the Stable ABI (including all members).

Estructura para definir el acceso para un tipo como el de una propiedad. Véase también la descripción de la ranura PyTypeObject.tp_getset.

const char *name

nombre del atributo

getter get

C function to get the attribute.

setter set

Optional C function to set or delete the attribute. If NULL, the attribute is read-only.

const char *doc

docstring opcional

void *closure

Optional function pointer, providing additional data for getter and setter.

typedef PyObject *(*getter)(PyObject*, void*)
Part of the Stable ABI.

The get function takes one PyObject* parameter (the instance) and a function pointer (the associated closure):

Debe retornar una nueva referencia en caso de éxito o NULL con una excepción establecida en caso de error.

typedef int (*setter)(PyObject*, PyObject*, void*)
Part of the Stable ABI.

set functions take two PyObject* parameters (the instance and the value to be set) and a function pointer (the associated closure):

En caso de que el atributo deba suprimirse el segundo parámetro es NULL. Debe retornar 0 en caso de éxito o -1 con una excepción explícita en caso de fallo.