What’s New In Python 3.5

Release:3.5.0b1
Date:May 30, 2015

This article explains the new features in Python 3.5, compared to 3.4.

For full details, see the Misc/NEWS file.

Note

Prerelease users should be aware that this document is currently in draft form. It will be updated substantially as Python 3.5 moves towards release, so it’s worth checking back even after reading earlier versions.

See also

PEP 478 - Python 3.5 Release Schedule

Summary – Release highlights

New syntax features:

  • PEP 465, a new matrix multiplication operator: a @ b.
  • PEP 492, coroutines with async and await syntax.

New library modules:

New built-in features:

  • bytes % args, bytearray % args: PEP 461 - Adding % formatting to bytes and bytearray
  • b'\xf0\x9f\x90\x8d'.hex(), bytearray(b'\xf0\x9f\x90\x8d').hex(), memoryview(b'\xf0\x9f\x90\x8d').hex(): issue 9951 - A hex method has been added to bytes, bytearray, and memoryview.

Implementation improvements:

  • When the LC_TYPE locale is the POSIX locale (C locale), sys.stdin and sys.stdout are now using the surrogateescape error handler, instead of the strict error handler (issue 19977).
  • PEP 488, the elimination of .pyo files.
  • PEP 489, multi-phase initialization of extension modules.

Significantly Improved Library Modules:

  • collections.OrderedDict is now implemented in C, which improves its performance between 4x to 100x times. Contributed by Eric Snow in issue 16991.
  • You may now pass bytes to the tempfile module’s APIs and it will return the temporary pathname as bytes instead of str. It also accepts a value of None on parameters where only str was accepted in the past to do the right thing based on the types of the other inputs. Two functions, gettempdirb() and gettempprefixb(), have been added to go along with this. This behavior matches that of the os APIs.

Security improvements:

  • None yet.

Please read on for a comprehensive list of user-facing changes.

PEP 492 - Coroutines with async and await syntax

The PEP added dedicated syntax for declaring coroutines, await expressions, new asynchronous async for and async with statements.

Example:

async def read_data(db):
    async with db.transaction():
        data = await db.fetch('SELECT ...')

PEP written and implemented by Yury Selivanov.

See also

PEP 492 – Coroutines with async and await syntax

PEP 461 - Adding formatting to bytes and bytearray

This PEP proposes adding % formatting operations similar to Python 2’s str type to bytes and bytearray.

Examples:

>>> b'Hello %s!' % b'World'
b'Hello World!'
>>> b'x=%i y=%f' % (1, 2.5)
b'x=1 y=2.500000'

Unicode is not allowed for %s, but it is accepted by %a (equivalent of repr(obj).encode('ascii', 'backslashreplace')):

>>> b'Hello %s!' % 'World'
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
TypeError: %b requires bytes, or an object that implements __bytes__, not 'str'
>>> b'price: %a' % '10€'
b"price: '10\\u20ac'"

See also

PEP 461 – Adding % formatting to bytes and bytearray

PEP 465 - A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication

This PEP proposes a new binary operator to be used for matrix multiplication, called @. (Mnemonic: @ is * for mATrices.)

See also

PEP 465 – A dedicated infix operator for matrix multiplication

PEP 471 - os.scandir() function – a better and faster directory iterator

PEP 471 adds a new directory iteration function, os.scandir(), to the standard library. Additionally, os.walk() is now implemented using os.scandir(), which speeds it up by 3-5 times on POSIX systems and by 7-20 times on Windows systems.

PEP and implementation written by Ben Hoyt with the help of Victor Stinner.

See also

PEP 471 – os.scandir() function – a better and faster directory iterator

PEP 475: Retry system calls failing with EINTR

PEP 475 adds support for automatic retry of system calls failing with EINTR: this means that user code doesn’t have to deal with EINTR or InterruptedError manually, and should make it more robust against asynchronous signal reception.

See also

PEP 475 – Retry system calls failing with EINTR

PEP 479: Change StopIteration handling inside generators

PEP 479 changes the behavior of generators: when a StopIteration exception is raised inside a generator, it is replaced with a RuntimeError. To enable the feature a __future__ import should be used:

from __future__ import generator_stop

Without a __future__ import, a PendingDeprecationWarning will be raised.

PEP written by Chris Angelico and Guido van Rossum. Implemented by Chris Angelico, Yury Selivanov and Nick Coghlan.

See also

PEP 479 – Change StopIteration handling inside generators

PEP 486: Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments

PEP 486 makes the Windows launcher (see PEP 397) aware of an active virtual environment. When the default interpreter would be used and the VIRTUAL_ENV environment variable is set, the interpreter in the virtual environment will be used.

See also

PEP 486 – Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments

PEP 488: Elimination of PYO files

PEP 488 does away with the concept of .pyo files. This means that .pyc files represent both unoptimized and optimized bytecode. To prevent the need to constantly regenerate bytecode files, .pyc files now have an optional opt- tag in their name when the bytecode is optimized. This has the side-effect of no more bytecode file name clashes when running under either -O or -OO. Consequently, bytecode files generated from -O, and -OO may now exist simultaneously. importlib.util.cache_from_source() has an updated API to help with this change.

See also

PEP 488 – Elimination of PYO files

PEP 489: Multi-phase extension module initialization

PEP 489 updates extension module initialization to take advantage of the two step module loading mechanism introduced by PEP 451 in Python 3.4.

This change brings the import semantics of extension modules that opt-in to using the new mechanism much closer to those of Python source and bytecode modules, including the ability to any valid identifier as a module name, rather than being restricted to ASCII.

See also

PEP 488 – Multi-phase extension module initialization

Other Language Changes

Some smaller changes made to the core Python language are:

  • Added the 'namereplace' error handlers. The 'backslashreplace' error handlers now works with decoding and translating. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 19676 and issue 22286.)
  • The -b option now affects comparisons of bytes with int. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 23681)
  • New Kazakh codec kz1048. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 22682.)
  • Property docstrings are now writable. This is especially useful for collections.namedtuple() docstrings. (Contributed by Berker Peksag in issue 24064.)
  • New Tajik codec koi8_t. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 22681.)

New Modules

zipapp

The new zipapp module (specified in PEP 441) provides an API and command line tool for creating executable Python Zip Applications, which were introduced in Python 2.6 in issue 1739468 but which were not well publicised, either at the time or since.

With the new module, bundling your application is as simple as putting all the files, including a __main__.py file, into a directory myapp and running:

$ python -m zipapp myapp
$ python myapp.pyz

Improved Modules

argparse

cgi

  • FieldStorage now supports the context management protocol. (Contributed by Berker Peksag in issue 20289.)

code

collections

  • You can now update docstrings produced by collections.namedtuple():

    Point = namedtuple('Point', ['x', 'y'])
    Point.__doc__ = 'ordered pair'
    Point.x.__doc__ = 'abscissa'
    Point.y.__doc__ = 'ordinate'
    

    (Contributed by Berker Peksag in issue 24064.)

compileall

contextlib

curses

difflib

  • The charset of the HTML document generated by difflib.HtmlDiff.make_file() can now be customized by using charset keyword-only parameter. The default charset of HTML document changed from 'ISO-8859-1' to 'utf-8'. (Contributed by Berker Peksag in issue 2052.)
  • It’s now possible to compare lists of byte strings with difflib.diff_bytes() (fixes a regression from Python 2).

distutils

  • The build and build_ext commands now accept a -j option to enable parallel building of extension modules. (Contributed by Antoine Pitrou in issue 5309.)
  • Added support for the LZMA compression. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 16314.)

doctest

email

  • A new policy option mangle_from_ controls whether or not lines that start with “From ” in email bodies are prefixed with a ‘>’ character by generators. The default is True for compat32 and False for all other policies. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch in issue 20098.)
  • A new method get_content_disposition() provides easy access to a canonical value for the Content-Disposition header (None if there is no such header). (Contributed by Abhilash Raj in issue 21083.)
  • A new policy option utf8 can be set True to encode email headers using the utf8 charset instead of using encoded words. This allows Messages to be formatted according to RFC 6532 and used with an SMTP server that supports the RFC 6531 SMTPUTF8 extension. (Contributed by R. David Murray in issue 24211.)

glob

  • iglob() and glob() now support recursive search in subdirectories using the “**” pattern. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 13968.)

idlelib and IDLE

Since idlelib implements the IDLE shell and editor and is not intended for import by other programs, it gets improvements with every release. See Lib/idlelib/NEWS.txt for a cumulative list of changes since 3.4.0, as well as changes made in future 3.5.x releases. This file is also available from the IDLE Help -> About Idle dialog.

imaplib

  • IMAP4 now supports the context management protocol. When used in a with statement, the IMAP4 LOGOUT command will be called automatically at the end of the block. (Contributed by Tarek Ziadé and Serhiy Storchaka in issue 4972.)
  • imaplib now supports RFC 5161: the enable() extension), and RFC 6855: utf-8 support (internationalized email, via the UTF8=ACCEPT argument to enable()). A new attribute, utf8_enabled, tracks whether or not RFC 6855 support is enabled. Milan Oberkirch, R. David Murray, and Maciej Szulik in issue 21800.)
  • imaplib now automatically encodes non-ASCII string usernames and passwords using UTF8, as recommended by the RFCs. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch in issue 21800.)

imghdr

importlib

inspect

ipaddress

json

os

os.path

  • New commonpath() function that extracts common path prefix. Unlike the commonprefix() function, it always returns a valid patch. (Contributed by Rafik Draoui and Serhiy Storchaka in issue 10395.)

pickle

  • Serializing more “lookupable” objects (such as unbound methods or nested classes) now are supported with pickle protocols < 4. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 23611.)

poplib

  • A new command utf8() enables RFC 6856 (internationalized email) support if the POP server supports it. (Contributed by Milan OberKirch in issue 21804.)

re

  • Number of capturing groups in regular expression is no longer limited by 100. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 22437.)
  • Now unmatched groups are replaced with empty strings in re.sub() and re.subn(). (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 1519638.)

math

shutil

  • move() now accepts a copy_function argument, allowing, for example, copy() to be used instead of the default copy2() if there is a need to ignore metadata. (Contributed by Claudiu Popa in issue 19840.)

signal

  • On Windows, signal.set_wakeup_fd() now also supports socket handles. (Contributed by Victor Stinner in issue 22018.)
  • Different constants of signal module are now enumeration values using the enum module. This allows meaningful names to be printed during debugging, instead of integer “magic numbers”. (Contributed by Giampaolo Rodola’ in issue 21076.)

smtpd

  • Both SMTPServer and smtpd.SMTPChannel now accept a decode_data keyword to determine if the DATA portion of the SMTP transaction is decoded using the utf-8 codec or is instead provided to process_message() as a byte string. The default is True for backward compatibility reasons, but will change to False in Python 3.6. If decode_data is set to False, the process_message() method must be prepared to accept keyword arguments. (Contributed by Maciej Szulik in issue 19662.)
  • SMTPServer now advertises the 8BITMIME extension (RFC 6152) if if decode_data has been set True. If the client specifies BODY=8BITMIME on the MAIL command, it is passed to process_message() via the mail_options keyword. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch and R. David Murray in issue 21795.)
  • SMTPServer now supports the SMTPUTF8 extension (RFC 6531: Internationalized Email). If the client specified SMTPUTF8 BODY=8BITMIME on the MAIL command, they are passed to process_message() via the mail_options keyword. It is the responsibility of the process_message() method to correctly handle the SMTPUTF8 data. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch in issue 21725.)
  • It is now possible to provide, directly or via name resolution, IPv6 addresses in the SMTPServer constructor, and have it successfully connect. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch in issue 14758.)

smtplib

  • A new auth() method provides a convenient way to implement custom authentication mechanisms. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch in issue 15014.)
  • Additional debuglevel (2) shows timestamps for debug messages in smtplib.SMTP. (Contributed by Gavin Chappell and Maciej Szulik in issue 16914.)
  • smtplib now supports RFC 6531 (SMTPUTF8) in both the sendmail() and send_message() commands. (Contributed by Milan Oberkirch and R. David Murray in issue 22027.)

sndhdr

socket

subprocess

sysconfig

  • The user scripts directory on Windows is now versioned. (Contributed by Paul Moore in issue 23437.)

tarfile

  • The tarfile.open() function now supports 'x' (exclusive creation) mode. (Contributed by Berker Peksag in issue 21717.)
  • The extractall() and extract() methods now take a keyword parameter numeric_only. If set to True, the extracted files and directories will be owned by the numeric uid and gid from the tarfile. If set to False (the default, and the behavior in versions prior to 3.5), they will be owned bythe named user and group in the tarfile. (Contributed by Michael Vogt and Eric Smith in issue 23193.)

time

tkinter

  • The tkinter._fix module used for setting up the Tcl/Tk environment on Windows has been replaced by a private function in the _tkinter module which makes no permanent changes to environment variables. (Contributed by Zachary Ware in issue 20035.)

types

urllib

  • A new HTTPPasswordMgrWithPriorAuth allows HTTP Basic Authentication credentials to be managed so as to eliminate unnecessary 401 response handling, or to unconditionally send credentials on the first request in order to communicate with servers that return a 404 response instead of a 401 if the Authorization header is not sent. (Contributed by Matej Cepl in issue 19494 and Akshit Khurana in issue 7159.)
  • A new urlencode() parameter quote_via provides a way to control the encoding of query parts if needed. (Contributed by Samwyse and Arnon Yaari in issue 13866.)

wsgiref

xmlrpc

xml.sax

  • SAX parsers now support a character stream of InputSource object. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 2175.)

faulthandler

zipfile

  • Added support for writing ZIP files to unseekable streams. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 23252.)
  • The zipfile.ZipFile.open() function now supports 'x' (exclusive creation) mode. (Contributed by Serhiy Storchaka in issue 21717.)

Optimizations

The following performance enhancements have been added:

Build and C API Changes

Changes to Python’s build process and to the C API include:

Deprecated

New Keywords

async and await are not recommended to be used as variable, class or function names. Introduced by PEP 492 in Python 3.5, they will become proper keywords in Python 3.7.

Unsupported Operating Systems

  • Windows XP - Per PEP 11, Microsoft support of Windows XP has ended.

Deprecated Python modules, functions and methods

Deprecated functions and types of the C API

  • None yet.

Deprecated features

  • None yet.

Removed

API and Feature Removals

The following obsolete and previously deprecated APIs and features have been removed:

  • The __version__ attribute has been dropped from the email package. The email code hasn’t been shipped separately from the stdlib for a long time, and the __version__ string was not updated in the last few releases.
  • The internal Netrc class in the ftplib module was deprecated in 3.4, and has now been removed. (Contributed by Matt Chaput in issue 6623.)
  • The concept of .pyo files has been removed.
  • The JoinableQueue class in the provisional asyncio module was deprecated in 3.4.4 and is now removed (issue 23464).

Porting to Python 3.5

This section lists previously described changes and other bugfixes that may require changes to your code.

Changes in the Python API

  • The socket module now exports the CAN_RAW_FD_FRAMES constant on linux 3.6 and greater.
  • The pygettext.py Tool now uses the standard +NNNN format for timezones in the POT-Creation-Date header.
  • The smtplib module now uses sys.stderr instead of previous module level stderr variable for debug output. If your (test) program depends on patching the module level variable to capture the debug output, you will need to update it to capture sys.stderr instead.

Changes in the C API

  • The undocumented format member of the (non-public) PyMemoryViewObject structure has been removed.

    All extensions relying on the relevant parts in memoryobject.h must be rebuilt.

  • The PyMemAllocator structure was renamed to PyMemAllocatorEx and a new calloc field was added.

  • Removed non-documented macro PyObject_REPR which leaked references. Use format character %R in PyUnicode_FromFormat()-like functions to format the repr() of the object.

  • Because the lack of the __module__ attribute breaks pickling and introspection, a deprecation warning now is raised for builtin type without the __module__ attribute. Would be an AttributeError in future. (issue 20204)

  • As part of PEP 492 implementation, tp_reserved slot of PyTypeObject was replaced with a PyTypeObject.tp_as_async slot.