Python next

Release date: XXXX-XX-XX

Core and Builtins

  • gh-109351: Fix crash when compiling an invalid AST involving a named (walrus) expression.

  • gh-109207: Fix a SystemError in __repr__ of symtable entry object.

  • gh-109179: Fix bug where the C traceback display drops notes from SyntaxError.

  • gh-88943: Improve syntax error for non-ASCII character that follows a numerical literal. It now points on the invalid non-ASCII character, not on the valid numerical literal.

  • gh-108959: Fix caret placement for error locations for subscript and binary operations that involve non-semantic parentheses and spaces. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-108520: Fix multiprocessing.synchronize.SemLock.__setstate__() to properly initialize multiprocessing.synchronize.SemLock._is_fork_ctx. This fixes a regression when passing a SemLock accross nested processes.

    Rename multiprocessing.synchronize.SemLock.is_fork_ctx to multiprocessing.synchronize.SemLock._is_fork_ctx to avoid exposing it as public API.


  • gh-109631: re functions such as re.findall(), re.split(), and re.sub() which perform short repeated matches can now be interrupted by user.

  • gh-109593: Avoid deadlocking on a reentrant call to the multiprocessing resource tracker. Such a reentrant call, though unlikely, can happen if a GC pass invokes the finalizer for a multiprocessing object such as SemLock.

  • gh-109613: Fix os.stat() and os.DirEntry.stat(): check for exceptions. Previously, on Python built in debug mode, these functions could trigger a fatal Python error (and abort the process) when a function succeeded with an exception set. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-109375: The pdb alias command now prevents registering aliases without arguments.

  • gh-107219: Fix a race condition in concurrent.futures. When a process in the process pool was terminated abruptly (while the future was running or pending), close the connection write end. If the call queue is blocked on sending bytes to a worker process, closing the connection write end interrupts the send, so the queue can be closed. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-50644: Attempts to pickle or create a shallow or deep copy of codecs streams now raise a TypeError. Previously, copying failed with a RecursionError, while pickling produced wrong results that eventually caused unpickling to fail with a RecursionError.

  • gh-108987: Fix _thread.start_new_thread() race condition. If a thread is created during Python finalization, the newly spawned thread now exits immediately instead of trying to access freed memory and lead to a crash. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-108843: Fix an issue in ast.unparse() when unparsing f-strings containing many quote types.

  • gh-108682: Enum: raise TypeError if super().__new__() is called from a custom __new__.

  • gh-105829: Fix concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor deadlock

  • gh-64662: Fix support for virtual tables in sqlite3.Connection.iterdump(). Patch by Aviv Palivoda.

  • gh-107913: Fix possible losses of errno and winerror values in OSError exceptions if they were cleared or modified by the cleanup code before creating the exception object.

  • gh-104372: On Linux where subprocess can use the vfork() syscall for faster spawning, prevent the parent process from blocking other threads by dropping the GIL while it waits for the vfork’ed child process exec() outcome. This prevents spawning a binary from a slow filesystem from blocking the rest of the application.

  • gh-84867: unittest.TestLoader no longer loads test cases from exact unittest.TestCase and unittest.FunctionTestCase classes.


  • gh-109209: The minimum Sphinx version required for the documentation is now 4.2.

  • gh-105052: Update timeit doc to specify that time in seconds is just the default.

  • gh-102823: Document the return type of x // y when x and y have type float.


  • gh-109748: Fix test_zippath_from_non_installed_posix() of test_venv: don’t copy __pycache__/ sub-directories, because they can be modified by other Python tests running in parallel. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-103053: Skip test_freeze_simple_script() of test_tools.test_freeze if Python is built with ./configure --enable-optimizations, which means with Profile Guided Optimization (PGO): it just makes the test too slow. The freeze tool is tested by many other CIs with other (faster) compiler flags. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-109396: Fix test_socket.test_hmac_sha1() in FIPS mode. Use a longer key: FIPS mode requires at least of at least 112 bits. The previous key was only 32 bits. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-104736: Fix test_gdb on Python built with LLVM clang 16 on Linux ppc64le (ex: Fedora 38). Search patterns in gdb “bt” command output to detect when gdb fails to retrieve the traceback. For example, skip a test if Backtrace stopped: frame did not save the PC is found. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-109237: Fix test_site.test_underpth_basic() when the working directory contains at least one non-ASCII character: encode the ._pth file to UTF-8 and enable the UTF-8 Mode to use UTF-8 for the child process stdout. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-109230: Fix test_pyexpat.test_exception(): it can now be run from a directory different than Python source code directory. Before, the test failed in this case. Skip the test if Modules/pyexpat.c source is not available. Skip also the test on Python implementations other than CPython. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-109015: Fix test_asyncio, test_imaplib and test_socket tests on FreeBSD if the TCP blackhole is enabled (sysctl net.inet.tcp.blackhole). Skip the few tests which failed with ETIMEDOUT which such non standard configuration. Currently, the FreeBSD GCP image enables TCP and UDP blackhole (sysctl net.inet.tcp.blackhole=2 and sysctl net.inet.udp.blackhole=1). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91960: Skip test_gdb if gdb is unable to retrieve Python frame objects: if a frame is <optimized out>. When Python is built with “clang -Og”, gdb can fail to retrive the frame parameter of _PyEval_EvalFrameDefault(). In this case, tests like py_bt() are likely to fail. Without getting access to Python frames, is mostly clueless on retrieving the Python traceback. Moreover, test_gdb is no longer skipped on macOS if Python is built with Clang. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-108962: Skip test_tempfile.test_flags() if chflags() fails with “OSError: [Errno 45] Operation not supported” (ex: on FreeBSD 13). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-89392: Removed support of test_main() function in tests. They now always use normal unittest test runner.

  • gh-108851: Fix test_tomllib recursion tests for WASI buildbots: reduce the recursion limit and compute the maximum nested array/dict depending on the current available recursion limit. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-108851: Add get_recursion_available() and get_recursion_depth() functions to the module. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-108822: regrtest now computes statistics on all tests: successes, failures and skipped. test_netrc, test_pep646_syntax and test_xml_etree now return results in their test_main() function. Patch by Victor Stinner and Alex Waygood.

  • gh-108388: Convert test_concurrent_futures to a package of 7 sub-tests. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-108388: Split test_multiprocessing_fork, test_multiprocessing_forkserver and test_multiprocessing_spawn into test packages. Each package is made of 4 sub-tests: processes, threads, manager and misc. It allows running more tests in parallel and so reduce the total test duration. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-101634: When running the Python test suite with -jN option, if a worker stdout cannot be decoded from the locale encoding report a failed testn so the exitcode is non-zero. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-100086: The Python test runner (libregrtest) now logs Python build information like “debug” vs “release” build, or LTO and PGO optimizations. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-98903: The Python test suite now fails wit exit code 4 if no tests ran. It should help detecting typos in test names and test methods.

  • gh-95027: On Windows, when the Python test suite is run with the -jN option, the ANSI code page is now used as the encoding for the stdout temporary file, rather than using UTF-8 which can lead to decoding errors. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-93353: regrtest now checks if a test leaks temporary files or directories if run with -jN option. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • gh-63760: Fix Solaris build: no longer redefine the gethostname() function. Solaris defines the function since 2005. Patch by Victor Stinner, original patch by Jakub Kulík.

  • gh-108740: Fix a race condition in make regen-all. The deepfreeze.c source and files generated by Argument Clinic are now generated or updated before generating “global objects”. Previously, some identifiers may miss depending on the order in which these files were generated. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • gh-107565: Update Windows build to use OpenSSL 3.0.10.

Python 3.11.5 final

Release date: 2023-08-24


  • gh-108310: Fixed an issue where instances of ssl.SSLSocket were vulnerable to a bypass of the TLS handshake and included protections (like certificate verification) and treating sent unencrypted data as if it were post-handshake TLS encrypted data. Security issue reported as CVE-2023-40217 by Aapo Oksman. Patch by Gregory P. Smith.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-104432: Fix potential unaligned memory access on C APIs involving returned sequences of char * pointers within the grp and socket modules. These were revealed using a -fsaniziter=alignment build on ARM macOS. Patch by Christopher Chavez.

  • gh-77377: Ensure that multiprocessing synchronization objects created in a fork context are not sent to a different process created in a spawn context. This changes a segfault into an actionable RuntimeError in the parent process.

  • gh-106092: Fix a segmentation fault caused by a use-after-free bug in frame_dealloc when the trashcan delays the deallocation of a PyFrameObject.

  • gh-106719: No longer suppress arbitrary errors in the __annotations__ getter and setter in the type and module types.

  • gh-106723: Propagate frozen_modules to multiprocessing spawned process interpreters.

  • gh-105979: Fix crash in _imp.get_frozen_object() due to improper exception handling.

  • gh-105840: Fix possible crashes when specializing function calls with too many __defaults__.

  • gh-105588: Fix an issue that could result in crashes when compiling malformed ast nodes.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in the builtins module where exceptions could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bug in the compiler where an exception could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Improve error handling in PyUnicode_BuildEncodingMap() where an exception could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105235: Prevent out-of-bounds memory access during mmap.find() calls.

  • gh-101006: Improve error handling when read marshal data.


  • gh-105736: Harmonized the pure Python version of OrderedDict with the C version. Now, both versions set up their internal state in __new__. Formerly, the pure Python version did the set up in __init__.

  • gh-107963: Fix multiprocessing.set_forkserver_preload() to check the given list of modules names. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-106242: Fixes os.path.normpath() to handle embedded null characters without truncating the path.

  • gh-107845: tarfile.data_filter() now takes the location of symlinks into account when determining their target, so it will no longer reject some valid tarballs with LinkOutsideDestinationError.

  • gh-107715: Fix doctest.DocTestFinder.find() in presence of class names with special characters. Patch by Gertjan van Zwieten.

  • gh-100814: Passing a callable object as an option value to a Tkinter image now raises the expected TclError instead of an AttributeError.

  • gh-106684: Close asyncio.StreamWriter when it is not closed by application leading to memory leaks. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-107077: Seems that in some conditions, OpenSSL will return SSL_ERROR_SYSCALL instead of SSL_ERROR_SSL when a certification verification has failed, but the error parameters will still contain ERR_LIB_SSL and SSL_R_CERTIFICATE_VERIFY_FAILED. We are now detecting this situation and raising the appropiate ssl.SSLCertVerificationError. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-107396: tarfiles; Fixed use before assignment of self.exception for gzip decompression

  • gh-62519: Make gettext.pgettext() search plural definitions when translation is not found.

  • gh-83006: Document behavior of shutil.disk_usage() for non-mounted filesystems on Unix.

  • gh-106186: Do not report MultipartInvariantViolationDefect defect when the email.parser.Parser class is used to parse emails with headersonly=True.

  • gh-106831: Fix potential missing NULL check of d2i_SSL_SESSION result in _ssl.c.

  • gh-106774: Update the bundled copy of pip to version 23.2.1.

  • gh-106752: Fixed several bug in zipfile.Path in name/suffix/suffixes/stem operations when no filename is present and the Path is not at the root of the zipfile.

  • gh-106602: Add __copy__ and __deepcopy__ in enum

  • gh-106530: Revert a change to colorsys.rgb_to_hls() that caused division by zero for certain almost-white inputs. Patch by Terry Jan Reedy.

  • gh-106052: re module: fix the matching of possessive quantifiers in the case of a subpattern containing backtracking.

  • gh-106510: Improve debug output for atomic groups in regular expressions.

  • gh-105497: Fix flag mask inversion when unnamed flags exist.

  • gh-90876: Prevent multiprocessing.spawn from failing to import in environments where sys.executable is None. This regressed in 3.11 with the addition of support for path-like objects in multiprocessing.

  • gh-106350: Detect possible memory allocation failure in the libtommath function mp_init() used by the _tkinter module.

  • gh-102541: Make pydoc.doc catch bad module ImportError when output stream is not None.

  • gh-106263: Fix crash when calling repr with a manually constructed SignalDict object. Patch by Charlie Zhao.

  • gh-105375: Fix a bug in _Unpickler_SetInputStream() where an exception could end up being overwritten in case of failure.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in sys where exceptions could end up being overwritten because of deferred error handling.

  • gh-105605: Harden pyexpat error handling during module initialisation to prevent exceptions from possibly being overwritten, and objects from being dereferenced twice.

  • gh-105375: Fix bug in decimal where an exception could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in _datetime where exceptions could be overwritten in case of module initialisation failure.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in _ssl initialisation which could lead to leaked references and overwritten exceptions.

  • gh-105375: Fix a bug in array.array where an exception could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in _ctypes where exceptions could end up being overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix a bug in the posix module where an exception could be overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in _elementtree where exceptions could be overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in zoneinfo where exceptions could be overwritten.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in errno where exceptions could be overwritten.

  • gh-105497: Fix flag inversion when alias/mask members exist.

  • gh-105375: Fix bugs in pickle where exceptions could be overwritten.

  • gh-103171: Revert undocumented behaviour change with runtime-checkable protocols decorated with in Python 3.11. The behaviour change had meant that objects would not be considered instances of these protocols at runtime unless they had a __final__ attribute. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • gh-105375: Fix a bug in sqlite3 where an exception could be overwritten in the collation callback.

  • gh-105332: Revert pickling method from by-name back to by-value.

  • gh-104554: Add RTSPS scheme support in urllib.parse

  • gh-100061: Fix a bug that causes wrong matches for regular expressions with possessive qualifier.

  • gh-102541: Hide traceback in help() prompt, when import failed.

  • gh-99203: Restore following CPython <= 3.10.5 behavior of shutil.make_archive(): do not create an empty archive if root_dir is not a directory, and, in that case, raise FileNotFoundError or NotADirectoryError regardless of format choice. Beyond the brought-back behavior, the function may now also raise these exceptions in dry_run mode.

  • gh-94777: Fix hanging multiprocessing ProcessPoolExecutor when a child process crashes while data is being written in the call queue.

  • bpo-18319: Ensure gettext(msg) retrieve translations even if a plural form exists. In other words: gettext(msg) == ngettext(msg, '', 1).



  • gh-105776: Fix test_cppext when the C compiler command -std=c11 option: remove -std= options from the compiler command. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-107237: test_logging: Fix test_udp_reconnection() by increasing the timeout from 100 ms to 5 minutes (LONG_TIMEOUT). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-101634: When running the Python test suite with -jN option, if a worker stdout cannot be decoded from the locale encoding report a failed testn so the exitcode is non-zero. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • gh-107814: When calling find_python.bat with -q it did not properly silence the output of nuget. That is now fixed.

  • gh-106881: Check for linux/limits.h before including it in Modules/posixmodule.c.

  • gh-104692: Include commoninstall as a prerequisite for bininstall

    This ensures that commoninstall is completed before bininstall is started when parallel builds are used (make -j install), and so the python3 symlink is only installed after all standard library modules are installed.

  • gh-100340: Allows -Wno-int-conversion for wasm-sdk 17 and onwards, thus enables building WASI builds once against the latest sdk.


  • gh-106242: Fixes realpath() to behave consistently when passed a path containing an embedded null character on Windows. In strict mode, it now raises OSError instead of the unexpected ValueError, and in non-strict mode will make the path absolute.

  • gh-106844: Fix integer overflow in _winapi.LCMapStringEx() which affects ntpath.normcase().

  • gh-99079: Update Windows build to use OpenSSL 3.0.9

  • gh-105436: Ensure that an empty environment block is terminated by two null characters, as is required by Windows.


  • gh-107565: Update macOS installer to use OpenSSL 3.0.10.

  • gh-99079: Update macOS installer to use OpenSSL 3.0.9.


  • gh-107565: Update multissltests and GitHub CI workflows to use OpenSSL 1.1.1v, 3.0.10, and 3.1.2.

  • gh-95065: Argument Clinic now supports overriding automatically generated signature by using directive @text_signature. See How to override the generated signature.

  • gh-106970: Fix bugs in the Argument Clinic destination <name> clear command; the destination buffers would never be cleared, and the destination directive parser would simply continue to the fault handler after processing the command. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.


Python 3.11.4 final

Release date: 2023-06-06


  • gh-103142: The version of OpenSSL used in our binary builds has been upgraded to 1.1.1u to address several CVEs.

  • gh-99889: Fixed a security in flaw in uu.decode() that could allow for directory traversal based on the input if no out_file was specified.

  • gh-104049: Do not expose the local on-disk location in directory indexes produced by http.client.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler.

  • gh-102153: urllib.parse.urlsplit() now strips leading C0 control and space characters following the specification for URLs defined by WHATWG in response to CVE-2023-24329. Patch by Illia Volochii.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-105164: Ensure annotations are set up correctly if the only annotation in a block is within a match block. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-104615: Fix wrong ordering of assignments in code like a, a = x, y. Contributed by Carl Meyer.

  • gh-104482: Fix three error handling bugs in ast.c’s validation of pattern matching statements.

  • gh-102818: Do not add a frame to the traceback in the sys.setprofile and sys.settrace trampoline functions. This ensures that frames are not duplicated if an exception is raised in the callback function, and ensures that frames are not omitted if a C callback is used and that does not add the frame.

  • gh-104405: Fix an issue where some bytecode instructions could ignore PEP 523 when “inlining” calls.

  • gh-104018: Disallow the “z” format specifier in %-format of bytes objects.

  • gh-103971: Fix an issue where incorrect locations numbers could be assigned to code following case blocks.

  • gh-102310: Change the error range for invalid bytes literals.

  • gh-103590: Do not wrap a single exception raised from a try-except* construct in an ExceptionGroup.

  • gh-101517: Fix bug in line numbers of instructions emitted for except*.

  • gh-103242: Migrate set_ecdh_curve() method not to use deprecated OpenSSL APIs. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-102700: Allow built-in modules to be submodules. This allows submodules to be statically linked into a CPython binary.

  • gh-101857: Fix xattr support detection on Linux systems by widening the check to linux, not just glibc. This fixes support for musl.

  • gh-99184: Bypass instance attribute access of __name__ in repr of weakref.ref.

  • gh-96670: The parser now raises SyntaxError when parsing source code containing null bytes. Backported from aab01e3. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-31821: Fix pause_reading() to work when called from connection_made() in asyncio.


  • gh-105080: Fixed inconsistent signature on derived classes for inspect.signature()

  • gh-104874: Document the __name__ and __supertype__ attributes of typing.NewType. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-104340: When an asyncio pipe protocol loses its connection due to an error, and the caller doesn’t await wait_closed() on the corresponding StreamWriter, don’t log a warning about an exception that was never retrieved. After all, according to the StreamWriter.close() docs, the wait_closed() call is optional (“not mandatory”).

  • gh-104372: Refactored the _posixsubprocess internals to avoid Python C API usage between fork and exec when marking pass_fds= file descriptors inheritable.

  • gh-75367: Fix data descriptor detection in inspect.getattr_static().

  • gh-104536: Fix a race condition in the internal multiprocessing.process cleanup logic that could manifest as an unintended AttributeError when calling process.close().

  • gh-104399: Prepare the _tkinter module for building with Tcl 9.0 and future libtommath by replacing usage of deprecated functions mp_to_unsigned_bin_n() and mp_unsigned_bin_size() when necessary.

  • gh-104307: socket.getnameinfo() now releases the GIL while contacting the DNS server

  • gh-87695: Fix issue where pathlib.Path.glob() raised OSError when it encountered a symlink to an overly long path.

  • gh-104265: Prevent possible crash by disallowing instantiation of the _csv.Reader and _csv.Writer types. The regression was introduced in 3.10.0a4 with PR 23224 (bpo-14935). Patch by Radislav Chugunov.

  • gh-104035: Do not ignore user-defined __getstate__ and __setstate__ methods for slotted frozen dataclasses.

  • gh-103987: In mmap, fix several bugs that could lead to access to memory-mapped files after they have been invalidated.

  • gh-103935: Use io.open_code() for files to be executed instead of raw open()

  • gh-100370: Fix potential OverflowError in sqlite3.Connection.blobopen() for 32-bit builds. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-103848: Add checks to ensure that [ bracketed ] hosts found by urllib.parse.urlsplit() are of IPv6 or IPvFuture format.

  • gh-103872: Update the bundled copy of pip to version 23.1.2.

  • gh-103861: Fix zipfile.Zipfile creating invalid zip files when force_zip64 was used to add files to them. Patch by Carey Metcalfe.

  • gh-103685: Prepare tkinter.Menu.index() for Tk 8.7 so that it does not raise TclError: expected integer but got "" when it should return None.

  • gh-81403: urllib.request.CacheFTPHandler no longer raises URLError if a cached FTP instance is reused. ftplib’s endtransfer method calls voidresp to drain the connection to handle FTP instance reuse properly.

  • gh-103578: Fixed a bug where pdb crashes when reading source file with different encoding by replacing with io.open_code(). The new method would also call into the hook set by PyFile_SetOpenCodeHook().

  • gh-103556: Now creating inspect.Signature objects with positional-only parameter with a default followed by a positional-or-keyword parameter without one is impossible.

  • gh-103559: Update the bundled copy of pip to version 23.1.1.

  • gh-103365: Set default Flag boundary to STRICT and fix bitwise operations.

  • gh-103472: Avoid a potential ResourceWarning in http.client.HTTPConnection by closing the proxy / tunnel’s CONNECT response explicitly.

  • gh-103449: Fix a bug in doc string generation in dataclasses.dataclass().

  • gh-103256: Fixed a bug that caused hmac to raise an exception when the requested hash algorithm was not available in OpenSSL despite being available separately as part of hashlib itself. It now falls back properly to the built-in. This could happen when, for example, your OpenSSL does not include SHA3 support and you want to compute hmac.digest(b'K', b'M', 'sha3_256').

  • gh-103225: Fix a bug in pdb when displaying line numbers of module-level source code.

  • gh-93910: Remove deprecation of enum memmber.member access.

  • gh-102978: Fixes unittest.mock.patch() not enforcing function signatures for methods decorated with @classmethod or @staticmethod when patch is called with autospec=True.

  • gh-103204: Fixes http.server accepting HTTP requests with HTTP version numbers preceded by ‘+’, or ‘-’, or with digit-separating ‘_’ characters. The length of the version numbers is also constrained.

  • gh-102953: The extraction methods in tarfile, and shutil.unpack_archive(), have a new a filter argument that allows limiting tar features than may be surprising or dangerous, such as creating files outside the destination directory. See Extraction filters for details.

  • gh-101640: argparse.ArgumentParser now catches errors when writing messages, such as when sys.stderr is None. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • gh-96522: Fix potential deadlock in pty.spawn()

  • gh-87474: Fix potential file descriptor leaks in subprocess.Popen.


  • gh-89455: Add missing documentation for the max_group_depth and max_group_width parameters and the exceptions attribute of the traceback.TracebackException class.

  • gh-89412: Add missing documentation for the end_lineno and end_offset attributes of the traceback.TracebackException class.

  • gh-104943: Remove mentions of old Python versions in typing.NamedTuple.

  • gh-67056: Document that the effect of registering or unregistering an atexit cleanup function from within a registered cleanup function is undefined.

  • gh-48241: Clarifying documentation about the url parameter to urllib.request.urlopen and urllib.request.Requst needing to be encoded properly.


  • gh-104494: Update test_pack_configure_in and test_place_configure_in for changes to error message formatting in Tk 8.7.

  • gh-104461: Run test_configure_screen on X11 only, since the DISPLAY environment variable and -screen option for toplevels are not useful on Tk for Win32 or Aqua.

  • gh-103329: Regression tests for the behaviour of unittest.mock.PropertyMock were added.

  • gh-85984: Utilize new “winsize” functions from termios in pty tests.

  • gh-75729: Fix the os.spawn* tests failing on Windows when the working directory or interpreter path contains spaces.


  • gh-90005: Fix a regression in configure where we could end up unintentionally linking with libbsd.

  • gh-104106: Add gcc fallback of mkfifoat/mknodat for macOS. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-99069: Extended workaround defining static_assert when missing from the libc headers to all clang and gcc builds. In particular, this fixes building on macOS <= 10.10.


  • gh-105146: Updated the links at the end of the installer to point to Discourse rather than the mailing lists.

  • gh-104623: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.42.0.

  • gh-102997: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.41.2.

  • gh-88013: Fixed a bug where TypeError was raised when calling ntpath.realpath() with a bytes parameter in some cases.


  • gh-103142: Update macOS installer to use OpenSSL 1.1.1u.

  • gh-104623: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.42.0.

  • gh-102997: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.41.2.


  • gh-104719: Remove IDLE’s modification of tokenize.tabsize and test other uses of tokenize data and methods.

  • gh-104499: Fix completions for Tk Aqua 8.7 (currently blank).

  • gh-104496: About prints both tcl and tk versions if different (expected someday).

  • gh-88496: Fix IDLE test hang on macOS.

Python 3.11.3 final

Release date: 2023-04-04


Core and Builtins

  • gh-101975: Fixed stacktop value on tracing entries to avoid corruption on garbage collection.

  • gh-102701: Fix overflow when creating very large dict.

  • gh-102416: Do not memoize incorrectly automatically generated loop rules in the parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-102356: Fix a bug that caused a crash when deallocating deeply nested filter objects. Patch by Marta Gómez Macías.

  • gh-102397: Fix segfault from race condition in signal handling during garbage collection. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-102281: Fix potential nullptr dereference and use of uninitialized memory in fileutils. Patch by Max Bachmann.

  • gh-102126: Fix deadlock at shutdown when clearing thread states if any finalizer tries to acquire the runtime head lock. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-102027: Fix SSE2 and SSE3 detection in _blake2 internal module. Patch by Max Bachmann.

  • gh-101967: Fix possible segfault in positional_only_passed_as_keyword function, when new list created.

  • gh-101765: Fix SystemError / segmentation fault in iter __reduce__ when internal access of builtins.__dict__ keys mutates the iter object.

  • gh-101696: Invalidate type version tag in _PyStaticType_Dealloc for static types, avoiding bug where a false cache hit could crash the interpreter. Patch by Kumar Aditya.


  • gh-102549: Don’t ignore exceptions in member type creation.

  • gh-102947: Improve traceback when dataclasses.fields() is called on a non-dataclass. Patch by Alex Waygood

  • gh-102780: The asyncio.Timeout context manager now works reliably even when performing cleanup due to task cancellation. Previously it could raise a CancelledError instead of an TimeoutError in such cases.

  • gh-88965: typing: Fix a bug relating to substitution in custom classes generic over a ParamSpec. Previously, if the ParamSpec was substituted with a parameters list that itself contained a TypeVar, the TypeVar in the parameters list could not be subsequently substituted. This is now fixed.

    Patch by Nikita Sobolev.

  • gh-101979: Fix a bug where parentheses in the metavar argument to argparse.ArgumentParser.add_argument() were dropped. Patch by Yeojin Kim.

  • gh-102179: Fix os.dup2() error message for negative fds.

  • gh-101961: For the binary mode, fileinput.hookcompressed() doesn’t set the encoding value even if the value is None. Patch by Gihwan Kim.

  • gh-101936: The default value of fp becomes io.BytesIO if HTTPError is initialized without a designated fp parameter. Patch by Long Vo.

  • gh-102069: Fix __weakref__ descriptor generation for custom dataclasses.

  • gh-101566: In zipfile, apply fix for extractall on the underlying zipfile after being wrapped in Path.

  • gh-101892: Callable iterators no longer raise SystemError when the callable object exhausts the iterator but forgets to either return a sentinel value or raise StopIteration.

  • gh-97786: Fix potential undefined behaviour in corner cases of floating-point-to-time conversions.

  • gh-101517: Fixed bug where bdb looks up the source line with linecache with a lineno=None, which causes it to fail with an unhandled exception.

  • gh-101673: Fix a pdb bug where ll clears the changes to local variables.

  • gh-96931: Fix incorrect results from ssl.SSLSocket.shared_ciphers()

  • gh-88233: Correctly preserve “extra” fields in zipfile regardless of their ordering relative to a zip64 “extra.”

  • gh-96127: inspect.signature was raising TypeError on call with mock objects. Now it correctly returns (*args, **kwargs) as infered signature.

  • gh-95495: When built against OpenSSL 3.0, the ssl module had a bug where it reported unauthenticated EOFs (i.e. without close_notify) as a clean TLS-level EOF. It now raises SSLEOFError, matching the behavior in previous versions of OpenSSL. The options attribute on SSLContext also no longer includes OP_IGNORE_UNEXPECTED_EOF by default. This option may be set to specify the previous OpenSSL 3.0 behavior.

  • gh-94440: Fix a concurrent.futures.process bug where ProcessPoolExecutor shutdown could hang after a future has been quickly submitted and canceled.



  • gh-102980: Improve test coverage on pdb.

  • gh-102537: Adjust the error handling strategy in test_zoneinfo.TzPathTest.python_tzpath_context. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • gh-89792: test_tools now copies up to 10x less source data to a temporary directory during the freeze test by ignoring git metadata and other artifacts. It also limits its python build parallelism based on os.cpu_count instead of hard coding it as 8 cores.

  • gh-101377: Improved test_locale_calendar_formatweekday of calendar.


  • gh-102711: Fix -Wstrict-prototypes compiler warnings.


  • gh-101849: Ensures installer will correctly upgrade existing py.exe launcher installs.

  • gh-101763: Updates copy of libffi bundled with Windows installs to 3.4.4.

  • gh-101759: Update Windows installer to SQLite 3.40.1.

  • gh-101614: Correctly handle extensions built against debug binaries that reference python3_d.dll.


  • gh-103207: Add instructions to the macOS installer welcome display on how to workaround the macOS 13 Ventura “The installer encountered an error” failure.

  • gh-101759: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.40.1.

Python 3.11.2 final

Release date: 2023-02-07

Core and Builtins

  • gh-92173: Fix the defs and kwdefs arguments to PyEval_EvalCodeEx() and a reference leak in that function.

  • gh-101400: Fix wrong lineno in exception message on continue or break which are not in a loop. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-101372: Fix is_normalized() to properly handle the UCD 3.2.0 cases. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-101046: Fix a possible memory leak in the parser when raising MemoryError. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-101037: Fix potential memory underallocation issue for instances of int subclasses with value zero.

  • gh-100942: Fixed segfault in property.getter/setter/deleter that occurred when a property subclass overrode the __new__ method to return a non-property instance.

  • gh-100892: Fix race while iterating over thread states in clearing threading.local. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-100776: Fix misleading default value in input()’s __text_signature__.

  • gh-100637: Fix int.__sizeof__() calculation to include the 1 element ob_digit array for 0 and False.

  • gh-100649: Update the native_thread_id field of PyThreadState after fork.

  • gh-100374: Fix incorrect result and delay in socket.getfqdn(). Patch by Dominic Socular.

  • gh-99110: Initialize frame->previous in frameobject.c to fix a segmentation fault when accessing frames created by PyFrame_New().

  • gh-100050: Honor existing errors obtained when searching for mismatching parentheses in the tokenizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-32782: ctypes arrays of length 0 now report a correct itemsize when a memoryview is constructed from them, rather than always giving a value of 0.


  • gh-101541: [Enum] - fix psuedo-flag creation

  • gh-101326: Fix regression when passing None as second or third argument to FutureIter.throw.

  • gh-100795: Avoid potential unexpected freeaddrinfo call (double free) in socket when when a libc getaddrinfo() implementation leaves garbage in an output pointer when returning an error. Original patch by Sergey G. Brester.

  • gh-101143: Remove unused references to TimerHandle in asyncio.base_events.BaseEventLoop._add_callback.

  • gh-101144: Make and zipfile.Path.read_text() also accept encoding as a positional argument. This was the behavior in Python 3.9 and earlier. 3.10 introduced a regression where supplying it as a positional argument would lead to a TypeError.

  • gh-101015: Fix typing.get_type_hints() on '*tuple[...]' and *tuple[...]. It must not drop the Unpack part.

  • gh-100573: Fix a Windows asyncio bug with named pipes where a client doing os.stat() on the pipe would cause an error in the server that disabled serving future requests.

  • gh-100805: Modify random.choice() implementation to once again work with NumPy arrays.

  • gh-90104: Avoid RecursionError on repr if a dataclass field definition has a cyclic reference.

  • gh-100750: pass encoding kwarg to subprocess in platform

  • gh-100689: Fix crash in pyexpat by statically allocating PyExpat_CAPI capsule.

  • gh-100740: Fix unittest.mock.Mock not respecting the spec for attribute names prefixed with assert.

  • gh-86508: Fix asyncio.open_connection() to skip binding to local addresses of different family. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-100287: Fix the interaction of unittest.mock.seal() with unittest.mock.AsyncMock.

  • gh-100474: http.server now checks that an index page is actually a regular file before trying to serve it. This avoids issues with directories named index.html.

  • gh-100160: Remove any deprecation warnings in asyncio.get_event_loop(). They are deferred to Python 3.12.

  • gh-96290: Fix handling of partial and invalid UNC drives in ntpath.splitdrive(), and in ntpath.normpath() on non-Windows systems. Paths such as ‘\server’ and ‘\’ are now considered by splitdrive() to contain only a drive, and consequently are not modified by normpath() on non-Windows systems. The behaviour of normpath() on Windows systems is unaffected, as native OS APIs are used. Patch by Eryk Sun, with contributions by Barney Gale.

  • gh-78878: Fix crash when creating an instance of _ctypes.CField.

  • gh-99952: Fix a reference undercounting issue in ctypes.Structure with from_param() results larger than a C pointer.

  • gh-100133: Fix regression in asyncio where a subprocess would sometimes lose data received from pipe.

  • gh-100098: Fix tuple subclasses being cast to tuple when used as enum values.

  • gh-98778: Update HTTPError to be initialized properly, even if the fp is None. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-83035: Fix inspect.getsource() handling of decorator calls with nested parentheses.

  • gh-99576: Fix .save() method for LWPCookieJar and MozillaCookieJar: saved file was not truncated on repeated save.

  • gh-99433: Fix doctest failure on types.MethodWrapperType in modules.

  • gh-99240: Fix double-free bug in Argument Clinic str_converter by extracting memory clean up to a new post_parsing section.

  • gh-64490: Fix refcount error when arguments are packed to tuple in Argument Clinic.

  • gh-85267: Several improvements to inspect.signature()’s handling of __text_signature. - Fixes a case where inspect.signature() dropped parameters - Fixes a case where inspect.signature() raised tokenize.TokenError - Allows inspect.signature() to understand defaults involving binary operations of constants - inspect.signature() is documented as only raising TypeError or ValueError, but sometimes raised RuntimeError. These cases now raise ValueError - Removed a dead code path

  • gh-95882: Fix a 3.11 regression in asynccontextmanager(), which caused it to propagate exceptions with incorrect tracebacks and fix a 3.11 regression in contextmanager(), which caused it to propagate exceptions with incorrect tracebacks for StopIteration.

  • bpo-44817: Ignore WinError 53 (ERROR_BAD_NETPATH), 65 (ERROR_NETWORK_ACCESS_DENIED) and 161 (ERROR_BAD_PATHNAME) when using ntpath.realpath().

  • bpo-40447: Accept os.PathLike (such as pathlib.Path) in the stripdir arguments of compileall.compile_file() and compileall.compile_dir().

  • bpo-36880: Fix a reference counting issue when a ctypes callback with return type py_object returns None, which could cause crashes.



  • gh-101334: test_tarfile has been updated to pass when run as a high UID.

  • gh-100454: Start running SSL tests with OpenSSL 3.1.0-beta1.

  • gh-96002: Add functional test for Argument Clinic.


  • gh-101522: Allow overriding Windows dependencies versions and paths using MSBuild properties.


  • gh-101543: Ensure the install path in the registry is only used when the standard library hasn’t been located in any other way.

  • gh-101467: The py.exe launcher now correctly filters when only a single runtime is installed. It also correctly handles prefix matches on tags so that -3.1 does not match 3.11, but would still match 3.1-32.

  • gh-101135: Restore ability to launch older 32-bit versions from the py.exe launcher when both 32-bit and 64-bit installs of the same version are available.

  • gh-82052: Fixed an issue where writing more than 32K of Unicode output to the console screen in one go can result in mojibake.

  • gh-100320: Ensures the PythonPath registry key from an install is used when launching from a different copy of Python that relies on an existing install to provide a copy of its modules and standard library.

  • gh-100247: Restores support for the py.exe launcher finding shebang commands in its configuration file using the full command name.

  • gh-100180: Update Windows installer to OpenSSL 1.1.1s

  • bpo-43984: winreg.SetValueEx() now leaves the target value untouched in the case of conversion errors. Previously, -1 would be written in case of such errors.


  • gh-100180: Update macOS installer to OpenSSL 1.1.1s


  • bpo-45256: Fix a bug that caused an AttributeError to be raised in when py-locals is used without a frame.

  • gh-100342: Add missing NULL check for possible allocation failure in *args parsing in Argument Clinic.

  • gh-64490: Argument Clinic varargs bugfixes

    • Fix out-of-bounds error in _PyArg_UnpackKeywordsWithVararg().

    • Fix incorrect check which allowed more than one varargs in

    • Fix miscalculation of noptargs in generated code.

    • Do not generate noptargs when there is a vararg argument and no optional argument.


  • gh-99240: In argument parsing, after deallocating newly allocated memory, reset its pointer to NULL.

Python 3.11.1 final

Release date: 2022-12-06


  • gh-100001: python -m http.server no longer allows terminal control characters sent within a garbage request to be printed to the stderr server log.

    This is done by changing the http.server BaseHTTPRequestHandler .log_message method to replace control characters with a \xHH hex escape before printing.

  • gh-87604: Avoid publishing list of active per-interpreter audit hooks via the gc module

  • gh-98433: The IDNA codec decoder used on DNS hostnames by socket or asyncio related name resolution functions no longer involves a quadratic algorithm. This prevents a potential CPU denial of service if an out-of-spec excessive length hostname involving bidirectional characters were decoded. Some protocols such as urllib http 3xx redirects potentially allow for an attacker to supply such a name.

  • gh-98739: Update bundled libexpat to 2.5.0

  • gh-97612: Fix a shell code injection vulnerability in the example script. The script no longer uses a shell to run openssl commands. Issue reported and initial fix by Caleb Shortt. Patch by Victor Stinner.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-99886: Fix a crash when an object which does not have a dictionary frees its instance values.

  • gh-99891: Fix a bug in the tokenizer that could cause infinite recursion when showing syntax warnings that happen in the first line of the source. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-99729: Fix an issue that could cause frames to be visible to Python code as they are being torn down, possibly leading to memory corruption or hard crashes of the interpreter.

  • gh-99578: Fix a reference bug in _imp.create_builtin() after the creation of the first sub-interpreter for modules builtins and sys. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-99581: Fixed a bug that was causing a buffer overflow if the tokenizer copies a line missing the newline caracter from a file that is as long as the available tokenizer buffer. Patch by Pablo galindo

  • gh-99553: Fix bug where an ExceptionGroup subclass can wrap a BaseException.

  • gh-99370: Fix zip path for venv created from a non-installed python on POSIX platforms.

  • gh-99298: Fix an issue that could potentially cause incorrect error handling for some bytecode instructions.

  • gh-99205: Fix an issue that prevented PyThreadState and PyInterpreterState memory from being freed properly.

  • gh-99181: Fix failure in except* with unhashable exceptions.

  • gh-99204: Fix calculation of sys._base_executable when inside a POSIX virtual environment using copies of the python binary when the base installation does not provide the executable name used by the venv. Calculation will fall back to alternative names (“python<MAJOR>”, “python<MAJOR>.<MINOR>”).

  • gh-96055: Update faulthandler to emit an error message with the proper unexpected signal number. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-99153: Fix location of SyntaxError for a try block with both except and except*.

  • gh-99103: Fix the error reporting positions of specialized traceback anchors when the source line contains Unicode characters.

  • gh-98852: Fix subscription of type aliases containing bare generic types or types like TypeVar: for example tuple[A, T][int] and tuple[TypeVar, T][int], where A is a generic type, and T is a type variable.

  • gh-98925: Lower the recursion depth for marshal on WASI to support wasmtime 2.0/main.

  • gh-98783: Fix multiple crashes in debug mode when str subclasses are used instead of str itself.

  • gh-99257: Fix an issue where member descriptors (such as those for __slots__) could behave incorrectly or crash instead of raising a TypeError when accessed via an instance of an invalid type.

  • gh-98374: Suppress ImportError for invalid query for help() command. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-98415: Fix detection of MAC addresses for uuid on certain OSs. Patch by Chaim Sanders

  • gh-92119: Print exception class name instead of its string representation when raising errors from ctypes calls.

  • gh-96078: os.sched_yield() now release the GIL while calling sched_yield(2). Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-93354: Fix an issue that could delay the specialization of PRECALL instructions.

  • gh-97943: Bugfix: PyFunction_GetAnnotations() should return a borrowed reference. It was returning a new reference.

  • gh-97779: Ensure that all Python frame objects are backed by “complete” frames.

  • gh-97591: Fixed a missing incref/decref pair in Exception.__setstate__(). Patch by Ofey Chan.

  • gh-94526: Fix the Python path configuration used to initialized sys.path at Python startup. Paths are no longer encoded to UTF-8/strict to avoid encoding errors if it contains surrogate characters (bytes paths are decoded with the surrogateescape error handler). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-95921: Fix overly-broad source position information for chained comparisons used as branching conditions.

  • gh-96387: At Python exit, sometimes a thread holding the GIL can wait forever for a thread (usually a daemon thread) which requested to drop the GIL, whereas the thread already exited. To fix the race condition, the thread which requested the GIL drop now resets its request before exiting. Issue discovered and analyzed by Mingliang ZHAO. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96864: Fix a possible assertion failure, fatal error, or SystemError if a line tracing event raises an exception while opcode tracing is enabled.

  • gh-96678: Fix undefined behaviour in C code of null pointer arithmetic.

  • gh-96754: Make sure that all frame objects created are created from valid interpreter frames. Prevents the possibility of invalid frames in backtraces and signal handlers.

  • gh-95196: Disable incorrect pickling of the C implemented classmethod descriptors.

  • gh-96005: On WASI ENOTCAPABLE is now mapped to PermissionError. The errno modules exposes the new error number. now ignores PermissionError when it cannot open landmark files pybuilddir.txt and pyenv.cfg.

  • gh-93696: Allow pdb to locate source for frozen modules in the standard library.

  • bpo-31718: Raise ValueError instead of SystemError when methods of uninitialized io.IncrementalNewlineDecoder objects are called. Patch by Oren Milman.

  • bpo-38031: Fix a possible assertion failure in io.FileIO when the opener returns an invalid file descriptor.


  • gh-100001: Also escape s in the http.server BaseHTTPRequestHandler.log_message so that it is technically possible to parse the line and reconstruct what the original data was. Without this a xHH is ambiguious as to if it is a hex replacement we put in or the characters r”x” came through in the original request line.

  • gh-93453: asyncio.get_event_loop() now only emits a deprecation warning when a new event loop was created implicitly. It no longer emits a deprecation warning if the current event loop was set.

  • gh-51524: Fix bug when calling trace.CoverageResults with valid infile.

  • gh-99645: Fix a bug in handling class cleanups in unittest.TestCase. Now addClassCleanup() uses separate lists for different TestCase subclasses, and doClassCleanups() only cleans up the particular class.

  • gh-97001: Release the GIL when calling termios APIs to avoid blocking threads.

  • gh-99341: Fix ast.increment_lineno() to also cover ast.TypeIgnore when changing line numbers.

  • gh-99418: Fix bug in urllib.parse.urlparse() that causes URL schemes that begin with a digit, a plus sign, or a minus sign to be parsed incorrectly.

  • gh-99382: Check the number of arguments in substitution in user generics containing a TypeVarTuple and one or more TypeVar.

  • gh-99379: Fix substitution of ParamSpec followed by TypeVarTuple in generic aliases.

  • gh-99344: Fix substitution of TypeVarTuple and ParamSpec together in user generics.

  • gh-74044: Fixed bug where inspect.signature() reported incorrect arguments for decorated methods.

  • gh-99275: Fix SystemError in ctypes when exception was not set during __initsubclass__.

  • gh-99277: Remove older version of _SSLProtocolTransport.get_write_buffer_limits in asyncio.sslproto

  • gh-99248: fix negative numbers failing in verify()

  • gh-99155: Fix statistics.NormalDist pickle with 0 and 1 protocols.

  • gh-93464: is now correctly activated when combined with other assignment values. E.g. ONE = auto(), 'some text' will now evaluate as (1, 'some text').

  • gh-99134: Update the bundled copy of pip to version 22.3.1.

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleak on failed module initialisation in _zoneinfo

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleaks on failed module initialisation in in _pickle

  • gh-83004: Clean up refleak on failed module initialisation in _io.

  • gh-98897: Fix memory leak in math.dist() when both points don’t have the same dimension. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-98706: [3.11] Applied changes from importlib_metadata 4.11.4 through 4.13, including compatibility and robustness fixes for Distribution objects without _normalized_name, disallowing invalid inputs to Distribution.from_name, and refined behaviors in PathDistribution._name_from_stem and PathDistribution._normalized_name.

  • gh-98793: Fix argument typechecks in _overlapped.WSAConnect() and _overlapped.Overlapped.WSASendTo() functions.

  • gh-98744: Prevent crashing in traceback when retrieving the byte-offset for some source files that contain certain unicode characters.

  • gh-98740: Fix internal error in the re module which in very rare circumstances prevented compilation of a regular expression containing a conditional expression without the “else” branch.

  • gh-98703: Fix asyncio.StreamWriter.drain() to call protocol.connection_lost callback only once on Windows.

  • gh-98624: Add a mutex to unittest.mock.NonCallableMock to protect concurrent access to mock attributes.

  • gh-89237: Fix hang on Windows in subprocess.wait_closed() in asyncio with ProactorEventLoop. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-98458: Fix infinite loop in unittest when a self-referencing chained exception is raised

  • gh-97928: tkinter.Text.count() raises now an exception for options starting with “-” instead of silently ignoring them.

  • gh-97966: On uname_result, restored expectation that _fields and _asdict would include all six properties including processor.

  • gh-98307: A createSocket() method was added to SysLogHandler.

  • gh-96035: Fix bug in urllib.parse.urlparse() that causes certain port numbers containing whitespace, underscores, plus and minus signs, or non-ASCII digits to be incorrectly accepted.

  • gh-98251: Allow venv to pass along PYTHON* variables to ensurepip and pip when they do not impact path resolution

  • gh-98178: On macOS, fix a crash in syslog.syslog() in multi-threaded applications. On macOS, the libc syslog() function is not thread-safe, so syslog.syslog() no longer releases the GIL to call it. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96151: Allow BUILTINS to be a valid field name for frozen dataclasses.

  • gh-87730: Wrap network errors consistently in urllib FTP support, so the test suite doesn’t fail when a network is available but the public internet is not reachable.

  • gh-98086: Make sure patch.dict() can be applied on async functions.

  • gh-90985: Earlier in 3.11 we deprecated asyncio.Task.cancel("message"). We realized we were too harsh, and have undeprecated it.

  • gh-97837: Change deprecate warning message in unittest from

    It is deprecated to return a value!=None


    It is deprecated to return a value that is not None from a test case

  • gh-97825: Fixes AttributeError when subprocess.check_output() is used with argument input=None and either of the arguments encoding or errors are used.

  • gh-82836: Fix is_private properties in the ipaddress module. Previously non-private networks ( would return True from this method; now they correctly return False.

  • gh-96827: Avoid spurious tracebacks from asyncio when default executor cleanup is delayed until after the event loop is closed (e.g. as the result of a keyboard interrupt).

  • gh-97592: Avoid a crash in the C version of asyncio.Future.remove_done_callback() when an evil argument is passed.

  • gh-97639: Remove tokenize.NL check from tabnanny.

  • gh-73588: Fix generation of the default name of tkinter.Checkbutton. Previously, checkbuttons in different parent widgets could have the same short name and share the same state if arguments “name” and “variable” are not specified. Now they are globally unique.

  • gh-97005: Update bundled libexpat to 2.4.9

  • gh-85760: Fix race condition in asyncio where process_exited() called before the pipe_data_received() leading to inconsistent output. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-96819: Fixed check in multiprocessing.resource_tracker that guarantees that the length of a write to a pipe is not greater than PIPE_BUF.

  • gh-96741: Corrected type annotation for dataclass attribute pstats.FunctionProfile.ncalls to be str.

  • gh-95987: Fix repr of Any subclasses.

  • gh-96388: Work around missing socket functions in socket’s __repr__.

  • gh-96073: In inspect, fix overeager replacement of “typing.” in formatting annotations.

  • gh-96192: Fix handling of bytes path-like objects in os.ismount().

  • gh-96052: Fix handling compiler warnings (SyntaxWarning and DeprecationWarning) in codeop.compile_command() when checking for incomplete input. Previously it emitted warnings and raised a SyntaxError. Now it always returns None for incomplete input without emitting any warnings.

  • gh-88863: To avoid apparent memory leaks when asyncio.open_connection() raises, break reference cycles generated by local exception and future instances (which has exception instance as its member var). Patch by Dong Uk, Kang.

  • gh-91212: Fixed flickering of the turtle window when the tracer is turned off. Patch by Shin-myoung-serp.

  • gh-88050: Fix asyncio subprocess transport to kill process cleanly when process is blocked and avoid RuntimeError when loop is closed. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-93858: Prevent error when activating venv in nested fish instances.

  • gh-91078: now returns None when called on an empty tarfile.

  • bpo-47220: Document the optional callback parameter of WeakMethod. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-46364: Restrict use of sockets instead of pipes for stdin of subprocesses created by asyncio to AIX platform only.

  • bpo-38523: shutil.copytree() now applies the ignore_dangling_symlinks argument recursively.

  • bpo-36267: Fix IndexError in argparse.ArgumentParser when a store_true action is given an explicit argument.


  • gh-92892: Document that calling variadic functions with ctypes requires special care on macOS/arm64 (and possibly other platforms).

  • gh-85525: Remove extra row

  • gh-95588: Clarified the conflicting advice given in the ast documentation about ast.literal_eval() being “safe” for use on untrusted input while at the same time warning that it can crash the process. The latter statement is true and is deemed unfixable without a large amount of work unsuitable for a bugfix. So we keep the warning and no longer claim that literal_eval is safe.

  • bpo-41825: Restructured the documentation for the os.wait* family of functions, and improved the docs for os.waitid() with more explanation of the possible argument constants.


  • gh-99892: Skip test_normalization() of test_unicodedata if it fails to download NormalizationTest.txt file from Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-99934: Correct test_marsh on (32 bit) x86: test_deterministic sets was failing.

  • gh-99659: Optional big memory tests in test_sqlite3 now catch the correct sqlite.DataError exception type in case of too large strings and/or blobs passed.

  • gh-98713: Fix a bug in the typing tests where a test relying on CPython-specific implementation details was not decorated with @cpython_only and was not skipped on other implementations.

  • gh-87390: Add tests for star-unpacking with PEP 646, and some other miscellaneous PEP 646 tests.

  • gh-96853: Added explicit coverage of Py_Initialize (and hence Py_InitializeEx) back to the embedding tests (all other embedding tests migrated to Py_InitializeFromConfig in Python 3.11)

  • bpo-34272: Some C API tests were moved into the new Lib/test/test_capi/ directory.


  • gh-99086: Fix -Wimplicit-int, -Wstrict-prototypes, and -Wimplicit-function-declaration compiler warnings in configure checks.

  • gh-99337: Fix a compilation issue with GCC 12 on macOS.

  • gh-99086: Fix -Wimplicit-int compiler warning in configure check for PTHREAD_SCOPE_SYSTEM.

  • gh-98872: Fix a possible fd leak in Programs/_freeze_module.c introduced in Python 3.11.

  • gh-99016: Fix build with PYTHON_FOR_REGEN=python3.8.

  • gh-97731: Specify the full path to the source location for make docclean (needed for cross-builds).

  • gh-98707: Don’t use vendored libmpdec headers if --with-system-libmpdec is passed to configure. Don’t use vendored libexpat headers if --with-system-expat is passed to !configure.

  • gh-96761: Fix the build process of clang compiler for _bootstrap_python if LTO optimization is applied. Patch by Matthias Görgens and Donghee Na.

  • gh-96883: wasm32-emscripten builds for browsers now include concurrent.futures for asyncio and unittest.mock.

  • gh-84461: wasm32-emscripten platform no longer builds resource module, getresuid(), getresgid(), and their setters. The APIs are stubs and not functional.

  • gh-94280: Updated pegen regeneration script on Windows to find and use Python 3.9 or higher. Prior to this, pegen regeneration already required 3.9 or higher, but the script may have used lower versions of Python.


  • gh-99345: Use faster initialization functions to detect install location for Windows Store package

  • gh-98629: Fix initialization of sys.version and sys._git on Windows

  • gh-99442: Fix handling in Python Launcher for Windows when argv[0] does not include a file extension.

  • gh-98689: Update Windows builds to zlib v1.2.13. v1.2.12 has CVE-2022-37434, but the vulnerable inflateGetHeader API is not used by Python.

  • gh-98790: Assumes that a missing DLLs directory means that standard extension modules are in the executable’s directory.

  • gh-98745: Update py.exe launcher to install 3.11 by default and 3.12 on request.

  • gh-98692: Fix the Python Launcher for Windows ignoring unrecognized shebang lines instead of treating them as local paths

  • gh-94328: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.39.4.

  • gh-97728: Fix possible crashes caused by the use of uninitialized variables when pass invalid arguments in os.system() on Windows and in Windows-specific modules (like winreg).

  • gh-96965: Update libffi to 3.4.3

  • gh-94781: Fix pcbuild.proj to clean previous instances of ouput files in Python\deepfreeze and Python\frozen_modules directories on Windows. Patch by Charlie Zhao.

  • bpo-40882: Fix a memory leak in multiprocessing.shared_memory.SharedMemory on Windows.


  • gh-87235: On macOS python3 /dev/fd/9 9</path/to/ failed for any script longer than a couple of bytes.

  • gh-98940: Fix Mac/ file filter bug.

  • gh-94328: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.39.4.


  • gh-97527: Fix a bug in the previous bugfix that caused IDLE to not start when run with 3.10.8, 3.12.0a1, and at least Microsoft Python 3.10.2288.0 installed without the Lib/test package. 3.11.0 was never affected.


  • gh-95853: The script now pre-builds Emscripten ports, checks for broken EMSDK versions, and warns about pkg-config env vars.

  • gh-95853: The new tool Tools/wasm/ automates configure, compile, and test steps for building CPython on WebAssembly platforms.

  • gh-95731: Fix handling of module docstrings in Tools/i18n/


  • gh-98680: PyBUF_* constants were marked as part of Limited API of Python 3.11+. These were available in 3.11.0 with Py_LIMITED_API defined for 3.11, and are necessary to use the buffer API.

  • gh-98978: Fix use-after-free in Py_SetPythonHome(NULL), Py_SetProgramName(NULL) and _Py_SetProgramFullPath(NULL) function calls. Issue reported by Benedikt Reinartz. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96853: Py_InitializeEx now correctly calls PyConfig_Clear after initializing the interpreter (the omission didn’t cause a memory leak only because none of the dynamically allocated config fields are populated by the wrapper function)

Python 3.11.0 final

Release date: 2022-10-24


  • gh-97616: Fix multiplying a list by an integer (list *= int): detect the integer overflow when the new allocated length is close to the maximum size. Issue reported by Jordan Limor. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-97514: On Linux the multiprocessing module returns to using filesystem backed unix domain sockets for communication with the forkserver process instead of the Linux abstract socket namespace. Only code that chooses to use the “forkserver” start method is affected.

    Abstract sockets have no permissions and could allow any user on the system in the same network namespace (often the whole system) to inject code into the multiprocessing forkserver process. This was a potential privilege escalation. Filesystem based socket permissions restrict this to the forkserver process user as was the default in Python 3.8 and earlier.

    This prevents Linux CVE-2022-42919.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-97002: Fix an issue where several frame objects could be backed by the same interpreter frame, possibly leading to corrupted memory and hard crashes of the interpreter.

  • gh-97752: Fix possible data corruption or crashes when accessing the f_back member of newly-created generator or coroutine frames.

  • gh-96975: Fix a crash occurring when PyEval_GetFrame() is called while the topmost Python frame is in a partially-initialized state.

  • gh-96848: Fix command line parsing: reject -X int_max_str_digits option with no value (invalid) when the PYTHONINTMAXSTRDIGITS environment variable is set to a valid limit. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96821: Fix undefined behaviour in _testcapimodule.c.

  • gh-95778: When ValueError is raised if an integer is larger than the limit, mention the sys.set_int_max_str_digits() function in the error message. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-96587: Correctly raise SyntaxError on exception groups (PEP 654) on python versions prior to 3.11

  • bpo-42316: Document some places where an assignment expression needs parentheses.


  • gh-98331: Update the bundled copies of pip and setuptools to versions 22.3 and 65.5.0 respectively.

  • gh-90985: Earlier in 3.11 we deprecated asyncio.Task.cancel("message"). We realized we were too harsh, and have undeprecated it.

  • gh-97545: Make Semaphore run faster.

  • gh-96865: fix Flag to use boundary CONFORM

    This restores previous Flag behavior of allowing flags with non-sequential values to be combined; e.g.

    class Skip(Flag): TWO = 2 EIGHT = 8

    Skip.TWO | Skip.EIGHT -> <Skip.TWO|EIGHT: 10>

  • gh-90155: Fix broken asyncio.Semaphore when acquire is cancelled.


  • gh-97741: Fix ! in c domain ref target syntax via a patch, so it works as intended to disable ref target resolution.

  • gh-93031: Update tutorial introduction output to use 3.10+ SyntaxError invalid range.


  • gh-95027: On Windows, when the Python test suite is run with the -jN option, the ANSI code page is now used as the encoding for the stdout temporary file, rather than using UTF-8 which can lead to decoding errors. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • gh-96729: Ensure that Windows releases built with Tools\msi\buildrelease.bat are upgradable to and from official Python releases.


  • gh-98360: Fixes multiprocessing spawning child processes on Windows from a virtual environment to ensure that child processes that also use multiprocessing to spawn more children will recognize that they are in a virtual environment.

  • gh-98414: Fix py.exe launcher handling of -V:<company>/ option when default preferences have been set in environment variables or configuration files.

  • gh-90989: Clarify some text in the Windows installer.


  • gh-97897: The macOS 13 SDK includes support for the mkfifoat and mknodat system calls. Using the dir_fd option with either os.mkfifo() or os.mknod() could result in a segfault if cpython is built with the macOS 13 SDK but run on an earlier version of macOS. Prevent this by adding runtime support for detection of these system calls (“weaklinking”) as is done for other newer syscalls on macOS.

Python 3.11.0 release candidate 2

Release date: 2022-09-11


  • gh-95778: Converting between int and str in bases other than 2 (binary), 4, 8 (octal), 16 (hexadecimal), or 32 such as base 10 (decimal) now raises a ValueError if the number of digits in string form is above a limit to avoid potential denial of service attacks due to the algorithmic complexity. This is a mitigation for CVE-2020-10735.

    This new limit can be configured or disabled by environment variable, command line flag, or sys APIs. See the integer string conversion length limitation documentation. The default limit is 4300 digits in string form.

    Patch by Gregory P. Smith [Google] and Christian Heimes [Red Hat] with feedback from Victor Stinner, Thomas Wouters, Steve Dower, Ned Deily, and Mark Dickinson.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-96678: Fix case of undefined behavior in ceval.c

  • gh-96641: Do not expose KeyWrapper in _functools.

  • gh-96636: Ensure that tracing, sys.setrace(), is turned on immediately. In pre-release versions of 3.11, some tracing events might have been lost when turning on tracing in a __del__ method or interrupt.

  • gh-96572: Fix use after free in trace refs build mode. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-96611: When loading a file with invalid UTF-8 inside a multi-line string, a correct SyntaxError is emitted.

  • gh-96612: Make sure that incomplete frames do not show up in tracemalloc traces.

  • gh-96569: Remove two cases of undefined behavior, by adding NULL checks.

  • gh-96582: Fix possible NULL pointer dereference in _PyThread_CurrentFrames. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-96352: Fix AttributeError missing name and obj attributes in object.__getattribute__(). Patch by Philip Georgi.

  • gh-96268: Loading a file with invalid UTF-8 will now report the broken character at the correct location.

  • gh-96187: Fixed a bug that caused _PyCode_GetExtra to return garbage for negative indexes. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-96071: Fix a deadlock in PyGILState_Ensure() when allocating new thread state. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-96046: PyType_Ready() now initializes ht_cached_keys and performs additional checks to ensure that type objects are properly configured. This avoids crashes in 3rd party packages that don’t use regular API to create new types.

  • gh-95818: Skip over incomplete frames in PyThreadState_GetFrame().

  • gh-95876: Fix format string in _PyPegen_raise_error_known_location that can lead to memory corruption on some 64bit systems. The function was building a tuple with i (int) instead of n (Py_ssize_t) for Py_ssize_t arguments.

  • gh-95605: Fix misleading contents of error message when converting an all-whitespace string to float.

  • gh-94996: ast.parse() will no longer parse function definitions with positional-only params when passed feature_version less than (3, 8). Patch by Shantanu Jain.


  • gh-96700: Fix incorrect error message in the io module.

  • gh-96652: Fix the faulthandler implementation of faulthandler.register(signal, chain=True) if the sigaction() function is not available: don’t call the previous signal handler if it’s NULL. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-68163: Correct conversion of numbers.Rational’s to float.

  • gh-96385: Fix TypeVarTuple.__typing_prepare_subst__. TypeError was not raised when using more than one TypeVarTuple, like [*T, *V] in type alias substitutions.

  • gh-90467: Fix asyncio.streams.StreamReaderProtocol to keep a strong reference to the created task, so that it’s not garbage collected

  • gh-96159: Fix a performance regression in logging TimedRotatingFileHandler. Only check for special files when the rollover time has passed.

  • gh-96175: Fix unused localName parameter in the Attr class in xml.dom.minidom.

  • gh-96125: Fix incorrect condition that causes to be wrong on pthread platforms.

  • gh-95463: Remove an incompatible change from bpo-28080 that caused a regression that ignored the utf8 in ZipInfo.flag_bits. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-95899: Fix asyncio.Runner to call asyncio.set_event_loop() only once to avoid calling attach_loop() multiple times on child watchers. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-95736: Fix unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase to set event loop before calling setup functions. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-95704: When a task catches asyncio.CancelledError and raises some other error, the other error should generally not silently be suppressed.

  • gh-95231: Fail gracefully if EPERM or ENOSYS is raised when loading crypt methods. This may happen when trying to load MD5 on a Linux kernel with FIPS enabled.

  • gh-74116: Allow asyncio.StreamWriter.drain() to be awaited concurrently by multiple tasks. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-92986: Fix ast.unparse() when ImportFrom.level is None


  • gh-96098: Improve discoverability of the higher level concurrent.futures module by providing clearer links from the lower level threading and multiprocessing modules.

  • gh-95957: What’s New 3.11 now has instructions for how to provide compiler and linker flags for Tcl/Tk and OpenSSL on RHEL 7 and CentOS 7.


  • gh-95243: Mitigate the inherent race condition from using find_unused_port() in testSockName() by trying to find an unused port a few times before failing. Patch by Ross Burton.


  • gh-94682: Build and test with OpenSSL 1.1.1q


  • gh-96577: Fixes a potential buffer overrun in msilib.

  • gh-96559: Fixes the Windows launcher not using the compatible interpretation of default tags found in configuration files when no tag was passed to the command.

Python 3.11.0 release candidate 1

Release date: 2022-08-05

Core and Builtins

  • gh-95150: Update code object hashing and equality to consider all debugging and exception handling tables. This fixes an issue where certain non-identical code objects could be “deduplicated” during compilation.

  • gh-95355: _PyPegen_Parser_New now properly detects token memory allocation errors. Patch by Honglin Zhu.

  • gh-90081: Run Python code in tracer/profiler function at full speed. Fixes slowdown in earlier versions of 3.11.

  • gh-95324: Emit a warning in debug mode if an object does not call PyObject_GC_UnTrack() before deallocation. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-95185: Prevented crashes in the AST constructor when compiling some absurdly long expressions like "+0"*1000000. RecursionError is now raised instead. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-93351: ast.AST node positions are now validated when provided to compile() and other related functions. If invalid positions are detected, a ValueError will be raised.

  • gh-94938: Fix error detection in some builtin functions when keyword argument name is an instance of a str subclass with overloaded __eq__ and __hash__. Previously it could cause SystemError or other undesired behavior.



  • gh-91207: Fix stylesheet not working in Windows CHM htmlhelp docs and add warning that they are deprecated. Contributed by C.A.M. Gerlach.

  • gh-95451: Update library documentation with availability information on WebAssembly platforms wasm32-emscripten and wasm32-wasi.

  • gh-95415: Use consistent syntax for platform availability. The directive now supports a content body and emits a warning when it encounters an unknown platform.

  • gh-86128: Document a limitation in ThreadPoolExecutor where its exit handler is executed before any handlers in atexit.


  • gh-95573: Lib/test/test_asyncio/ exposed a bug in the macOS kernel where intense concurrent load on non-blocking sockets occasionally causes errno.ENOBUFS (“No buffer space available”) to be emitted. FB11063974 filed with Apple, in the mean time as a workaround buffer size used in tests on macOS is decreased to avoid intermittent failures. Patch by Fantix King.

  • gh-95280: Fix problem with test_ssl test_get_ciphers on systems that require perfect forward secrecy (PFS) ciphers.

  • gh-94675: Add a regression test for re exponentional slowdown when using rjsmin.


  • gh-94801: Fix a regression in configure script that caused some header checks to ignore custom CPPFLAGS. The regression was introduced in gh-94802.

  • gh-95145: wasm32-wasi builds no longer depend on WASIX’s pthread stubs. Python now has its own stubbed pthread API.

  • gh-95174: Python now detects missing dup function in WASI and works around some missing errno, select, and socket constants.

  • gh-95174: Python now skips missing socket functions and methods on WASI. WASI can only create sockets from existing fd / accept and has no netdb.

  • gh-95085: Platforms wasm32-unknown-emscripten and wasm32-unknown-wasi have been promoted to PEP 11 tier 3 platform support.


  • gh-95656: Enable the enable_load_extension() sqlite3 API.

  • gh-95587: Fixes some issues where the Windows installer would incorrectly detect certain features of an existing install when upgrading.

  • gh-94399: Restores the behaviour of Python Launcher for Windows for /usr/bin/env shebang lines, which will now search PATH for an executable matching the given command. If none is found, the usual search process is used.

  • gh-95445: Fixes the unsuccessful removal of the HTML document directory when uninstalling with Windows msi.

  • gh-95359: Fix Python Launcher for Windows handling of py.ini commands (it was incorrectly expecting a py_ prefix on keys) and crashes when reading per-user configuration file.

  • gh-95285: Fix Python Launcher for Windows handling of command lines where it is only passed a short executable name.


  • gh-65802: Document handling of extensions in Save As dialogs.

  • gh-95191: Include prompts when saving Shell (interactive input and output).

  • gh-95511: Fix the Shell context menu copy-with-prompts bug of copying an extra line when one selects whole lines.

  • gh-95471: In the Edit menu, move Select All and add a new separator.

  • gh-95411: Enable using IDLE’s module browser with .pyw files.

  • gh-89610: Add .pyi as a recognized extension for IDLE on macOS. This allows opening stub files by double clicking on them in the Finder.


Python 3.11.0 beta 5

Release date: 2022-07-25

Core and Builtins

  • gh-93351: ast.AST node positions are now validated when provided to compile() and other related functions. If invalid positions are detected, a ValueError will be raised.

  • gh-94438: Fix an issue that caused extended opcode arguments and some conditional pops to be ignored when calculating valid jump targets for assignments to the f_lineno attribute of frame objects. In some cases, this could cause inconsistent internal state, resulting in a hard crash of the interpreter.

  • gh-95060: Undocumented PyCode_Addr2Location function now properly returns when addrq argument is less than zero.

  • gh-95113: Replace all EXTENDED_ARG_QUICK instructions with basic EXTENDED_ARG instructions in unquickened code. Consumers of non-adaptive bytecode should be able to handle extended arguments the same way they were handled in CPython 3.10 and older.

  • gh-91409: Fix incorrect source location info caused by certain optimizations in the bytecode compiler.

  • gh-94036: Fix incorrect source location info for some multi-line attribute accesses and method calls.

  • gh-94739: Allow jumping within, out of, and across exception handlers in the debugger.

  • gh-94949: ast.parse() will no longer parse parenthesized context managers when passed feature_version less than (3, 9). Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-94947: ast.parse() will no longer parse assignment expressions when passed feature_version less than (3, 8). Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-91256: Ensures the program name is known for help text during interpreter startup.

  • gh-94869: Fix the column offsets for some expressions in multi-line f-strings ast nodes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-94822: Fix an issue where lookups of metaclass descriptors may be ignored when an identically-named attribute also exists on the class itself.

  • gh-91153: Fix an issue where a bytearray item assignment could crash if it’s resized by the new value’s __index__() method.

  • gh-90699: Fix reference counting bug in bool.__repr__(). Patch by Kumar Aditya.


  • gh-95087: Fix IndexError in parsing invalid date in the email module.

  • gh-95199: Upgrade bundled setuptools to 63.2.0.

  • gh-95194: Upgrade bundled pip to 22.2.

  • gh-95132: Fix a sqlite3 regression where *args and **kwds were incorrectly relayed from connect() to the Connection factory. The regression was introduced in 3.11a1 with PR 24421 (gh-85128). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.`

  • gh-93157: Fix fileinput module didn’t support errors option when inplace is true.

  • gh-95105: wsgiref.types.InputStream.__iter__() should return Iterator[bytes], not Iterable[bytes]. Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-94857: Fix refleak in _io.TextIOWrapper.reconfigure. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-94821: Fix binding of unix socket to empty address on Linux to use an available address from the abstract namespace, instead of “0”.

  • gh-89988: Fix memory leak in pickle.Pickler when looking up dispatch_table. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-47025: Drop support for bytes on sys.path.


  • gh-95212: Make multiprocessing test case test_shared_memory_recreate parallel-safe.


  • gh-94847: Fixed _decimal module build issue on GCC when compiling with LTO and pydebug. Debug builds no longer force inlining of functions.

  • gh-94841: Fix the possible performance regression of PyObject_Free() compiled with MSVC version 1932.

  • gh-94801: configure now uses custom flags like ZLIB_CFLAGS and ZLIB_LIBS when searching for headers and libraries.

  • gh-94773: now supports code object with frozensets that contain incompatible, unsortable types.


  • gh-90844: Allow virtual environments to correctly launch when they have spaces in the path.

  • gh-94772: Fix incorrect handling of shebang lines in py.exe launcher


  • gh-92678: Adds unstable C-API functions _PyObject_VisitManagedDict and _PyObject_ClearManagedDict to allow C extensions to allow the VM to manage their object’s dictionaries.

  • gh-94930: Fix SystemError raised when PyArg_ParseTupleAndKeywords() is used with # in (...) but without PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN defined.

  • gh-94864: Fix PyArg_Parse* with deprecated format units “u” and “Z”. It returned 1 (success) when warnings are turned into exceptions.

  • gh-94731: Python again uses C-style casts for most casting operations when compiled with C++. This may trigger compiler warnings, if they are enabled with e.g. -Wold-style-cast `` or ``-Wzero-as-null-pointer-constant options for g++.

Python 3.11.0 beta 4

Release date: 2022-07-11


  • gh-87389: http.server: Fix an open redirection vulnerability in the HTTP server when an URI path starts with //. Vulnerability discovered, and initial fix proposed, by Hamza Avvan.

  • gh-79096: LWPCookieJar and MozillaCookieJar create files with file mode 600 instead of 644 (Microsoft Windows is not affected)

  • gh-92888: Fix memoryview use after free when accessing the backing buffer in certain cases.

  • gh-68966: The deprecated mailcap module now refuses to inject unsafe text (filenames, MIME types, parameters) into shell commands. Instead of using such text, it will warn and act as if a match was not found (or for test commands, as if the test failed).

Core and Builtins

  • gh-94694: Fix an issue that could cause code with multi-line method lookups to have misleading or incorrect column offset information. In some cases (when compiling a hand-built AST) this could have resulted in a hard crash of the interpreter.

  • gh-93252: Fix an issue that caused internal frames to outlive failed Python function calls, possibly resulting in memory leaks or hard interpreter crashes.

  • gh-94215: Fix an issue where exceptions raised by line-tracing events would cause frames to be left in an invalid state, possibly resulting in a hard crash of the interpreter.

  • gh-92228: Disable the compiler’s inline-small-exit-blocks optimization for exit blocks that are associated with source code lines. This fixes a bug where the debugger cannot tell where an exception handler ends and the following code block begins.

  • gh-94485: Line number of a module’s RESUME instruction is set to 0 as specified in PEP 626.

  • gh-94438: Account for instructions that can push NULL to the stack when setting line number in a frame. Prevents some (unlikely) crashes.

  • gh-91719: Reload opcode when raising unknown opcode error in the interpreter main loop, for C compilers to generate dispatching code independently.

  • gh-94329: Compile and run code with unpacking of extremely large sequences (1000s of elements). Such code failed to compile. It now compiles and runs correctly.

  • gh-94360: Fixed a tokenizer crash when reading encoded files with syntax errors from stdin with non utf-8 encoded text. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-88116: Fix an issue when reading line numbers from code objects if the encoded line numbers are close to INT_MIN. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-94262: Don’t create frame objects for incomplete frames. Prevents the creation of generators and closures from being observable to Python and C extensions, restoring the behavior of 3.10 and earlier.

  • gh-94192: Fix error for dictionary literals with invalid expression as value.

  • gh-93883: Revise the display strategy of traceback enhanced error locations. The indicators are only shown when the location doesn’t span the whole line.

  • gh-94021: Fix unreachable code warning in Python/specialize.c.

  • gh-93516: Store offset of first traceable instruction in code object to avoid having to recompute it for each instruction when tracing.

  • gh-93516: Lazily create a table mapping bytecode offsets to line numbers to speed up calculation of line numbers when tracing.

  • gh-89828: types.GenericAlias no longer relays the __class__ attribute. For example, isinstance(list[int], type) no longer returns True.

  • gh-93671: Fix some exponential backtrace case happening with deeply nested sequence patterns in match statements. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • gh-93662: Make sure that the end column offsets are correct in multi-line method calls. Previously, the end column could precede the column offset.

  • gh-93461: importlib.invalidate_caches() now drops entries from sys.path_importer_cache with a relative path as name. This solves a caching issue when a process changes its current working directory.

    FileFinder no longer inserts a dot in the path, e.g. /egg/./spam is now /egg/spam.

  • gh-93418: Fixed an assert where an f-string has an equal sign ‘=’ following an expression, but there’s no trailing brace. For example, f”{i=”.

  • gh-93382: Cache the result of PyCode_GetCode() function to restore the O(1) lookup of the co_code attribute.

  • gh-93354: Use exponential backoff for specialization counters in the interpreter. Can reduce the number of failed specializations significantly and avoid slowdown for those parts of a program that are not suitable for specialization.

  • gh-93021: Fix the __text_signature__ for __get__() methods implemented in C. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-92930: Fixed a crash in _pickle.c from mutating collections during __reduce__ or persistent_id.

  • gh-92914: Always round the allocated size for lists up to the nearest even number.

  • gh-92858: Improve error message for some suites with syntax error before ‘:’

  • bpo-46142: Make --help output shorter by moving some info to the new --help-env and --help-xoptions command-line options. Also add --help-all option to print complete usage.


  • gh-94736: Fix crash when deallocating an instance of a subclass of _multiprocessing.SemLock. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-94637: SSLContext.set_default_verify_paths() now releases the GIL around SSL_CTX_set_default_verify_paths call. The function call performs I/O and CPU intensive work.

  • gh-94607: Fix subclassing complex generics with type variables in typing. Previously an error message saying Some type variables ... are not listed in Generic[...] was shown. typing no longer populates __parameters__ with the __parameters__ of a Python class.

  • gh-93910: The ability to access the other values of an enum on an enum (e.g. Color.RED.BLUE) has been restored in order to fix a performance regression.

  • gh-93896: Fix and unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase to always the set event loop as it was done in Python 3.10 and earlier. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-94510: Re-entrant calls to sys.setprofile() and sys.settrace() now raise RuntimeError. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-92336: Fix bug where linecache.getline() fails on bad files with UnicodeDecodeError or SyntaxError. It now returns an empty string as per the documentation.

  • gh-94398: Once a asyncio.TaskGroup has started shutting down (i.e., at least one task has failed and the task group has started cancelling the remaining tasks), it should not be possible to add new tasks to the task group.

  • gh-94254: Fixed types of struct module to be immutable. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-94207: Made _struct.Struct GC-tracked in order to fix a reference leak in the _struct module.

  • gh-91742: Fix pdb crash after jump caused by a null pointer dereference. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-94101: Manual instantiation of ssl.SSLSession objects is no longer allowed as it lead to misconfigured instances that crashed the interpreter when attributes where accessed on them.

  • gh-84753: inspect.iscoroutinefunction(), inspect.isgeneratorfunction(), and inspect.isasyncgenfunction() now properly return True for duck-typed function-like objects like instances of unittest.mock.AsyncMock.

    This makes inspect.iscoroutinefunction() consistent with the behavior of asyncio.iscoroutinefunction(). Patch by Mehdi ABAAKOUK.

  • gh-94028: Fix a regression in the sqlite3 where statement objects were not properly cleared and reset after use in cursor iters. The regression was introduced by PR 27884 in Python 3.11a1. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-93820: Pickle enum.Flag by name.

  • gh-93847: Fix repr of enum of generic aliases.

  • gh-91404: Revert the re memory leak when a match is terminated by a signal or memory allocation failure as the implemented fix caused a major performance regression.

  • gh-83499: Fix double closing of file description in tempfile.

  • gh-93820: Fixed a regression when copy.copy()-ing enum.Flag with multiple flag members.

  • gh-79512: Fixed names and __module__ value of weakref classes ReferenceType, ProxyType, CallableProxyType. It makes them pickleable.

  • gh-91389: Fix an issue where dis utilities could report missing or incorrect position information in the presence of CACHE entries.

  • gh-93626: Set __future__.annotations to have a None mandatoryRelease to indicate that it is currently ‘TBD’.

  • gh-90473: Emscripten and WASI have no home directory and cannot provide PEP 370 user site directory.

  • gh-90494: copy.copy() and copy.deepcopy() now always raise a TypeError if __reduce__() returns a tuple with length 6 instead of silently ignore the 6th item or produce incorrect result.

  • gh-90549: Fix a multiprocessing bug where a global named resource (such as a semaphore) could leak when a child process is spawned (as opposed to forked).

  • gh-93521: Fixed a case where dataclasses would try to add __weakref__ into the __slots__ for a dataclass that specified weakref_slot=True when it was already defined in one of its bases. This resulted in a TypeError upon the new class being created.

  • gh-79579: sqlite3 now correctly detects DML queries with leading comments. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-93421: Update sqlite3.Cursor.rowcount when a DML statement has run to completion. This fixes the row count for SQL queries like UPDATE ... RETURNING. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-91162: Support splitting of unpacked arbitrary-length tuple over TypeVar and TypeVarTuple parameters. For example:

    • A[T, *Ts][*tuple[int, ...]] -> A[int, *tuple[int, ...]]

    • A[*Ts, T][*tuple[int, ...]] -> A[*tuple[int, ...], int]

  • gh-93353: Fix the importlib.resources.as_file() context manager to remove the temporary file if destroyed late during Python finalization: keep a local reference to the os.remove() function. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-83658: Make multiprocessing.Pool raise an exception if maxtasksperchild is not None or a positive int.

  • gh-93156: Accessing the pathlib.PurePath.parents sequence of an absolute path using negative index values produced incorrect results.

  • gh-74696: shutil.make_archive() no longer temporarily changes the current working directory during creation of standard .zip or tar archives.

  • gh-89973: Fix re.error raised in fnmatch if the pattern contains a character range with upper bound lower than lower bound (e.g. [c-a]). Now such ranges are interpreted as empty ranges.

  • gh-92932: Now dis() and get_instructions() handle operand values for instructions prefixed by EXTENDED_ARG_QUICK. Patch by Sam Gross and Donghee Na.

  • gh-91577: Move imports in SharedMemory methods to module level so that they can be executed late in python finalization.

  • gh-91456: Deprecate current default auto() behavior: In 3.13 the default will be for for auto() to always return the largest member value incremented by 1, and to raise if incompatible value types are used.

  • bpo-47231: Fixed an issue with inconsistent trailing slashes in tarfile longname directories.

  • bpo-46755: In QueueHandler, clear stack_info from LogRecord to prevent stack trace from being written twice.

  • bpo-46197: Fix ensurepip environment isolation for subprocess running pip.

  • bpo-45924: Fix asyncio incorrect traceback when future’s exception is raised multiple times. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-34828: sqlite3.Connection.iterdump() now handles databases that use AUTOINCREMENT in one or more tables.



  • gh-91330: Added more tests for dataclasses to cover behavior with data descriptor-based fields.

  • gh-94208: test_ssl is now checking for supported TLS version and protocols in more tests.

  • gh-94315: Tests now check for DAC override capability instead of relying on os.geteuid().

  • gh-93951: In test_bdb.StateTestCase.test_skip, avoid including auxiliary importers.

  • gh-93957: Provide nicer error reporting from subprocesses in test_venv.EnsurePipTest.test_with_pip.

  • gh-84461: now handles cross compiling env vars correctly and pass HOSTRUNNER to regression tests.

  • gh-93616: test_modulefinder now creates a temporary directory in ModuleFinderTest.setUp() instead of module scope.

  • gh-93575: Fix issue with test_unicode test_raiseMemError. The test case now use to calculate size of PyUnicode structs. sys.getsizeof() may return different size when string has UTF-8 memory.

  • gh-90473: WASI does not have a chmod(2) syscall. os.chmod() is now a dummy function on WASI. Skip all tests that depend on working os.chmod().

  • gh-90473: Skip tests on WASI that require symlinks with absolute paths.

  • gh-57539: Increase calendar test coverage for calendar.LocaleTextCalendar.formatweekday().

  • gh-90473: Skip symlink tests on WASI. wasmtime uses openat2(2) with RESOLVE_BENEATH flag, which prevents symlinks with absolute paths.

  • gh-89858: Fix test_embed for out-of-tree builds. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-92886: Fixing tests that fail when running with optimizations (-O) in

  • gh-92886: Fixing tests that fail when running with optimizations (-O) in

  • bpo-47016: Create a GitHub Actions workflow for verifying bundled pip and setuptools. Patch by Illia Volochii and Adam Turner.


  • gh-94404: makesetup now works around an issue with sed on macOS and uses correct CFLAGS for object files that end up in a shared extension. Module CFLAGS are used before PY_STDMODULE_CFLAGS to avoid clashes with system headers.

  • gh-93584: Address race condition in Makefile when installing a PGO build. All test and install targets now depend on all target.

  • gh-93491: configure now detects and reports PEP 11 support tiers.


  • gh-93824: Drag and drop of files onto Python files in Windows Explorer has been enabled for Windows ARM64.

  • bpo-42658: Support native Windows case-insensitive path comparisons by using LCMapStringEx instead of str.lower() in ntpath.normcase(). Add LCMapStringEx to the _winapi module.


  • gh-94538: Fix Argument Clinic output to custom file destinations. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-94430: Allow parameters named module and self with custom C names in Argument Clinic. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland


Python 3.11.0 beta 3

Release date: 2022-06-01

Core and Builtins

  • gh-93359: Ensure that custom ast nodes without explicit end positions can be compiled. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-93345: Fix a crash in substitution of a TypeVar in nested generic alias after TypeVarTuple.


  • gh-69093: Fix Modules/ rule for _sqlite3 extension.

Python 3.11.0 beta 2

Release date: 2022-05-30

Core and Builtins

  • gh-84694: The --experimental-isolated-subinterpreters configure option and EXPERIMENTAL_ISOLATED_SUBINTERPRETERS macro have been removed.

  • gh-91924: Fix __lltrace__ debug feature if the stdout encoding is not UTF-8. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-93061: Backward jumps after async for loops are no longer given dubious line numbers.

  • gh-93065: Fix contextvars HAMT implementation to handle iteration over deep trees.

    The bug was discovered and fixed by Eli Libman. See MagicStack/immutables#84 for more details.

  • gh-90473: Decrease default recursion limit on WASI to address limited call stack size.

  • gh-92804: Fix memory leak in memoryview iterator as it was not finalized at exit. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-92236: Remove spurious “LINE” event when starting a generator or coroutine, visible tracing functions implemented in C.

  • gh-92619: Make the compiler duplicate an exit block only if none of its instructions have a lineno (previously only the first instruction in the block was checked, leading to unnecessarily duplicated blocks).

  • gh-92261: Fix hang when trying to iterate over a typing.Union.


  • gh-93297: Make asyncio task groups prevent child tasks from being GCed

  • gh-90817: The locale.resetlocale() function is deprecated and will be removed in Python 3.13. Use locale.setlocale(locale.LC_ALL, "") instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-92728: The re.template() function and the corresponding re.TEMPLATE and re.T flags are restored after they were removed in 3.11.0b1, but they are now deprecated, so they might be removed from Python 3.13.

  • gh-93044: No longer convert the database argument of sqlite3.connect() to bytes before passing it to the factory.

  • gh-93010: In a very special case, the email package tried to append the nonexistent InvalidHeaderError to the defect list. It should have been InvalidHeaderDefect.

  • gh-92675: Fix venv.ensure_directories() to accept pathlib.Path arguments in addition to str paths. Patch by David Foster.

  • gh-87901: Removed the encoding argument from os.popen() that was added in 3.11b1.

  • gh-91922: Fix function sqlite.connect() and the sqlite.Connection constructor on non-UTF-8 locales. Also, they now support bytes paths non-decodable with the current FS encoding.

  • gh-92839: Fixed crash resulting from calling bisect.insort() or bisect.insort_left() with the key argument not equal to None.

  • gh-90473: subprocess now fails early on Emscripten and WASI platforms to work around missing os.pipe() on WASI.

  • gh-92671: Fixed ast.unparse() for empty tuples in the assignment target context.

  • gh-91581: utcfromtimestamp() no longer attempts to resolve fold in the pure Python implementation, since the fold is never 1 in UTC. In addition to being slightly faster in the common case, this also prevents some errors when the timestamp is close to datetime.min. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • gh-92550: Fix pathlib.Path.rglob() for empty pattern.

  • gh-92530: Fix an issue that occurred after interrupting threading.Condition.notify().

  • gh-92531: The statistics.median_grouped() function now always return a float. Formerly, it did not convert the input type when for sequences of length one.

  • gh-91810: ElementTree method write() and function tostring() now use the text file’s encoding (“UTF-8” if not available) instead of locale encoding in XML declaration when encoding="unicode" is specified.

  • gh-90622: Worker processes for concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor are no longer spawned on demand (a feature added in 3.9) when the multiprocessing context start method is "fork" as that can lead to deadlocks in the child processes due to a fork happening while threads are running.

  • gh-91581: Remove an unhandled error case in the C implementation of calls to datetime.fromtimestamp with no time zone (i.e. getting a local time from an epoch timestamp). This should have no user-facing effect other than giving a possibly more accurate error message when called with timestamps that fall on 10000-01-01 in the local time. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-39064: zipfile.ZipFile now raises zipfile.BadZipFile instead of ValueError when reading a corrupt zip file in which the central directory offset is negative.

  • bpo-45393: Fix the formatting for await x and not x in the operator precedence table when using the help() system.

  • bpo-28249: Set doctest.DocTest.lineno to None when object does not have __doc__.

  • bpo-45046: Add support of context managers in unittest: methods enterContext() and enterClassContext() of class TestCase, method enterAsyncContext() of class IsolatedAsyncioTestCase and function unittest.enterModuleContext().

  • bpo-42627: Fix incorrect parsing of Windows registry proxy settings



  • gh-92670: Skip test_shutil.TestCopy.test_copyfile_nonexistent_dir test on AIX as the test uses a trailing slash to force the OS consider the path as a directory, but on AIX the trailing slash has no effect and is considered as a file.


  • gh-90473: Disable pymalloc and increase stack size on wasm32-wasi.

  • bpo-34449: Drop invalid compiler switch -fPIC for HP aCC on HP-UX. Patch by Michael Osipov.


  • gh-92817: Ensures that py.exe will prefer an active virtual environment over default tags specified with environment variables or through a py.ini file.

  • gh-92984: Explicitly disable incremental linking for non-Debug builds

  • gh-92841: asyncio no longer throws RuntimeError: Event loop is closed on interpreter exit after asynchronous socket activity. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-46907: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.38.4.


  • gh-92898: Fix C++ compiler warnings when casting function arguments to PyObject*. Patch by Serge Guelton.

  • gh-92913: Ensures changes to PyConfig.module_search_paths are ignored unless PyConfig.module_search_paths_set is set

  • gh-92781: Avoid mixing declarations and code in the C API to fix the compiler warning: “ISO C90 forbids mixed declarations and code” [-Werror=declaration-after-statement]. Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.11.0 beta 1

Release date: 2022-05-06


  • gh-57684: Add the -P command line option and the PYTHONSAFEPATH environment variable to not prepend a potentially unsafe path to sys.path. Patch by Victor Stinner.

Core and Builtins

  • gh-89519: Chaining classmethod descriptors (introduced in bpo-19072) is deprecated. It can no longer be used to wrap other descriptors such as property(). The core design of this feature was flawed, and it caused a number of downstream problems.

  • gh-92345: pymain_run_python() now imports readline and rlcompleter before sys.path is extended to include the current working directory of an interactive interpreter. Non-interactive interpreters are not affected.

  • bpo-43857: Improve the AttributeError message when deleting a missing attribute. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • gh-92245: Make sure that PEP 523 is respected in all cases. In 3.11a7, specialization may have prevented Python-to-Python calls respecting PEP 523.

  • gh-92203: Add a closure keyword-only parameter to exec(). It can only be specified when exec-ing a code object that uses free variables. When specified, it must be a tuple, with exactly the number of cell variables referenced by the code object. closure has a default value of None, and it must be None if the code object doesn’t refer to any free variables.

  • gh-91173: Disable frozen modules in debug builds. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-92114: Improve error message when subscript a type with __class_getitem__ set to None.

  • gh-92112: Fix crash triggered by an evil custom mro() on a metaclass.

  • gh-92063: The PRECALL_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR_FAST_WITH_KEYWORDS instruction now ensures methods are called only on objects of the correct type.

  • gh-92031: Deoptimize statically allocated code objects during Py_FINALIZE() so that future _PyCode_Quicken calls always start with unquickened code.

  • gh-92036: Fix a crash in subinterpreters related to the garbage collector. When a subinterpreter is deleted, untrack all objects tracked by its GC. To prevent a crash in deallocator functions expecting objects to be tracked by the GC, leak a strong reference to these objects on purpose, so they are never deleted and their deallocator functions are not called. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-92032: The interpreter can now autocomplete soft keywords, as of now match, case, and _ (wildcard pattern) from PEP 634.

  • gh-87999: The warning emitted by the Python parser for a numeric literal immediately followed by keyword has been changed from deprecation warning to syntax warning.

  • gh-91869: Fix an issue where specialized opcodes with extended arguments could produce incorrect tracing output or lead to assertion failures.

  • gh-91603: Speed up types.UnionType instantiation. Based on patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • gh-89373: If Python is built in debug mode, Python now ensures that deallocator functions leave the current exception unchanged. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91632: Fix a minor memory leak at exit: release the memory of the generic_alias_iterator type. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • gh-81548: Octal escapes with value larger than 0o377 now produce a DeprecationWarning. In a future Python version they will be a SyntaxWarning and eventually a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-43950: Use a single compact table for line starts, ends and column offsets. Reduces memory consumption for location info by half

  • gh-91102: Use Argument Clinic for EncodingMap. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • gh-91636: Fixed a crash in a garbage-collection edge-case, in which a PyFunction_Type.tp_clear function could leave a python function object in an inconsistent state.

  • gh-91603: Speed up isinstance() and issubclass() checks for types.UnionType. Patch by Yurii Karabas.

  • gh-91625: Fixed a bug in which adaptive opcodes ignored any preceding EXTENDED_ARGs on specialization failure.

  • gh-78607: The LLTRACE special build now looks for the name __lltrace__ defined in module globals, rather than the name __ltrace__, which had been introduced as a typo.

  • gh-91576: Speed up iteration of ascii strings by 50%. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • gh-89279: Improve interpreter performance on Windows by inlining a few specific macros.

  • gh-91502: Add a new _PyFrame_IsEntryFrame() API function, to check if a PyFrameObject is an entry frame. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-91266: Refactor the bytearray strip methods strip, lstrip and rstrip to use a common implementation.

  • gh-91479: Replaced the __note__ field of BaseException (added in an earlier version of 3.11) with the final design of PEP 678. Namely, BaseException gets an add_note() method, and its __notes__ field is created when necessary.

  • gh-46055: Speed up right shift of negative integers, by removing unnecessary creation of temporaries. Original patch by Xinhang Xu, reworked by Mark Dickinson.

  • gh-91462: Make the interpreter’s low-level tracing (lltrace) feature output more readable by displaying opcode names (rather than just numbers), and by displaying stack contents before each opcode.

  • gh-89455: Fixed an uninitialized bool value in the traceback printing code path that was introduced by the initial bpo-45292 exception groups work.

  • gh-91421: Fix a potential integer overflow in _Py_DecodeUTF8Ex.

  • gh-91428: Add static const char *const _PyOpcode_OpName[256] = {...}; to opcode.h for debug builds to assist in debugging the Python interpreter. It is now more convenient to make various forms of debugging output more human-readable by including opcode names rather than just the corresponding decimal digits.

  • bpo-47120: Make POP_JUMP_IF_TRUE, POP_JUMP_IF_FALSE, POP_JUMP_IF_NONE and POP_JUMP_IF_NOT_NONE virtual, mapping to new relative jump opcodes.

  • bpo-45317: Add internal documentation explaining design of new (for 3.11) frame stack.

  • bpo-47197: ctypes used to mishandle void return types, so that for instance a function declared like ctypes.CFUNCTYPE(None, ctypes.c_int) would be called with signature int f(int) instead of void f(int). Wasm targets require function pointers to be called with the correct signatures so this led to crashes. The problem is now fixed.

  • bpo-47120: Make opcodes JUMP_IF_TRUE_OR_POP and JUMP_IF_FALSE_OR_POP relative rather than absolute.

  • bpo-47177: Replace the f_lasti member of the internal _PyInterpreterFrame structure with a prev_instr pointer, which reduces overhead in the main interpreter loop. The f_lasti attribute of Python-layer frame objects is preserved for backward-compatibility.

  • bpo-46961: Integer mod/remainder operations, including the three-argument form of pow(), now consistently return ints from the global small integer cache when applicable.

  • bpo-46962: Classes and functions that unconditionally declared their docstrings ignoring the --without-doc-strings compilation flag no longer do so.

    The classes affected are ctypes.UnionType, pickle.PickleBuffer, testcapi.RecursingInfinitelyError, and types.GenericAlias.

    The functions affected are 24 methods in ctypes.

    Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-46942: Use Argument Clinic for the types.MethodType constructor. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-46764: Fix wrapping bound methods with @classmethod

  • bpo-43464: Optimize set.intersection() for non-set arguments.

  • bpo-46721: Optimize set.issuperset() for non-set argument.

  • bpo-46509: Add type-specialized versions of the Py_DECREF(), and use them for float, int, str, bool, and None to avoid pointer-chasing at runtime where types are known at C compile time.

  • bpo-46045: Do not use POSIX semaphores on NetBSD

  • bpo-36819: Fix crashes in built-in encoders with error handlers that return position less or equal than the starting position of non-encodable characters.

  • bpo-34093: marshal.dumps() uses FLAG_REF for all interned strings. This makes output more deterministic and helps reproducible build.

  • bpo-26579: Added object.__getstate__ which provides the default implementation of the __getstate__() method.

    Copying and pickling instances of subclasses of builtin types bytearray, set, frozenset, collections.OrderedDict, collections.deque, weakref.WeakSet, and datetime.tzinfo now copies and pickles instance attributes implemented as slots.


  • gh-87901: Add the encoding parameter to os.popen().

  • gh-90997: Fix an issue where dis utilities may interpret populated inline cache entries as valid instructions.

  • gh-92332: Deprecate typing.Text (removal of the class is currently not planned). Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • Deprecate nested classes in enum definitions becoming members – in 3.13 they will be normal classes; add member and nonmember functions to allow control over results now.

  • gh-92356: Fixed a performance regression in ctypes function calls.

  • gh-90997: Show the actual named values stored in inline caches when show_caches=True is passed to dis utilities.

  • gh-92301: Prefer close_range() to iterating over procfs for file descriptor closing in subprocess for better performance.

  • gh-67248: Sort the miscellaneous topics in Cmd.do_help()

  • gh-92210: Port socket.__init__ to Argument Clinic. Patch by Cinder.

  • gh-80010: Add support for generalized ISO 8601 parsing to datetime.datetime.fromisoformat(), and datetime.time.fromisoformat(). Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • gh-92118: Fix a 3.11 regression in contextmanager(), which caused it to propagate exceptions with incorrect tracebacks.

  • gh-90887: Adding COPYFILE_STAT, COPYFILE_ACL and COPYFILE_XATTR constants for os.fcopyfile() available in macOs.

  • gh-91215: For @dataclass, add weakref_slot. Default is False. If True, and if slots=True, add a slot named “__weakref__”, which will allow instances to be weakref’d. Contributed by Eric V. Smith

  • gh-85984: New function os.login_tty() for Unix.

  • gh-92128: Add __class_getitem__() to logging.LoggerAdapter and logging.StreamHandler, allowing them to be parameterized at runtime. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • gh-92049: Forbid pickling constants re._constants.SUCCESS etc. Previously, pickling did not fail, but the result could not be unpickled.

  • gh-92062: inspect.Parameter now raises ValueError if name is a keyword, in addition to the existing check that it is an identifier.

  • gh-87390: Add an __unpacked__ attribute to types.GenericAlias. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-88089: Add support for generic typing.NamedTuple.

  • gh-91996: New http.HTTPMethod enum to represent all the available HTTP request methods in a convenient way

  • gh-91984: Modified test strings in to not contain trailing spaces before end of line.

  • gh-91952: Add encoding="locale" support to TextIOWrapper.reconfigure().

  • gh-91954: Add encoding and errors arguments to subprocess.getoutput() and subprocess.getstatusoutput().

  • bpo-47029: Always close the read end of the pipe used by multiprocessing.Queue after the last write of buffered data to the write end of the pipe to avoid BrokenPipeError at garbage collection and at multiprocessing.Queue.close() calls. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • gh-91928: Add datetime.UTC alias for datetime.timezone.utc.

    Patch by Kabir Kwatra.

  • gh-68966: The mailcap module is now deprecated and will be removed in Python 3.13. See PEP 594 for the rationale and the mimetypes module for an alternative. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91401: Provide a way to disable subprocess use of vfork() just in case it is ever needed and document the existing mechanism for posix_spawn().

  • gh-64783: Fix signal.NSIG value on FreeBSD to accept signal numbers greater than 32, like signal.SIGRTMIN and signal.SIGRTMAX. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91910: Add missing f prefix to f-strings in error messages from the multiprocessing and asyncio modules.

  • gh-91860: Add typing.dataclass_transform(), implementing PEP 681. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-91832: Add required attribute to argparse.Action repr output.

  • gh-91827: In the tkinter module add method info_patchlevel() which returns the exact version of the Tcl library as a named tuple similar to sys.version_info.

  • gh-84461: Add --enable-wasm-pthreads to enable pthreads support for WASM builds. Emscripten/node no longer has threading enabled by default. Include additional file systems.

  • gh-91821: Fix unstable test_from_tuple test in

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the xdrlib module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the uu module.

  • gh-91760: More strict rules will be applied for numerical group references and group names in regular expressions. For now, a deprecation warning is emitted for group references and group names which will be errors in future Python versions.

  • gh-84461: Add provisional sys._emscripten_info named tuple with build-time and run-time information about Emscripten platform.

  • gh-90623: signal.raise_signal() and os.kill() now check immediately for pending signals. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91734: Fix OSS audio support on Solaris.

  • gh-90633: Include the passed value in the exception thrown by typing.assert_never(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • gh-91700: Compilation of regular expression containing a conditional expression (?(group)...) now raises an appropriate re.error if the group number refers to not defined group. Previously an internal RuntimeError was raised.

  • gh-91231: Add an optional keyword shutdown_timeout parameter to the multiprocessing.BaseManager constructor. Kill the process if terminate() takes longer than the timeout. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • gh-91621: Fix typing.get_type_hints() for Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • gh-90568: Parsing \N escapes of Unicode Named Character Sequences in a regular expression raises now re.error instead of TypeError.

  • gh-91670: Remove deprecated SO config variable in sysconfig.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the telnetlib module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the sunau module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the spwd module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the sndhdr module, as well as inline needed functionality for email.mime.MIMEAudio.

  • gh-91616: re module, fix fullmatch() mismatch when using Atomic Grouping or Possessive Quantifiers.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the ‘pipes’ module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the ossaudiodev module.

  • bpo-47256: re module, limit the maximum capturing group to 1,073,741,823 in 64-bit build, this increases the depth of backtracking.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the nis module.

  • gh-91595: Fix the comparison of character and integer inside Tools.gdb.libpython.write_repr(). Patch by Yu Liu.

  • gh-74166: Add option to raise all errors from create_connection() in an ExceptionGroup when it fails to create a connection. The default remains to raise only the last error that had occurred when multiple addresses were tried.

  • gh-91487: Optimize asyncio UDP speed, over 100 times faster when transferring a large file.

  • gh-91575: Update case-insensitive matching in the re module to the latest Unicode version.

  • gh-90622: In concurrent.futures.process.ProcessPoolExecutor disallow the “fork” multiprocessing start method when the new max_tasks_per_child feature is used as the mix of threads+fork can hang the child processes. Default to using the safe “spawn” start method in that circumstance if no mp_context was supplied.

  • gh-89022: In sqlite3, SQLITE_MISUSE result codes are now mapped to InterfaceError instead of ProgrammingError. Also, more accurate exceptions are raised when binding parameters fail. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-91526: Stop calling os.device_encoding(file.fileno()) in TextIOWrapper. It was complex, never documented, and didn’t work for most cases. (Patch by Inada Naoki.)

  • gh-88116: Change the frame-related functions in the inspect module to return a regular object (that is backwards compatible with the old tuple-like interface) that include the extended PEP 657 position information (end line number, column and end column). The affected functions are: inspect.getframeinfo(), inspect.getouterframes(), inspect.getinnerframes(), inspect.stack() and inspect.trace(). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • gh-69093: Add indexing and slicing support to sqlite3.Blob. Patch by Aviv Palivoda and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-69093: Add context manager support to sqlite3.Blob. Patch by Aviv Palivoda and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate nntplib.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate msilib.

  • gh-91404: Improve the performance of re matching by using computed gotos (or “threaded code”) on supported platforms and removing expensive pointer indirections.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the imghdr module.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the crypt module.

  • gh-91276: Make space for longer opcodes in dis output.

  • bpo-47000: Make TextIOWrapper uses locale encoding when encoding="locale" is specified even in UTF-8 mode.

  • gh-91230: warnings.catch_warnings() now accepts arguments for warnings.simplefilter(), providing a more concise way to locally ignore warnings or convert them to errors.

  • gh-91217: Deprecate the chunk module.

  • Add the TCP_CONNECTION_INFO option (available on macOS) to socket.

  • bpo-47260: Fix os.closerange() potentially being a no-op in a Linux seccomp sandbox.

  • bpo-47087: Implement typing.Required and typing.NotRequired (PEP 655). Patch by David Foster and Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-47061: Deprecate cgi and cgitb.

  • bpo-47061: Deprecate audioop.

  • bpo-47000: Add locale.getencoding() to get the current locale encoding. It is similar to locale.getpreferredencoding(False) but ignores the Python UTF-8 Mode.

  • bpo-42012: Add wsgiref.types, containing WSGI-specific types for static type checking.

  • bpo-47227: Suppress expression chaining for more re parsing errors.

  • bpo-47211: Remove undocumented and never working function re.template() and flag re.TEMPLATE. This was later reverted in 3.11.0b2 and deprecated instead.

  • bpo-47135: decimal.localcontext() now accepts context attributes via keyword arguments

  • bpo-43323: Fix errors in the email module if the charset itself contains undecodable/unencodable characters.

  • bpo-46841: Disassembly of quickened code.

  • bpo-46681: Forward gzip.compress() compresslevel to zlib.

  • bpo-45100: Add typing.get_overloads() and typing.clear_overloads(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-44807: typing.Protocol no longer silently replaces __init__() methods defined on subclasses. Patch by Adrian Garcia Badaracco.

  • bpo-46787: Fix concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor exception memory leak

  • bpo-46720: Add support for path-like objects to multiprocessing.set_executable() for Windows to be on a par with Unix-like systems. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-46696: Add SO_INCOMING_CPU constant to socket.

  • bpo-46053: Fix OSS audio support on NetBSD.

  • bpo-45639: image/avif and image/webp were added to mimetypes.

  • bpo-46285: Add command-line option -p/--protocol to module http.server which specifies the HTTP version to which the server is conformant (HTTP/1.1 conformant servers can now be run from the command-line interface of module http.server). Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-44791: Accept ellipsis as the last argument of typing.Concatenate.

  • bpo-46547: Remove variables leaking into pydoc.Helper class namespace.

  • bpo-46415: Fix ipaddress.ip_{address,interface,network} raising TypeError instead of ValueError if given invalid tuple as address parameter.

  • bpo-46075: CookieJar with DefaultCookiePolicy now can process cookies from localhost with domain=localhost explicitly specified in Set-Cookie header.

  • bpo-45995: Add a “z” option to the string formatting specification that coerces negative zero floating-point values to positive zero after rounding to the format precision. Contributed by John Belmonte.

  • bpo-26175: Fully implement the io.BufferedIOBase or io.TextIOBase interface for tempfile.SpooledTemporaryFile objects. This lets them work correctly with higher-level layers (like compression modules). Patch by Carey Metcalfe.

  • bpo-45138: Fix a regression in the sqlite3 trace callback where bound parameters were not expanded in the passed statement string. The regression was introduced in Python 3.10 by bpo-40318. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44863: Allow TypedDict subclasses to also include Generic as a base class in class based syntax. Thereby allowing the user to define a generic TypedDict, just like a user-defined generic but with TypedDict semantics.

  • bpo-44587: Fix BooleanOptionalAction to not automatically add a default string. If a default string is desired, use a formatter to add it.

  • bpo-43827: All positional-or-keyword parameters to ABCMeta.__new__ are now positional-only to avoid conflicts with keyword arguments to be passed to __init_subclass__().

  • bpo-43218: Prevent creation of a venv whose path contains the PATH separator. This could affect the usage of the activate script. Patch by Dustin Rodrigues.

  • bpo-38435: Add a process_group parameter to subprocess.Popen to help move more things off of the unsafe preexec_fn parameter.

  • bpo-42066: Fix cookies getting sorted in CookieJar.__iter__() which is an extra behavior and not mentioned in RFC 2965 or Netscape cookie protocol. Now the cookies in CookieJar follows the order of the Set-Cookie header. Patch by Iman Kermani.

  • bpo-40617: Add create_window_function() to sqlite3.Connection for creating aggregate window functions. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40676: Convert csv to use Argument Clinic for csv.field_size_limit(), csv.get_dialect(), csv.unregister_dialect() and csv.list_dialects().

  • bpo-39716: Raise an ArgumentError when the same subparser name is added twice to an argparse.ArgumentParser. This is consistent with the (default) behavior when the same option string is added twice to an ArgumentParser.

  • bpo-36073: Raise ProgrammingError instead of segfaulting on recursive usage of cursors in sqlite3 converters. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-34975: Adds a start_tls() method to StreamWriter, which upgrades the connection with TLS using the given SSLContext.

  • bpo-22276: Path methods glob() and rglob() return only directories if pattern ends with a pathname components separator (/ or sep). Patch by Eisuke Kawashima.

  • bpo-24905: Add blobopen() to sqlite3.Connection. sqlite3.Blob allows incremental I/O operations on blobs. Patch by Aviv Palivoda and Erlend E. Aasland.



  • gh-92169: Use warnings_helper.import_deprecated() to import deprecated modules uniformly in tests. Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • gh-84461: When multiprocessing is enabled, libregrtest can now use a Python executable other than sys.executable via the --python flag.

  • gh-91904: Fix initialization of PYTHONREGRTEST_UNICODE_GUARD which prevented running regression tests on non-UTF-8 locale.

  • gh-91752: Added @requires_zlib to test.test_tools.test_freeze.TestFreeze.

  • gh-91607: Fix test_concurrent_futures to test the correct multiprocessing start method context in several cases where the test logic mixed this up.

  • bpo-40280: Threading tests are now skipped on WASM targets without pthread support.

  • bpo-47109: Test for ctypes.macholib.dyld, ctypes.macholib.dylib, and ctypes.macholib.framework are brought from manual pre-unittest times to ctypes.test location and structure. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-29890: Add tests for ipaddress.IPv4Interface and ipaddress.IPv6Interface construction with tuple arguments. Original patch and tests by louisom.


  • gh-89452: gdbm-compat is now preferred over ndbm if both are available on the system. This allows avoiding the problematic ndbm.h on macOS.

  • gh-91731: Python is now built with -std=c11 compiler option, rather than -std=c99. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-47152: Add script and make target for generating sre_constants.h.

  • bpo-47103: Windows PGInstrument builds now copy a required DLL into the output directory, making it easier to run the profile stage of a PGO build.


  • bpo-46907: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.38.3.

  • bpo-47239: Fixed –list and –list-paths output for Python Launcher for Windows when used in an active virtual environment.

  • bpo-46907: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.38.2.

  • bpo-46785: Fix race condition between os.stat() and unlinking a file on Windows, by using errors codes returned by FindFirstFileW() when appropriate in win32_xstat_impl.

  • bpo-40859: Update Windows build to use xz-5.2.5


  • bpo-46907: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.38.4.


  • gh-91583: Fix regression in the code generated by Argument Clinic for functions with the defining_class parameter.

  • gh-91575: Add script Tools/scripts/ and the make target regen-re for generating additional data for case-insensitive matching according to the current Unicode version.

  • gh-91551: Remove the ancient Pynche color editor. It has moved to


Python 3.11.0 alpha 7

Release date: 2022-04-05

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-47212: Raise IndentationError instead of SyntaxError for a bare except with no following indent. Improve SyntaxError locations for an un-parenthesized generator used as arguments. Patch by Matthieu Dartiailh.

  • bpo-47186: Replace JUMP_IF_NOT_EG_MATCH by CHECK_EG_MATCH + jump.

  • bpo-47176: Emscripten builds cannot handle signals in the usual way due to platform limitations. Python can now handle signals. To use, set Module.Py_EmscriptenSignalBuffer to be a single byte SharedArrayBuffer and set Py_EMSCRIPTEN_SIGNAL_HANDLING to 1. Writing a number into the SharedArrayBuffer will cause the corresponding signal to be raised into the Python thread.

  • bpo-47186: Replace JUMP_IF_NOT_EXC_MATCH by CHECK_EXC_MATCH + jump.

  • bpo-47120: Replace the absolute jump opcode JUMP_NO_INTERRUPT by the relative JUMP_BACKWARD_NO_INTERRUPT.

  • bpo-46841: Avoid unnecessary allocations when comparing code objects.

  • bpo-47182: Fix a crash when using a named unicode character like "\N{digit nine}" after the main interpreter has been initialized a second time.

  • bpo-47162: WebAssembly cannot deal with bad function pointer casts (different count or types of arguments). Python can now use call trampolines to mitigate the problem. Define PY_CALL_TRAMPOLINE to enable call trampolines.

  • bpo-46775: Some Windows system error codes(>= 10000) are now mapped into the correct errno and may now raise a subclass of OSError. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-47129: Improve error messages in f-string syntax errors concerning empty expressions.

  • bpo-47117: Fix a crash if we fail to decode characters in interactive mode if the tokenizer buffers are uninitialized. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-47127: Speed up calls to c functions with keyword arguments by 25% with specialization. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-47120: Replaced JUMP_ABSOLUTE by the relative jump JUMP_BACKWARD.

  • bpo-42197: PyFrame_FastToLocalsWithError() and PyFrame_LocalsToFast() are no longer called during profiling nor tracing. C code can access the f_locals attribute of PyFrameObject by calling PyFrame_GetLocals().

  • bpo-47070: Improve performance of array_inplace_repeat by reducing the number of invocations of memcpy. Refactor the repeat and inplace repeat methods of array, bytes, bytearray and unicodeobject to use the common _PyBytes_Repeat.

  • bpo-47053: Reduce de-optimization in the specialized BINARY_OP_INPLACE_ADD_UNICODE opcode.

  • bpo-47045: Remove the f_state field from the _PyInterpreterFrame struct. Add the owner field to the _PyInterpreterFrame struct to make ownership explicit to simplify clearing and deallocing frames and generators.

  • bpo-46968: Check for the existence of the “sys/auxv.h” header in faulthandler to avoid compilation problems in systems where this header doesn’t exist. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46329: Use low bit of LOAD_GLOBAL to indicate whether to push a NULL before the global. Helps streamline the call sequence a bit.

  • bpo-46841: Quicken bytecode in-place by storing it as part of the corresponding PyCodeObject.

  • bpo-47012: Speed up iteration of bytes and bytearray by 30%. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-47009: Improved the performance of list.append() and list comprehensions by optimizing for the common case, where no resize is needed. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-47005: Improve performance of bytearray_repeat and bytearray_irepeat by reducing the number of invocations of memcpy.

  • bpo-46829: Deprecate passing a message into asyncio.Future.cancel() and asyncio.Task.cancel()

  • bpo-46993: Speed up bytearray creation from list and tuple by 40%. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-39829: Removed the __len__() call when initializing a list and moved initializing to list_extend. Patch by Jeremiah Pascual.

  • bpo-46944: Speed up throwing exception in generator with METH_FASTCALL calling convention. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46841: Modify STORE_SUBSCR to use an inline cache entry (rather than its oparg) as an adaptive counter.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline caching for PRECALL and CALL, and remove the internal machinery for managing the (now unused) non-inline caches.

  • bpo-46881: Statically allocate and initialize the latin1 characters.

  • bpo-46838: Improve syntax errors for incorrect function definitions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43721: Fix docstrings of getter, setter, and deleter to clarify that they create a new copy of the property.

  • bpo-43224: Make grammar changes required for PEP 646.


  • bpo-47208: Allow vendors to override CTYPES_MAX_ARGCOUNT.

  • bpo-23689: re module: fix memory leak when a match is terminated by a signal or memory allocation failure. Patch by Ma Lin.

  • bpo-47167: Allow overriding a future compliance check in asyncio.Task.

  • bpo-47151: When subprocess tries to use vfork, it now falls back to fork if vfork returns an error. This allows use in situations where vfork isn’t allowed by the OS kernel.

  • bpo-47152: Convert the re module into a package. Deprecate modules sre_compile, sre_constants and sre_parse.

  • bpo-4833: Add ZipFile.mkdir()

  • bpo-27929: Fix asyncio.loop.sock_connect() to only resolve names for socket.AF_INET or socket.AF_INET6 families. Resolution may not make sense for other families, like socket.AF_BLUETOOTH and socket.AF_UNIX.

  • bpo-14265: Adds the fully qualified test name to unittest output

  • bpo-47061: Deprecate the aifc module.

  • bpo-39622: Handle Ctrl+C in asyncio programs to interrupt the main task.

  • bpo-47101: hashlib.algorithms_available now lists only algorithms that are provided by activated crypto providers on OpenSSL 3.0. Legacy algorithms are not listed unless the legacy provider has been loaded into the default OSSL context.

  • bpo-47099: All URLError exception messages raised in urllib.request.URLopener now contain a colon between ftp error and the rest of the message. Previously, open_ftp() missed the colon. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-47099: Exception chaining is changed from Exception.with_traceback()/sys.exc_info() to PEP 3134. Patch by Oleg Iarygin.

  • bpo-47095: hashlib’s internal _blake2 module now prefers libb2 from over Python’s vendored copy of blake2.

  • bpo-47098: The Keccak Code Package for hashlib’s internal _sha3 module has been replaced with tiny_sha3. The module is used as fallback when Python is built without OpenSSL.

  • bpo-47088: Implement typing.LiteralString, part of PEP 675. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-42885: Optimize, re.split(), re.findall(), re.finditer() and re.sub() for regular expressions starting with \A or ^.

  • bpo-23691: Protect the re.finditer() iterator from re-entering.

  • bpo-47067: Optimize calling GenericAlias objects by using PEP 590 vectorcall and by replacing PyObject_SetAttrString with PyObject_SetAttr.

  • bpo-28080: Add the metadata_encoding parameter in the zipfile.ZipFile constructor and the --metadata-encoding option in the zipfile CLI to allow reading zipfiles using non-standard codecs to encode the filenames within the archive.

  • bpo-47000: Make io.text_encoding() returns “utf-8” when UTF-8 mode is enabled.

  • bpo-42369: Fix thread safety of zipfile._SharedFile.tell() to avoid a “zipfile.BadZipFile: Bad CRC-32 for file” exception when reading a ZipFile from multiple threads.

  • bpo-38256: Fix binascii.crc32() when it is compiled to use zlib’c crc32 to work properly on inputs 4+GiB in length instead of returning the wrong result. The workaround prior to this was to always feed the function data in increments smaller than 4GiB or to just call the zlib module function.

    We also have binascii.crc32() release the GIL when computing on larger inputs as zlib.crc32() and hashlib do.

    This also boosts performance on Windows as it now uses the zlib crc32 implementation for binascii.crc32() for a 2-3x speedup.

    That the stdlib has a crc32 API in two modules is a known historical oddity. This moves us closer to a single implementation behind them.

  • bpo-47066: Global inline flags (e.g. (?i)) can now only be used at the start of the regular expressions. Using them not at the start of expression was deprecated since Python 3.6.

  • bpo-39394: A warning about inline flags not at the start of the regular expression now contains the position of the flag.

  • bpo-433030: Add support of atomic grouping ((?>...)) and possessive quantifiers (*+, ++, ?+, {m,n}+) in regular expressions.

  • bpo-47062: Implement asyncio.Runner context manager.

  • bpo-46382: dataclass() slots=True now correctly omits slots already defined in base classes. Patch by Arie Bovenberg.

  • bpo-47057: Use FASTCALL convention for FutureIter.throw()

  • bpo-47061: Deprecate the various modules listed by PEP 594:

    aifc, asynchat, asyncore, audioop, cgi, cgitb, chunk, crypt, imghdr, msilib, nntplib, nis, ossaudiodev, pipes, smtpd, sndhdr, spwd, sunau, telnetlib, uu, xdrlib

  • bpo-34790: Remove passing coroutine objects to asyncio.wait().

  • bpo-47039: Normalize repr() of asyncio future and task objects.

  • bpo-2604: Fix bug where doctests using globals would fail when run multiple times.

  • bpo-45150: Add hashlib.file_digest() helper for efficient hashing of file object.

  • bpo-34861: Made cumtime the default sorting key for cProfile

  • bpo-45997: Fix asyncio.Semaphore re-aquiring FIFO order.

  • bpo-47022: The asynchat, asyncore and smtpd modules have been deprecated since at least Python 3.6. Their documentation and deprecation warnings and have now been updated to note they will removed in Python 3.12 (PEP 594).

  • bpo-43253: Fix a crash when closing transports where the underlying socket handle is already invalid on the Proactor event loop.

  • bpo-40280: now passes NULL to select for each empty fdset.

  • bpo-47004: Apply bugfixes from importlib_metadata 4.11.3, including bugfix for EntryPoint.extras, which was returning match objects and not the extras strings.

  • bpo-46998: Allow subclassing of typing.Any. Patch by Shantanu Jain.

  • bpo-46995: Deprecate missing asyncio.Task.set_name() for third-party task implementations, schedule making it mandatory in Python 3.13.

  • bpo-46994: Accept explicit contextvars.Context in asyncio.create_task() and asyncio.loop.create_task().

  • bpo-46981: typing.get_args(typing.Tuple[()]) now returns () instead of ((),).

  • bpo-46968: Add os.sysconf_names['SC_MINSIGSTKSZ'].

  • bpo-46985: Upgrade pip wheel bundled with ensurepip (pip 22.0.4)

  • bpo-46968: faulthandler: On Linux 5.14 and newer, dynamically determine size of signal handler stack size CPython allocates using getauxval(AT_MINSIGSTKSZ). This changes allows for Python extension’s request to Linux kernel to use AMX_TILE instruction set on Sapphire Rapids Xeon processor to succeed, unblocking use of the ISA in frameworks.

  • bpo-46917: The math.nan value is now always available. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46955: Expose asyncio.base_events.Server as asyncio.Server. Patch by Stefan Zabka.

  • bpo-23325: The signal module no longer assumes that SIG_IGN and SIG_DFL are small int singletons.

  • bpo-46932: Update bundled libexpat to 2.4.7

  • bpo-46933: The pwd module is now optional. os.path.expanduser() returns the path when the pwd module is not available.

  • bpo-40059: PEP 680, the tomllib module. Adds support for parsing TOML.

  • bpo-464471: asyncio.timeout() and asyncio.timeout_at() context managers added. Patch by Tin Tvrtković and Andrew Svetlov.

  • bpo-46805: Added raw datagram socket functions for asyncio: sock_sendto(), sock_recvfrom() and sock_recvfrom_into().

  • bpo-46644: No longer require valid typeforms to be callable. This allows typing.Annotated to wrap typing.ParamSpecArgs and dataclasses.InitVar. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46581: Brings ParamSpec propagation for GenericAlias in line with Concatenate (and others).

  • bpo-45413: Define posix_venv and nt_venv sysconfig installation schemes to be used for bootstrapping new virtual environments. Add venv sysconfig installation scheme to get the appropriate one of the above. The schemes are identical to the pre-existing posix_prefix and nt install schemes. The venv module now uses the venv scheme to create new virtual environments instead of hardcoding the paths depending only on the platform. Downstream Python distributors customizing the posix_prefix or nt install scheme in a way that is not compatible with the install scheme used in virtual environments are encouraged not to customize the venv schemes. When Python itself runs in a virtual environment, sysconfig.get_default_scheme() and sysconfig.get_preferred_scheme() with key="prefix" returns venv.

  • bpo-43224: Implement support for PEP 646 in

  • bpo-43224: Allow unpacking types.GenericAlias objects, e.g. *tuple[int, str].

  • bpo-46557: Warnings captured by the logging module are now logged without a format string to prevent systems that group logs by the msg argument from grouping captured warnings together.

  • bpo-41370: typing.get_type_hints() now supports evaluating strings as forward references in PEP 585 generic aliases.

  • bpo-46607: Add DeprecationWarning to LegacyInterpolation, deprecated in the docstring since Python 3.2. Will be removed in Python 3.13. Use BasicInterpolation or ExtendedInterpolation instead.

  • bpo-26120: pydoc now excludes __future__ imports from the module’s data items.

  • bpo-46480: Add typing.assert_type(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-46421: Fix a unittest issue where if the command was invoked as python -m unittest and the filename(s) began with a dot (.), a ValueError is returned.

  • bpo-46245: Add optional parameter dir_fd in shutil.rmtree().

  • bpo-22859: usageExit() is marked deprecated, to be removed in 3.13.

  • bpo-46170: Improve the error message when you try to subclass an instance of typing.NewType.

  • bpo-40296: Fix supporting generic aliases in pydoc.

  • bpo-20392: Fix inconsistency with uppercase file extensions in MimeTypes.guess_type(). Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46030: Add LOCAL_CREDS, LOCAL_CREDS_PERSISTENT and SCM_CREDS2 FreeBSD constants to the socket module.

  • bpo-44439: Fix .write() method of a member file in ZipFile, when the input data is an object that supports the buffer protocol, the file length may be wrong.

  • bpo-45171: Fix handling of the stacklevel argument to logging functions in the logging module so that it is consistent across all logging functions and, as advertised, similar to the stacklevel argument used in warn().

  • bpo-24959: Fix bug where unittest sometimes drops frames from tracebacks of exceptions raised in tests.

  • bpo-44859: Raise more accurate and PEP 249 compatible exceptions in sqlite3.

  • bpo-44493: Add missing terminated NUL in sockaddr_un’s length

    This was potentially observable when using non-abstract AF_UNIX datagram sockets to processes written in another programming language.

  • bpo-41930: Add serialize() and deserialize() support to sqlite3. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-33178: Added ctypes.BigEndianUnion and ctypes.LittleEndianUnion classes, as originally documented in the library docs but not yet implemented.

  • bpo-43352: Add an Barrier object in synchronization primitives of asyncio Lib in order to be consistant with Barrier from threading and multiprocessing libs*

  • bpo-35859: re module, fix a few bugs about capturing group. In rare cases, capturing group gets an incorrect string. Patch by Ma Lin.




  • bpo-40280: Add configure option --enable-wasm-dynamic-linking to enable dlopen and MAIN_MODULE / SIDE_MODULE on wasm32-emscripten.

  • bpo-46023: makesetup now detects and skips all duplicated module definitions. The first entry wins.

  • bpo-40280: Add SOABI wasm32-emscripten for Emscripten and wasm32-wasi for WASI on 32bit WASM as well as wasm64 counter parts.

  • bpo-47032: Ensure Windows install builds fail correctly with a non-zero exit code when part of the build fails.

  • bpo-47024: Update OpenSSL to 1.1.1n for macOS installers and all Windows builds.

  • bpo-46996: The tkinter package now requires Tcl/Tk version 8.5.12 or newer.

  • bpo-46973: Add regen-configure make target to regenerate configure script with Christian’s container image

  • bpo-46917: Building Python now requires support of IEEE 754 floating point numbers. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45774: configure now verifies that all SQLite C APIs needed for the sqlite3 extension module are found.


  • bpo-47194: Update zlib to v1.2.12 to resolve CVE-2018-25032.

  • bpo-47171: Enables installing the py.exe launcher on Windows ARM64.

  • bpo-46566: Upgraded Python Launcher for Windows to support a new -V:company/tag argument for full PEP 514 support and to detect ARM64 installs. The -64 suffix on arguments is deprecated, but still selects any non-32-bit install. Setting PYLAUNCHER_ALLOW_INSTALL and specifying a version that is not installed will attempt to install the requested version from the Microsoft Store.

  • bpo-47086: The installer for Windows now includes documentation as loose HTML files rather than a single compiled .chm file.

  • bpo-46907: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.38.1.

  • bpo-44549: Update bzip2 to 1.0.8 in Windows builds to mitigate CVE-2016-3189 and CVE-2019-12900

  • bpo-46948: Prevent CVE-2022-26488 by ensuring the Add to PATH option in the Windows installer uses the correct path when being repaired.


  • bpo-46890: Fix a regression in the setting of sys._base_executable in framework builds, and thereby fix a regression in venv virtual environments with such builds.

  • bpo-46907: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.38.1.


  • bpo-40280: Replace Emscripten’s limited shell with Katie Bell’s browser-ui REPL from python-wasm project.


  • bpo-40421: Add PyFrame_GetBuiltins, PyFrame_GetGenerator and PyFrame_GetGlobals C-API functions to access frame object attributes safely from C code.

  • bpo-46850: Move the private _PyFrameEvalFunction type, and private _PyInterpreterState_GetEvalFrameFunc() and _PyInterpreterState_SetEvalFrameFunc() functions to the internal C API. The _PyFrameEvalFunction callback function type now uses the _PyInterpreterFrame type which is part of the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46850: Move the private undocumented _PyEval_EvalFrameDefault() function to the internal C API. The function now uses the _PyInterpreterFrame type which is part of the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46850: Remove the private undocumented function _PyEval_CallTracing() from the C API. Call the public sys.call_tracing() function instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46850: Remove the private undocumented function _PyEval_GetCoroutineOriginTrackingDepth() from the C API. Call the public sys.get_coroutine_origin_tracking_depth() function instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46850: Remove the following private undocumented functions from the C API:

    • _PyEval_GetAsyncGenFirstiter()

    • _PyEval_GetAsyncGenFinalizer()

    • _PyEval_SetAsyncGenFirstiter()

    • _PyEval_SetAsyncGenFinalizer()

    Call the public sys.get_asyncgen_hooks() and sys.set_asyncgen_hooks() functions instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46987: Remove private functions _PySys_GetObjectId() and _PySys_SetObjectId(). Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-46906: Add new functions to pack and unpack C double (serialize and deserialize): PyFloat_Pack2(), PyFloat_Pack4(), PyFloat_Pack8(), PyFloat_Unpack2(), PyFloat_Unpack4() and PyFloat_Unpack8(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.11.0 alpha 6

Release date: 2022-03-07

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46940: Avoid overriding AttributeError metadata information for nested attribute access calls. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46927: Include the type’s name in the error message for subscripting non-generic types.

  • bpo-46921: Support vectorcall for super(). Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-46841: Fix incorrect handling of inline cache entries when specializing BINARY_OP.

  • bpo-46841: Use an oparg to simplify the construction of helpful error messages in GET_AWAITABLE.

  • bpo-46903: Make sure that str subclasses can be used as attribute names for instances with virtual dictionaries. Fixes regression in 3.11alpha

  • bpo-46841: Add more detailed specialization failure stats for COMPARE_OP followed by EXTENDED_ARG.

  • bpo-46891: Fix bug introduced during 3.11alpha where subclasses of types.ModuleType with __slots__ were not initialized correctly, resulting in an interpreter crash.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline caching for LOAD_ATTR, LOAD_METHOD, and STORE_ATTR.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline cache for BINARY_SUBSCR.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline caching for COMPARE_OP.

  • bpo-46864: Deprecate PyBytesObject.ob_shash. It will be removed in Python 3.13.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline caching for UNPACK_SEQUENCE.

  • bpo-46845: Reduces dict size by removing hash value from hash table when all inserted keys are Unicode. For example, sys.getsizeof(dict.fromkeys("abcdefg")) becomes 272 bytes from 352 bytes on 64bit platform.

  • bpo-46841: Use inline cache for LOAD_GLOBAL.

  • bpo-46852: Rename the private undocumented float.__set_format__() method to float.__setformat__() to fix a typo introduced in Python 3.7. The method is only used by test_float. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46852: Remove the undocumented private float.__set_format__() method, previously known as float.__setformat__() in Python 3.7. Its docstring said: “You probably don’t want to use this function. It exists mainly to be used in Python’s test suite.” Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40116: Fix regression that dict.update(other) may don’t respect iterate order of other when other is key sharing dict.

  • bpo-46712: Share global string identifiers in deep-frozen modules.

  • bpo-46430: Fix memory leak in interned strings of deep-frozen modules.

  • bpo-46841: Store BINARY_OP caches inline using a new CACHE instruction.

  • bpo-45107: Specialize LOAD_METHOD for instances with a dict.

  • bpo-44337: Reduce the memory usage of specialized LOAD_ATTR and STORE_ATTR instructions.

  • bpo-46729: Add number of sub-exceptions to BaseException.__str__().

  • bpo-45885: Don’t un-adapt COMPARE_OP when collecting specialization stats.

  • bpo-46329: Fix specialization stats gathering for PRECALL instructions.

  • bpo-46794: Bump up the libexpat version into 2.4.6

  • bpo-46823: Implement a specialized combined opcode LOAD_FAST__LOAD_ATTR_INSTANCE_VALUE. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-46820: Fix parsing a numeric literal immediately (without spaces) followed by “not in” keywords, like in 1not in x. Now the parser only emits a warning, not a syntax error.

  • bpo-46329: Move KW_NAMES before PRECALL instruction in call sequence. Change operand of CALL to match PRECALL for easier specialization.

  • bpo-46808: Remove the NEXT_BLOCK macro from compile.c, and make the compiler automatically generate implicit blocks when they are needed.

  • bpo-46329: Add PUSH_NULL instruction. This is used as a prefix when evaluating a callable, so that the stack has the same shape for methods and other calls. PRECALL_FUNCTION and PRECALL_METHOD are merged into a single PRECALL instruction.

    There is no change in semantics.

  • bpo-46762: Fix an assert failure in debug builds when a ‘<’, ‘>’, or ‘=’ is the last character in an f-string that’s missing a closing right brace.

  • bpo-46730: Message of AttributeError caused by getting, setting or deleting a property without the corresponding function now mentions that the attribute is in fact a property and also specifies type of the class that it belongs to.

  • bpo-46724: Make sure that all backwards jumps use the JUMP_ABSOLUTE instruction, rather than JUMP_FORWARD with an argument of (2**32)+offset.

  • bpo-46732: Correct the docstring for the __bool__() method. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-46072: Add more detailed specialization failure statistics for BINARY_OP.

  • bpo-46707: Avoid potential exponential backtracking when producing some syntax errors involving lots of brackets. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46323: ctypes now allocates memory on the stack instead of on the heap to pass arguments while calling a Python callback function. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-45923: Add a quickened form of RESUME that skips quickening checks.

  • bpo-46702: Specialize UNPACK_SEQUENCE for tuple and list unpackings.

  • bpo-46072: Opcode pair stats are now gathered with --enable-pystats. Defining DYNAMIC_EXECUTION_PROFILE or DXPAIRS no longer has any effect.

  • bpo-46675: Allow more than 16 items in a split dict before it is combined. The limit is now 254.

  • bpo-40479: Add a missing call to va_end() in Modules/_hashopenssl.c.

  • bpo-46323: Use PyObject_Vectorcall() while calling ctypes callback function. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-46615: When iterating over sets internally in setobject.c, acquire strong references to the resulting items from the set. This prevents crashes in corner-cases of various set operations where the set gets mutated.

  • bpo-45828: The bytecode compiler now attempts to apply runtime stack manipulations at compile-time (whenever it is feasible to do so).

  • bpo-30496: Fixed a minor portability issue in the implementation of PyLong_FromLong(), and added a fast path for single-digit integers to PyLong_FromLongLong().



  • bpo-42238: Doc/tools/ has moved to its own repository and is now packaged on PyPI as sphinx-lint.


  • bpo-46913: Fix test_faulthandler.test_sigfpe() if Python is built with undefined behavior sanitizer (UBSAN): disable UBSAN on the faulthandler_sigfpe() function. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46760: Remove bytecode offsets from expected values in test.test_dis module. Reduces the obstacles to modifying the VM or compiler.

  • bpo-46708: Prevent default asyncio event loop policy modification warning after test_asyncio execution.

  • bpo-46678: The function make_legacy_pyc in Lib/test/support/ no longer fails when PYTHONPYCACHEPREFIX is set to a directory on a different device from where tempfiles are stored.

  • bpo-46623: Skip test_pair() and test_speech128() of test_zlib on s390x since they fail if zlib uses the s390x hardware accelerator. Patch by Victor Stinner.


  • bpo-46860: Respect --with-suffix when building on case-insensitive file systems.

  • bpo-46656: Building Python now requires a C11 compiler. Optional C11 features are not required. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46656: Building Python now requires support for floating point Not-a-Number (NaN): remove the Py_NO_NAN macro. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46640: Building Python now requires a C99 <math.h> header file providing a NAN constant, or the __builtin_nan() built-in function. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46608: Exclude marshalled-frozen data if deep-freezing to save 300 KB disk space. This includes adding a new is_package field to _frozen. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-40280: Fix wasm32-emscripten test failures and platform issues. - Disable syscalls that are not supported or don’t work, e.g. wait, getrusage, prlimit, mkfifo, mknod, setres[gu]id, setgroups. - Use fd_count to cound open fds. - Add more checks for subprocess and fork. - Add workarounds for missing _multiprocessing and failing socket.accept(). - Enable bzip2. - Disable large file support. - Disable signal.alarm.

  • bpo-46430: Intern strings in deep-frozen modules. Patch by Kumar Aditya.


  • bpo-46744: The default all users install directory for ARM64 is now under the native Program Files folder, rather than Program Files (Arm) which is intended for ARM (32-bit) files.

  • bpo-46567: Adds Tcl and Tk support for Windows ARM64. This also adds IDLE to the installation.

  • bpo-46638: Ensures registry virtualization is consistently disabled. For 3.10 and earlier, it remains enabled (some registry writes are protected), while for 3.11 and later it is disabled (registry modifications affect all applications).


  • bpo-46630: Make query dialogs on Windows start with a cursor in the entry box.

  • bpo-45447: Apply IDLE syntax highlighting to pyi files. Patch by Alex Waygood and Terry Jan Reedy.


  • bpo-46748: Python’s public headers no longer import <stdbool.h>, leaving code that embedd/extends Python free to define bool, true and false.

  • bpo-46836: Move the PyFrameObject type definition (struct _frame) to the internal C API pycore_frame.h header file. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45459: Rename Include/buffer.h header file to Include/pybuffer.h to avoid conflits with projects having an existing buffer.h header file. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45412: Remove the HAVE_PY_SET_53BIT_PRECISION macro (moved to the internal C API). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46613: Added function PyType_GetModuleByDef(), which allows accesss to module state when a method’s defining class is not available.

Python 3.11.0 alpha 5

Release date: 2022-02-03

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-45773: Remove two invalid “peephole” optimizations from the bytecode compiler.

  • bpo-46564: Do not create frame objects when creating super object. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-45885: Added more fined-grained specialization failure stats regarding the COMPARE_OP bytecode.

  • bpo-44977: The delegation of int() to __trunc__() is now deprecated. Calling int(a) when type(a) implements __trunc__() but not __int__() or __index__() now raises a DeprecationWarning.

  • bpo-46458: Reorder code emitted by the compiler for a try-except block so that the else block’s code immediately follows the try body (without a jump). This is more optimal for the happy path.

  • bpo-46527: Allow passing iterable as a keyword argument to enumerate() again. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-46528: Replace several stack manipulation instructions (DUP_TOP, DUP_TOP_TWO, ROT_TWO, ROT_THREE, ROT_FOUR, and ROT_N) with new COPY and SWAP instructions.

  • bpo-46329: Use two or three bytecodes to implement most calls.

    Calls without named arguments are implemented as a sequence of two instructions: PRECALL; CALL. Calls with named arguments are implemented as a sequence of three instructions: PRECALL; KW_NAMES; CALL. There are two different PRECALL instructions: PRECALL_FUNTION and PRECALL_METHOD. The latter pairs with LOAD_METHOD.

    This partition into pre-call and call allows better specialization, and thus better performance ultimately.

    There is no change in semantics.

  • bpo-46503: Fix an assert when parsing some invalid N escape sequences in f-strings.

  • bpo-46431: Improve error message on invalid calls to BaseExceptionGroup.__new__().

  • bpo-46476: Fix memory leak in code objects generated by deepfreeze. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46481: Speed up calls to weakref.ref.__call__() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-46417: Fix a race condition on setting a type __bases__ attribute: the internal function add_subclass() now gets the PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses member after calling PyWeakref_NewRef() which can trigger a garbage collection which can indirectly modify PyTypeObject.tp_subclasses. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46417: python -X showrefcount now shows the total reference count after clearing and destroyed the main Python interpreter. Previously, it was shown before. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43683: Add ASYNC_GEN_WRAP opcode to wrap the value to be yielded in async generators. Removes the need to special case async generators in the YIELD_VALUE instruction.

  • bpo-46407: Optimize some modulo operations in Objects/longobject.c. Patch by Jeremiah Vivian.

  • bpo-46409: Add new RETURN_GENERATOR bytecode to make generators. Simplifies calling Python functions in the VM, as they no longer any need to special case generator functions.

    Also add JUMP_NO_INTERRUPT bytecode that acts like JUMP_ABSOLUTE, but does not check for interrupts.

  • bpo-46406: The integer division // implementation has been optimized to better let the compiler understand its constraints. It can be 20% faster on the amd64 platform when dividing an int by a value smaller than 2**30.

  • bpo-46383: Fix invalid signature of _zoneinfo’s module_free function to resolve a crash on wasm32-emscripten platform.

  • bpo-46361: Ensure that “small” integers created by int.from_bytes() and decimal.Decimal are properly cached.

  • bpo-46161: Fix the class building error when the arguments are constants and CALL_FUNCTION_EX is used.

  • bpo-46028: Fixes calculation of sys._base_executable when inside a virtual environment that uses symlinks with different binary names than the base environment provides.

  • bpo-46091: Correctly calculate indentation levels for lines with whitespace character that are ended by line continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-30512: Add CAN Socket support for NetBSD.

  • bpo-46045: Do not use POSIX semaphores on NetBSD

  • bpo-44024: Improve the exc:TypeError message for non-string second arguments passed to the built-in functions getattr() and hasattr(). Patch by Géry Ogam.


  • bpo-46624: Restore support for non-integer arguments of random.randrange() and random.randint().

  • bpo-46591: Make the IDLE doc URL on the About IDLE dialog clickable.

  • bpo-46565: Remove loop variables that are leaking into modules’ namespaces.

  • bpo-46553: In typing.get_type_hints(), support evaluating bare stringified ClassVar annotations. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46544: Don’t leak x & uspace intermediate vars in textwrap.TextWrapper.

  • bpo-46487: Add the get_write_buffer_limits method to asyncio.transports.WriteTransport and to the SSL transport.

  • bpo-45173: Note the configparser deprecations will be removed in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-45162: The deprecated unittest APIs removed in 3.11a1 have been temporarily restored to be removed in 3.12 while cleanups in external projects go in.

  • bpo-46539: In typing.get_type_hints(), support evaluating stringified ClassVar and Final annotations inside Annotated. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46510: Add missing test for types.TracebackType and types.FrameType. Calculate them directly from the caught exception without calling sys.exc_info().

  • bpo-46491: Allow typing.Annotated to wrap typing.Final and typing.ClassVar. Patch by Gregory Beauregard.

  • bpo-46483: Remove __class_getitem__() from pathlib.PurePath as this class was not supposed to be generic.

  • bpo-46436: Fix command-line option -d/--directory in module http.server which is ignored when combined with command-line option --cgi. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-41403: Make mock.patch() raise a TypeError with a relevant error message on invalid arg. Previously it allowed a cryptic AttributeError to escape.

  • bpo-46474: In importlib.metadata.EntryPoint.pattern, avoid potential REDoS by limiting ambiguity in consecutive whitespace.

  • bpo-46474: Removed private method from importlib.metadata.Path. Sync with importlib_metadata 4.10.0.

  • bpo-46470: Remove unused branch from typing._remove_dups_flatten

  • bpo-46469: asyncio generic classes now return types.GenericAlias in __class_getitem__ instead of the same class.

  • bpo-41906: Support passing filter instances in the filters values of handlers and loggers in the dictionary passed to logging.config.dictConfig().

  • bpo-46422: Use dis.Positions in dis.Instruction instead of a regular tuple.

  • bpo-46434: pdb now gracefully handles help when __doc__ is missing, for example when run with pregenerated optimized .pyc files.

  • bpo-43869: Python uses the same time Epoch on all platforms. Add an explicit unit test to ensure that it’s the case. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46414: Add typing.reveal_type(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-40280: subprocess now imports Windows-specific imports when msvcrt module is available, and POSIX-specific imports on all other platforms. This gives a clean exception when _posixsubprocess is not available (e.g. Emscripten browser target).

  • bpo-40066: IntEnum, IntFlag, and StrEnum use the mixed-in type for their str() and format() output.

  • bpo-46316: Optimize pathlib.Path.iterdir() by removing an unnecessary check for special entries.

  • bpo-29688: Document pathlib.Path.absolute() (which has always existed).

  • bpo-43012: The pathlib module’s obsolete and internal _Accessor class has been removed to prepare the terrain for upcoming enhancements to the module.

  • bpo-46258: Speed up math.isqrt() for small positive integers by replacing two division steps with a lookup table.

  • bpo-46242: Improve error message when creating a new enum.Enum type subclassing an existing Enum with _member_names_ using enum.Enum.__call__().

  • bpo-43118: Fix a bug in inspect.signature() that was causing it to fail on some subclasses of classes with a __text_signature__ referencing module globals. Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-26552: Fixed case where failing asyncio.ensure_future() did not close the coroutine. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-21987: Fix an issue with tarfile.TarFile.getmember() getting a directory name with a trailing slash.

  • bpo-46124: Update zoneinfo to rely on importlib.resources traversable API.

  • bpo-46103: Now inspect.getmembers() only gets __bases__ attribute from class type. Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-46080: Fix exception in argparse help text generation if a argparse.BooleanOptionalAction argument’s default is argparse.SUPPRESS and it has help specified. Patch by Felix Fontein.

  • bpo-44791: Fix substitution of ParamSpec in Concatenate with different parameter expressions. Substitution with a list of types returns now a tuple of types. Substitution with Concatenate returns now a Concatenate with concatenated lists of arguments.


  • bpo-46463: Fixes script used when building the CHM documentation file


  • bpo-43478: Mocks can no longer be provided as the specs for other Mocks. As a result, an already-mocked object cannot be passed to mock.Mock(). This can uncover bugs in tests since these Mock-derived Mocks will always pass certain tests (e.g. isinstance) and builtin assert functions (e.g. assert_called_once_with) will unconditionally pass.

  • bpo-46616: Ensures test_importlib.test_windows cleans up registry keys after completion.

  • bpo-44359: test_ftplib now silently ignores socket errors to prevent logging unhandled threading exceptions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46600: Fix test_gdb.test_pycfunction() for Python built with clang -Og. Tolerate inlined functions in the gdb traceback. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46542: Fix a Python crash in test_lib2to3 when using Python built in debug mode: limit the recursion limit. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46576: test_peg_generator now disables compiler optimization when testing compilation of its own C extensions to significantly speed up the testing on non-debug builds of CPython.

  • bpo-46542: Fix test_json tests checking for RecursionError: modify these tests to use support.infinite_recursion(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-13886: Skip test_builtin PTY tests on non-ASCII characters if the readline module is loaded. The readline module changes input() behavior, but test_builtin is not intented to test the readline module. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40280: Add decorators to mark tests that require a working os.fork().

  • bpo-40280: Add decorator to mark tests which require working subprocess module or os.spawn*. The wasm32-emscripten platform has no support for processes.

  • bpo-46126: Disable ‘descriptions’ when running tests internally.


  • bpo-46602: Tidied up so that conftest.c is truncated rather than appended. This assists in the case where the ‘rm’ of conftest.c fails to happen between tests. Downstream issues such as a clobbered SOABI can result.

  • bpo-46600: Fix the test checking if the C compiler supports -Og option in the ./configure script to also use -Og on clang which supports it. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-38472: Fix GCC detection in when cross-compiling. The C compiler is now run with LC_ALL=C. Previously, the detection failed with a German locale.

  • bpo-46513: configure no longer uses AC_C_CHAR_UNSIGNED macro and pyconfig.h no longer defines reserved symbol __CHAR_UNSIGNED__.

  • bpo-46471: Use global singletons for single byte bytes objects in deepfreeze.

  • bpo-46443: Deepfreeze now uses cached small integers as it saves some space for common small integers.

  • bpo-46429: Merge all deep-frozen files into one for space savings. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-45569: The build now defaults to using 30-bit digits for Python integers. Previously either 15-bit or 30-bit digits would be selected, depending on the platform. 15-bit digits may still be selected using the --enable-big-digits=15 option to the configure script, or by defining PYLONG_BITS_IN_DIGIT in pyconfig.h.

  • bpo-45925: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.37.2.

  • bpo-43112: Detect musl libc as a separate SOABI (tagged as linux-musl).


  • bpo-33125: The traditional EXE/MSI based installer for Windows is now available for ARM64

  • bpo-46362: os.path.abspath(“C:CON”) is now fixed to return “\.CON”, not the same path. The regression was true of all legacy DOS devices such as COM1, LPT1, or NUL.

  • bpo-44934: The installer now offers a command-line only option to add the installation directory to the end of PATH instead of at the start.


  • bpo-45925: Update macOS installer to SQLite 3.37.2.


  • bpo-45296: Clarify close, quit, and exit in IDLE. In the File menu, ‘Close’ and ‘Exit’ are now ‘Close Window’ (the current one) and ‘Exit’ is now ‘Exit IDLE’ (by closing all windows). In Shell, ‘quit()’ and ‘exit()’ mean ‘close Shell’. If there are no other windows, this also exits IDLE.


  • bpo-40170: Remove the PyHeapType_GET_MEMBERS() macro. It was exposed in the public C API by mistake, it must only be used by Python internally. Use the PyTypeObject.tp_members member instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40170: Move _Py_GetAllocatedBlocks() and _PyObject_DebugMallocStats() private functions to the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46433: The internal function _PyType_GetModuleByDef now correctly handles inheritance patterns involving static types.

  • bpo-45459: Py_buffer and various Py_buffer related functions are now part of the limited API and stable ABI.

  • bpo-14916: Fixed bug in the tokenizer that prevented PyRun_InteractiveOne from parsing from the provided FD.

Python 3.11.0 alpha 4

Release date: 2022-01-13

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46070: Py_EndInterpreter() now explicitly untracks all objects currently tracked by the GC. Previously, if an object was used later by another interpreter, calling PyObject_GC_UnTrack() on the object crashed if the previous or the next object of the PyGC_Head structure became a dangling pointer. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-46347: Fix memory leak in PyEval_EvalCodeEx.

  • bpo-46339: Fix a crash in the parser when retrieving the error text for multi-line f-strings expressions that do not start in the first line of the string. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46331: Do not set line number of instruction storing doc-string. Fixes regression introduced in 3.11 alpha.

  • bpo-46314: Remove spurious “call” event when creating a lambda function that was accidentally introduced in 3.11a4.

  • bpo-46289: ASDL declaration of FormattedValue has changed to reflect conversion field is not optional.

  • bpo-46297: Fixed an interpreter crash on bootup with multiple PythonPaths set in the Windows registry. Patch by Derzsi Dániel.

  • bpo-46237: Fix the line number of tokenizer errors inside f-strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46263: We always expect the “use_frozen_modules” config to be set, now that getpath.c was rewritten in pure Python and the logic improved.

  • bpo-46006: Fix a regression when a type method like __init__() is modified in a subinterpreter. Fix a regression in _PyUnicode_EqualToASCIIId() and type update_slot(). Revert the change which made the Unicode dictionary of interned strings compatible with subinterpreters: the internal interned dictionary is shared again by all interpreters. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45923: Add RESUME opcode. This is a logical no-op. It is emitted by the compiler anywhere a Python function can be entered. It is used by the interpreter to perform tracing and optimizer checks.

  • bpo-46208: Fix the regression of os.path.normpath(“A/../../B”) not returning expected “../B” but “B”.

  • bpo-46240: Correct the error message for unclosed parentheses when the tokenizer doesn’t reach the end of the source when the error is reported. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46009: Remove the GEN_START opcode.

  • bpo-46235: Certain sequence multiplication operations like [0] * 1_000 are now faster due to reference-counting optimizations. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-46221: PREP_RERAISE_STAR no longer pushes lasti to the stack.

  • bpo-46202: Remove POP_EXCEPT_AND_RERAISE and replace it by an equivalent sequence of other opcodes.

  • bpo-46085: Fix iterator cache mechanism of OrderedDict.

  • bpo-46055: Speed up shifting operation involving integers less than PyLong_BASE. Patch by Xinhang Xu.

  • bpo-46110: Add a maximum recursion check to the PEG parser to avoid stack overflow. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-46107: Fix bug where ExceptionGroup.split() and ExceptionGroup.subgroup() did not copy the exception group’s __note__ field to the parts.

  • bpo-45711: The interpreter state’s representation of handled exceptions (a.k.a exc_info, or _PyErr_StackItem) now has only the exc_value field, exc_type and exc_traceback have been removed as their values can be derived from exc_value.

  • bpo-44525: Replace the four call bytecode instructions which one pre-call instruction and two call instructions.


    Adds CALL_NO_KW and CALL_KW call instructions, and PRECALL_METHOD prefix for pairing with LOAD_METHOD.

  • bpo-46039: Remove the YIELD_FROM instruction and replace it with the SEND instruction which performs the same operation, but without the loop.

  • bpo-45635: The code called from _PyErr_Display() was refactored to improve error handling. It now exits immediately upon an unrecoverable error.

  • bpo-46054: Fix parser error when parsing non-utf8 characters in source files. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46042: Improve the location of the caret in SyntaxError exceptions emitted by the symbol table. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46049: Ensure ._pth files work as intended on platforms other than Windows.

  • bpo-46048: Fixes parsing of ._pth files on startup so that single-character paths are correctly read.

  • bpo-37971: Fix a bug where the line numbers given in a traceback when a decorator application raised an exception were wrong.

  • bpo-46031: Add POP_JUMP_IF_NOT_NONE and POP_JUMP_IF_NONE opcodes to speed up conditional jumps.

  • bpo-45654: Deepfreeze runpy, patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46025: Fix a crash in the atexit module involving functions that unregister themselves before raising exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-46000: Improve compatibility of the curses module with NetBSD curses.

  • bpo-44525: Specialize the CALL_FUNCTION instruction for calls to builtin types with a single argument. Speeds up range(x), list(x), and specifically type(obj).

  • bpo-42918: Fix bug where the built-in compile() function did not always raise a SyntaxError when passed multiple statements in ‘single’ mode. Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-45953: The main interpreter in _PyRuntimeState.interpreters is now statically allocated (as part of _PyRuntime). Likewise for the initial thread state of each interpreter. This means less allocation during runtime init, as well as better memory locality for these key state objects.

  • bpo-45292: Complete the PEP 654 implementation: add except*.

  • bpo-43413: Revert changes in set.__init__. Subclass of set needs to define a __init__() method if it defines a __new__() method with additional keyword parameters.

  • bpo-43931: Added the Py_Version constant which bears the same value as PY_VERSION_HEX. Patch by Gabriele N. Tornetta.


  • bpo-46342: The decorator now sets the __final__ attribute on the decorated object to allow runtime introspection. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-46328: Added the sys.exception() method which returns the active exception instance.

  • bpo-46307: Add string.Template.is_valid() and string.Template.get_identifiers() methods.

  • bpo-46306: Assume that types.CodeType always has types.CodeType.co_firstlineno in doctest.

  • bpo-40479: Fix hashlib usedforsecurity option to work correctly with OpenSSL 3.0.0 in FIPS mode.

  • bpo-46070: Fix possible segfault when importing the asyncio module from different sub-interpreters in parallel. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-46244: Removed __slots__ from typing.ParamSpec and typing.TypeVar. They served no purpose. Patch by Arie Bovenberg.

  • bpo-46278: Reflect context argument in AbstractEventLoop.call_*() methods. Loop implementations already support it.

  • bpo-46269: Remove special-casing of __new__ in enum.Enum.__dir__().

  • bpo-46266: Improve day constants in calendar.

    Now all constants (MONDAYSUNDAY) are documented, tested, and added to __all__.

  • bpo-46257: Optimized the mean, variance, and stdev functions in the statistics module. If the input is an iterator, it is consumed in a single pass rather than eating memory by conversion to a list. The single pass algorithm is about twice as fast as the previous two pass code.

  • bpo-41011: Added two new variables to pyvenv.cfg which is generated by venv module: executable for the executable and command for the command line used to create the environment.

  • bpo-46239: Improve error message when importing asyncio.windows_events on non-Windows.

  • bpo-46238: Reuse _winapi constants in asyncio.windows_events.

  • bpo-46222: Adding SF_NOCACHE sendfile constant for FreeBSD for the posixmodule.

  • bpo-37295: Add fast path for 0 <= k <= n <= 67 for math.comb().

  • bpo-46176: Adding the MAP_STACK constant for the mmap module.

  • bpo-43424: Deprecate webbrowser.MacOSXOSAScript._name and use name instead.

  • bpo-45321: Added missing error codes to module xml.parsers.expat.errors.

  • bpo-46125: Refactor tests to test traversable API directly. Includes changes from importlib 5.4.0.

  • bpo-46118: Moved importlib.resources and its related functionality to a package.

  • bpo-37578: Add include_hidden parameter to glob() and iglob() to match hidden files and directories when using special characters like *, **, ? and [].

  • bpo-20369: concurrent.futures.wait() no longer blocks forever when given duplicate Futures. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46105: Honor spec when generating requirement specs with urls and extras (importlib_metadata 4.8.3).

  • bpo-44893: EntryPoint objects are no longer tuples. Recommended means to access is by attribute (‘.name’, ‘.group’) or accessor (‘.load()’). Access by index is deprecated and will raise deprecation warning.

  • bpo-22815: Print unexpected successes together with failures and errors in summary in unittest.TextTestResult.

  • bpo-22047: Calling add_argument_group() on an argument group is deprecated. Calling add_argument_group() or add_mutually_exclusive_group() on a mutually exclusive group is deprecated.

    These features were never supported and do not always work correctly. The functions exist on the API by accident through inheritance and will be removed in the future.

  • bpo-26952: argparse raises ValueError with clear message when trying to render usage for an empty mutually exclusive group. Previously it raised a cryptic IndexError.

  • bpo-45615: Functions in the traceback module raise TypeError rather than AttributeError when an exception argument is not of type BaseException.

  • bpo-16594: Add allow allow_reuse_port flag in socketserver.

  • bpo-27718: Fix help for the signal module. Some functions (e.g. signal() and getsignal()) were omitted.

  • bpo-46032: The registry() method of functools.singledispatch() functions checks now the first argument or the first parameter annotation and raises a TypeError if it is not supported. Previously unsupported “types” were ignored (e.g. typing.List[int]) or caused an error at calling time (e.g. list[int]).

  • bpo-46014: Add ability to use typing.Union and types.UnionType as dispatch argument to functools.singledispatch. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-27062: Add __all__ to inspect, patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46018: Ensure that math.expm1() does not raise on underflow.

  • bpo-46016: Adding F_DUP2FD and F_DUP2FD_CLOEXEC constants from FreeBSD into the fcntl module.

  • bpo-45755: typing generic aliases now reveal the class attributes of the original generic class when passed to dir(). This was the behavior up to Python 3.6, but was changed in 3.7-3.9.

  • bpo-45874: The empty query string, consisting of no query arguments, is now handled correctly in urllib.parse.parse_qsl. This caused problems before when strict parsing was enabled.

  • bpo-44674: Change how dataclasses disallows mutable default values. It used to use a list of known types (list, dict, set). Now it disallows unhashable objects to be defaults. It’s using unhashability as a proxy for mutability. Patch by Eric V. Smith, idea by Raymond Hettinger.

  • bpo-23882: Remove namespace package (PEP 420) support from unittest discovery. It was introduced in Python 3.4 but has been broken since Python 3.7.

  • bpo-25066: Added a __repr__() method to multiprocessing.Event objects, patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-45643: Added signal.SIGSTKFLT on platforms where this signal is defined.

  • bpo-44092: Fetch across rollback no longer raises InterfaceError. Instead we leave it to the SQLite library to handle these cases. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42413: Replace concurrent.futures.TimeoutError and asyncio.TimeoutError with builtin TimeoutError, keep these names as deprecated aliases.



  • bpo-46296: Add a test case for enum with _use_args_ == True and _member_type_ == object.

  • bpo-46205: Fix hang in runtest_mp due to race condition

  • bpo-46263: Fix test_capi on FreeBSD 14-dev: instruct jemalloc to not fill freed memory with junk byte.

  • bpo-46262: Cover ValueError path in tests for enum.Flag._missing_().

  • bpo-46150: Now fakename in test_pathlib.PosixPathTest.test_expanduser is checked to be non-existent.

  • bpo-46129: Rewrite asyncio.locks tests with unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase usage.

  • bpo-23819: Fixed asyncio tests in python optimized mode. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46114: Fix test case for OpenSSL 3.0.1 version. OpenSSL 3.0 uses 0xMNN00PP0L.


  • bpo-44133: When Python is configured with --without-static-libpython, the Python static library (libpython.a) is no longer built. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44133: When Python is built without --enable-shared, the python program is now linked to object files, rather than being linked to the Python static library (libpython.a), to make sure that all symbols are exported. Previously, the linker omitted some symbols like the Py_FrozenMain() function. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40280: The configure script has a new option --with-emscripten-target to select browser or node as Emscripten build target.

  • bpo-46315: Added and fixed #ifdef HAVE_FEATURE checks for functionality that is not available on WASI platform.

  • bpo-45723: Fixed a regression in configure check for select.epoll().

  • bpo-46263: configure no longer sets MULTIARCH on FreeBSD platforms.

  • bpo-46106: Updated OpenSSL to 1.1.1m in Windows builds, macOS installer builds, and CI. Patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-46088: Automatically detect or install bootstrap Python runtime when building from Visual Studio.

  • bpo-46072: Add a –with-pystats configure option to turn on internal statistics gathering.

  • bpo-40280: A new directory Tools/wasm contains WebAssembly-related helpers like override for wasm32-emscripten, wasm assets generator to bundle the stdlib, and a README.

  • bpo-46023: makesetup no longer builds extensions that have been marked as disabled. This allows users to disable modules in Modules/Setup.local.

  • bpo-45949: Use pure Python freeze_module for all but importlib bootstrap files. --with-freeze-module configure option is no longer needed for cross builds.


  • bpo-46217: Removed parameter that is unsupported on Windows 8.1 and early Windows 10 and may have caused build or runtime failures.


  • bpo-40477: The Python Launcher app for macOS now properly launches scripts and, if necessary, the Terminal app when running on recent macOS releases.


Python 3.11.0 alpha 3

Release date: 2021-12-08

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-46009: Restore behavior from 3.9 and earlier when sending non-None to newly started generator. In 3.9 this did not affect the state of the generator. In 3.10.0 and 3.10.1 gen_func().send(0) is equivalent to gen_func().throw(TypeError(...) which exhausts the generator. In 3.10.2 onward, the behavior has been reverted to that of 3.9.

  • bpo-46004: Fix the SyntaxError location for errors involving for loops with invalid targets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45711: _PyErr_ChainStackItem() no longer normalizes exc_info (including setting the traceback on the exception instance) because exc_info is always normalized.

  • bpo-45607: The __note__ field was added to BaseException. It is None by default but can be set to a string which is added to the exception’s traceback.

  • bpo-45947: Place pointers to dict and values immediately before GC header. This reduces number of dependent memory loads to access either dict or values from 3 to 1.

  • bpo-45915: is_valid_fd now uses faster fcntl(fd, F_GETFD) on Linux, macOS, and Windows.

  • bpo-44530: Reverts a change to the code.__new__ audit event from an earlier prerelease.

  • bpo-42268: Fail the configure step if the selected compiler doesn’t support memory sanitizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45711: The three values of exc_info are now always consistent with each other. In particular, the type and traceback fields are now derived from the exception instance. This impacts the return values of sys.exc_info() and PyErr_GetExcInfo() if the exception instance is modified while the exception is handled, as well as PyErr_SetExcInfo(), which now ignores the type and traceback arguments provided to it.

  • bpo-45727: Refine the custom syntax error that suggests that a comma may be missing to trigger only when the expressions are detected between parentheses or brackets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45885: Specialized the COMPARE_OP opcode using the PEP 659 machinery.

  • bpo-45786: Allocate space for the interpreter frame in the frame object, to avoid an additional allocation when the frame object outlives the frame activation.

  • bpo-45614: Fix traceback display for exceptions with invalid module name.

  • bpo-45813: Fix crash when calling coro.cr_frame.clear() after coroutine has been freed.

  • bpo-45811: Improve the tokenizer errors when encountering invisible control characters in the parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45848: Allow the parser to obtain error lines directly from encoded files. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45709: Restore behavior from 3.10 when tracing an exception raised within a with statement.

  • bpo-44525: Adds new COPY_FREE_VARS opcode, to make copying of free variables from function to frame explicit. Helps optimization of calls to Python function.

  • bpo-45829: Specialize BINARY_SUBSCR for classes with a __getitem__ method implemented in Python

  • bpo-45826: Fixed a crash when calling .with_traceback(None) on NameError. This occurs internally in unittest.TestCase.assertRaises().

  • bpo-45822: Fixed a bug in the parser that was causing it to not respect PEP 263 coding cookies when no flags are provided. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45820: Fix a segfault when the parser fails without reading any input. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45636: Simplify the implementation of BINARY_OP by indexing into an array of function pointers (rather than switching on the oparg).

  • bpo-42540: Fix crash when os.fork() is called with an active non-default memory allocator.

  • bpo-45738: Fix computation of error location for invalid continuation characters in the parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45636: Remove an existing “fast path” for old-style string formatting, since it no longer appears to have any measurable impact.

  • bpo-45753: Make recursion checks a bit more efficient by tracking amount of calls left before overflow.

  • bpo-45773: Fix a compiler hang when attempting to optimize certain jump patterns.

  • bpo-45764: The parser now gives a better error message when leaving out the opening parenthesis ( after a def-statement:

    >>> def f:
      File "<stdin>", line 1
        def f:
    SyntaxError: expected '('
  • bpo-45609: Specialized the STORE_SUBSCR opcode using the PEP 659 machinery.

  • bpo-45636: Replace all numeric BINARY_* and INPLACE_* instructions with a single BINARY_OP implementation.

  • bpo-45582: Path calculation (known as getpath) has been reimplemented as a frozen Python module. This should have no visible impact, but may affect calculation of all paths referenced in sys and sysconfig.

  • bpo-45450: Improve the syntax error message for parenthesized arguments. Patch by Pablo Galindo.


  • bpo-27946: Fix possible crash when getting an attribute of class:xml.etree.ElementTree.Element simultaneously with replacing the attrib dict.

  • bpo-45711: Make asyncio normalize exceptions as soon as they are captured with PyErr_Fetch(), and before they are stored as an exc_info triplet. This brings asyncio in line with the rest of the codebase, where an exc_info triplet is always normalized.

  • bpo-23819: Replaced asserts with exceptions in asyncio, patch by Kumar Aditya.

  • bpo-13236: unittest.TextTestResult and unittest.TextTestRunner flush now the output stream more often.

  • bpo-45917: Added math.exp2():, which returns 2 raised to the power of x.

  • bpo-37658: Fix issue when on certain conditions asyncio.wait_for() may allow a coroutine to complete successfully, but fail to return the result, potentially causing memory leaks or other issues.

  • bpo-45876: Improve the accuracy of stdev() and pstdev() in the statistics module. When the inputs are floats or fractions, the output is a correctly rounded float

  • bpo-44649: Handle dataclass(slots=True) with a field that has default a default value, but for which init=False.

  • bpo-45803: Added missing kw_only parameter to dataclasses.make_dataclass().

  • bpo-45837: The turtle.RawTurtle.settiltangle() is deprecated since Python 3.1, it now emits a deprecation warning and will be removed in Python 3.13.

    Use turtle.RawTurtle.tiltangle() instead.

    turtle.RawTurtle.tiltangle() was earlier incorrectly marked as deprecated, its docstring has been corrected.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-45831: faulthandler can now write ASCII-only strings (like filenames and function names) with a single write() syscall when dumping a traceback. It reduces the risk of getting an unreadable dump when two threads or two processes dump a traceback to the same file (like stderr) at the same time. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45828: sqlite C callbacks now use unraisable exceptions if callback tracebacks are enabled. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41735: Fix thread lock in zlib.Decompress.flush() method before PyObject_GetBuffer.

  • bpo-45235: Reverted an argparse bugfix that caused regression in the handling of default arguments for subparsers. This prevented leaf level arguments from taking precedence over root level arguments.

  • bpo-45754: Fix a regression in Python 3.11a1 and 3.11a2 where sqlite3 incorrectly would use SQLITE_LIMIT_LENGTH when checking SQL statement lengths. Now, SQLITE_LIMIT_SQL_LENGTH is used. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45766: Added proportional option to statistics.linear_regression().

  • bpo-45765: In importlib.metadata, fix distribution discovery for an empty path.

  • bpo-45757: Fix bug where dis produced an incorrect oparg when EXTENDED_ARG is followed by an opcode that does not use its argument.

  • bpo-45644: In-place JSON file formatting using python3 -m json.tool infile infile now works correctly, previously it left the file empty. Patch by Chris Wesseling.

  • bpo-45703: When a namespace package is imported before another module from the same namespace is created/installed in a different sys.path location while the program is running, calling the importlib.invalidate_caches() function will now also guarantee the new module is noticed.

  • bpo-45535: Improve output of dir() with Enums.

  • bpo-45664: Fix types.resolve_bases() and types.new_class() for types.GenericAlias instance as a base.

  • bpo-45663: Fix dataclasses.is_dataclass() for dataclasses which are subclasses of types.GenericAlias.

  • bpo-45662: Fix the repr of dataclasses.InitVar with a type alias to the built-in class, e.g. InitVar[list[int]].

  • bpo-43137: Launch GNOME web browsers via gio tool instead of obsolete gvfs-open

  • bpo-45429: On Windows, time.sleep() now uses a waitable timer which supports high-resolution timers. Patch by Donghee Na and Eryk Sun.

  • bpo-37295: Optimize math.comb() and math.perm().

  • bpo-45514: Deprecated legacy functions in importlib.resources.

  • bpo-45507: Add tests for truncated/missing trailers in gzip.decompress implementation.

  • bpo-45359: Implement PEP 585 for graphlib.TopologicalSorter.

  • bpo-44733: Add max_tasks_per_child to concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor. This allows users to specify the maximum number of tasks a single process should execute before the process needs to be restarted.

  • bpo-28806: Improve netrc library. netrc file no longer needs to contain all tokens. And if the login name is anonymous, security check is no longer need.

  • bpo-43498: Avoid a possible “RuntimeError: dictionary changed size during iteration” when adjusting the process count of ProcessPoolExecutor.

  • bpo-42158: Add MIME types for N-quads, N-triples, Notation3 and TriG to mimetypes.

  • bpo-30533: Add inspect.getmembers_static() , it return all members without triggering dynamic lookup via the descriptor protocol. Patch by Weipeng Hong.


  • bpo-42238: make -C Doc suspicious will be removed soon in favor of make -C Doc check, mark it as deprecated.

  • bpo-45840: Improve cross-references in the documentation for the data model.

  • bpo-45640: Properly marked-up grammar tokens in the documentation are now clickable and take you to the definition of a given piece of grammar. Patch by Arthur Milchior.

  • bpo-45788: Link doc for sys.prefix to sysconfig doc on installation paths.

  • bpo-45772: socket.socket documentation is corrected to a class from a function.

  • bpo-45392: Update the docstring of the type built-in to remove a redundant line and to mention keyword arguments for the constructor.

  • bpo-45250: Update the documentation to note that CPython does not consistently require iterators to define __iter__.

  • bpo-25381: In the extending chapter of the extending doc, update a paragraph about the global variables containing exception information.

  • bpo-43905: Expanded astuple() and asdict() docs, warning about deepcopy being applied and providing a workaround.


  • bpo-45695: Out-of-tree builds with a read-only source directory are now tested by CI.

  • bpo-19460: Add new Test for Lib/email/mime/

  • bpo-45835: Fix race condition in test_queue tests with multiple “feeder” threads.

  • bpo-45783: The test for the freeze tool now handles file moves and deletions.

  • bpo-45745: Remove the --findleaks command line option of regrtest: use the --fail-env-changed option instead. Since Python 3.7, it was a deprecated alias to the --fail-env-changed option.

  • bpo-45701: Add tests with tuple type with functools.lru_cache() to test_functools.


  • bpo-44035: CI now verifies that autoconf files have been regenerated with a current and unpatched autoconf package.

  • bpo-45950: The build system now uses a _bootstrap_python interpreter for freezing and deepfreezing again. To speed up build process the build tools _bootstrap_python and _freeze_module are no longer build with LTO.

  • bpo-45881: The configure script now accepts --with-build-python and --with-freeze-module options to make cross compiling easier.

  • bpo-40280: Emscripten platform now uses .wasm suffix by default.

  • bpo-40280: Disable unusable core extension modules on WASM/Emscripten targets.

  • bpo-40280: configure now checks for socket shutdown function. The check makes it possible to disable SYS_shutdown with ac_cv_func_shutdown=no in CONFIG_SITE.

  • bpo-40280: configure now checks for functions fork1, getegid, geteuid, getgid, getppid, getuid, opendir, pipe, system, wait, ttyname.

  • bpo-33393: Update config.guess to 2021-06-03 and config.sub to 2021-08-14. Makefile now has an update-config target to make updating more convenient.

  • bpo-45866: make regen-all now produces the same output when run from a directory other than the source tree: when building Python out of the source tree. pegen now strips directory of the “generated by pygen from <FILENAME>” header Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40280: configure now accepts machine wasm32 or wasm64 and OS wasi or emscripten for cross building, e.g. wasm32-unknown-emscripten, wasm32-wasi, or wasm32-unknown-wasi.

  • bpo-41498: Python now compiles on platforms without sigset_t. Several functions in signal are not available when sigset_t is missing.

    Based on patch by Roman Yurchak for pyodide.

  • bpo-45881: now uses CC from environment first to discover multiarch and cross compile paths.

  • bpo-45886: The _freeze_module program path can now be overridden on the command line, e.g. make FREEZE_MODULE=../x86_64/Program/_freeze_module.

  • bpo-45873: Get rid of the _bootstrap_python build step. The script is now run using $(PYTHON_FOR_REGEN) which can be Python 3.7 or newer (on Windows, 3.8 or newer).

  • bpo-45847: Port builtin hashlib extensions to PY_STDLIB_MOD macro and addext().

  • bpo-45723: Add autoconf helpers for saving and restoring environment variables:




    Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45573: Mandatory core modules, that are required to bootstrap Python, are now in Modules/Setup.bootstrap.

  • bpo-45573: configure now creates Modules/Setup.stdlib with conditionally enabled/disabled extension module lines. The file is not used, yet.

  • bpo-45573: configure now uses a unified format to set state, compiler flags, and linker flags in Makefile. The new macro PY_STDLIB_MOD sets three variables that are consumed by Modules/Setup and

  • bpo-45816: Python now supports building with Visual Studio 2022 (MSVC v143, VS Version 17.0). Patch by Jeremiah Vivian.

  • bpo-45800: Settings for pyexpat C extension are now detected by configure. The bundled expat library is built in Makefile.

  • bpo-45798: Settings for decimal internal C extension are now detected by configure. The bundled libmpdec library is built in Makefile.

  • bpo-45723: configure has a new option --with-pkg-config to disable or require pkg-config.

  • bpo-45774: The build dependencies for sqlite3 are now detected by configure and pkg-config. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45763: The build dependencies for zlib, bz2, and lzma are now detected by configure.

  • bpo-45747: gdbm and dbm build dependencies are now detected by configure.

  • bpo-45743: On macOS, the build system no longer passes search_paths_first to the linker. The flag has been the default since Xcode 4 / macOS 10.6.

  • bpo-45723: is now compatible with autoconf 2.71. Deprecated checks STDC_HEADERS and AC_HEADER_TIME have been removed.

  • bpo-45723: configure now prints a warning when pkg-config is missing.

  • bpo-45731: configure --enable-loadable-sqlite-extensions is now handled by new PY_SQLITE_ENABLE_LOAD_EXTENSION macro instead of logic in

  • bpo-45723: now uses custom helper macros and AC_CACHE_CHECK to simplify and speed up configure runs.

  • bpo-45696: Skip the marshal step for frozen modules by generating C code that produces a set of ready-to-use code objects. This speeds up startup time by another 10% or more.

  • bpo-45561: Run tool from $(srcdir).


  • bpo-46105: Fixed calculation of sys.path in a venv on Windows.

  • bpo-45901: When installed through the Microsoft Store and set as the default app for *.py files, command line arguments will now be passed to Python when invoking a script without explicitly launching Python (that is, args rather than python args).

  • bpo-45616: Fix Python Launcher’s ability to distinguish between versions 3.1 and 3.10 when either one is explicitly requested. Previously, 3.1 would be used if 3.10 was requested but not installed, and 3.10 would be used if 3.1 was requested but 3.10 was installed.

  • bpo-45850: Implement changes to build with deep-frozen modules on Windows. Note that we now require Python 3.10 as the “bootstrap” or “host” Python.

  • bpo-45732: Updates bundled Tcl/Tk to 8.6.12.

  • bpo-45720: Internal reference to shlwapi.dll was dropped to help improve startup time. This DLL will no longer be loaded at the start of every Python process.


  • bpo-45732: Update macOS installer to use Tcl/Tk 8.6.12.


  • bpo-39026: Fix Python.h to build C extensions with Xcode: remove a relative include from Include/cpython/pystate.h.

Python 3.11.0 alpha 2

Release date: 2021-11-05

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-45716: Improve the SyntaxError message when using True, None or False as keywords in a function call. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45688: sys.stdlib_module_names now contains the macOS-specific module _scproxy.

  • bpo-45379: Clarify ImportError message when we try to explicitly import a frozen module but frozen modules are disabled.

  • bpo-44525: Specialize simple calls to Python functions (no starargs, keyowrd dict, or closure)

  • bpo-45530: Cases of sorting using tuples as keys may now be significantly faster in some cases. Patch by Tim Peters.

    The order of the result may differ from earlier releases if the tuple elements don’t define a total ordering (see Value comparisons for information on total ordering). It’s generally true that the result of sorting simply isn’t well-defined in the absence of a total ordering on list elements.

  • bpo-45526: In obmalloc, set ADDRESS_BITS to not ignore any bits (ignored 16 before). That is safer in the case that the kernel gives user-space virtual addresses that span a range greater than 48 bits.

  • bpo-30570: Fixed a crash in issubclass() from infinite recursion when searching pathological __bases__ tuples.

  • bpo-45521: Fix a bug in the obmalloc radix tree code. On 64-bit machines, the bug causes the tree to hold 46-bits of virtual addresses, rather than the intended 48-bits.

  • bpo-45494: Fix parser crash when reporting errors involving invalid continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45445: Python now fails to initialize if it finds an invalid -X option in the command line. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-45340: Object attributes are held in an array instead of a dictionary. An object’s dictionary are created lazily, only when needed. Reduces the memory consumption of a typical Python object by about 30%. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-45408: Fix a crash in the parser when reporting tokenizer errors that occur at the same time unclosed parentheses are detected. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-29410: Add SipHash13 for string hash algorithm and use it by default.

  • bpo-45385: Fix reference leak from descr_check. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-45367: Specialized the BINARY_MULTIPLY opcode to BINARY_MULTIPLY_INT and BINARY_MULTIPLY_FLOAT using the PEP 659 machinery.

  • bpo-21736: Frozen stdlib modules now have __file__ to the .py file they would otherwise be loaded from, if possible. For packages, __path__ now has the correct entry instead of being an empty list, which allows unfrozen submodules to be imported. These are set only if the stdlib directory is known when the runtime is initialized. Note that the file at __file__ is not guaranteed to exist. None of this affects non-stdlib frozen modules nor, for now, frozen modules imported using PyImport_ImportFrozenModule(). Also, at the moment co_filename is not updated for the module.

  • bpo-45020: For frozen stdlib modules, record the original module name as module.__spec__.loader_state.origname. If the value is different than then the module was defined as an alias in Tools/scripts/ If it is None then the module comes from a source file outside the stdlib.

  • bpo-45324: In FrozenImporter.find_spec(), we now preserve the information needed in exec_module() to load the module. This change mostly impacts internal details, rather than changing the importer’s behavior.

  • bpo-45292: Implement PEP 654. Add ExceptionGroup and BaseExceptionGroup. Update traceback display code.

  • bpo-40116: Change to the implementation of split dictionaries. Classes where the instances differ either in the exact set of attributes, or in the order in which those attributes are set, can still share keys. This should have no observable effect on users of Python or the C-API. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-44050: Extensions that indicate they use global state (by setting m_size to -1) can again be used in multiple interpreters. This reverts to behavior of Python 3.8.

  • bpo-44525: Setup initial specialization infrastructure for the CALL_FUNCTION opcode. Implemented initial specializations for C function calls:


    • CALL_FUNCTION_BUILTIN_FAST for METH_FASTCALL flag without keywords.

    • CALL_FUNCTION_LEN for len(o).

    • CALL_FUNCTION_ISINSTANCE for isinstance(o, t).

  • bpo-44511: Improve the generated bytecode for class and mapping patterns.

  • bpo-43706: Speed up calls to enumerate() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Donghee Na.


  • bpo-45679: Fix caching of multi-value typing.Literal. Literal[True, 2] is no longer equal to Literal[1, 2].

  • bpo-42064: Convert sqlite3 to multi-phase initialisation (PEP 489). Patches by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45438: Fix typing.Signature string representation for generic builtin types.

  • bpo-45613: sqlite3 now sets sqlite3.threadsafety based on the default threading mode the underlying SQLite library has been compiled with. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45574: Fix warning about print_escape being unused.

  • bpo-45581: sqlite3.connect() now correctly raises MemoryError if the underlying SQLite API signals memory error. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45557: pprint.pprint() now handles underscore_numbers correctly. Previously it was always setting it to False.

  • bpo-44019: Add to operator.__all__. Patch by Kreusada.

  • bpo-42174: shutil.get_terminal_size() now falls back to sane values if the column or line count are 0.

  • bpo-35673: Improve the introspectability of the __loader__ attribute for namespace packages. importlib.machinery.NamespaceLoader is now public, and implements the interface. _NamespaceLoader is kept for backward compatibility.

  • bpo-45515: Add references to zoneinfo in the datetime documentation, mostly replacing outdated references to Change by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-45475: Reverted optimization of iterating gzip.GzipFile, bz2.BZ2File, and lzma.LZMAFile (see bpo-43787) because it caused regression when user iterate them without having reference of them. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-45489: Update ForwardRef to support | operator. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-42222: Removed deprecated support for float arguments in randrange().

  • bpo-45428: Fix a regression in py_compile when reading filenames from standard input.

  • bpo-45467: Fix incremental decoder and stream reader in the “raw-unicode-escape” codec. Previously they failed if the escape sequence was split.

  • bpo-45461: Fix incremental decoder and stream reader in the “unicode-escape” codec. Previously they failed if the escape sequence was split.

  • bpo-45239: Fixed email.utils.parsedate_tz() crashing with UnboundLocalError on certain invalid input instead of returning None. Patch by Ben Hoyt.

  • bpo-45417: Fix quadratic behaviour in the enum module: Creation of enum classes with a lot of entries was quadratic.

  • bpo-45249: Fix the behaviour of traceback.print_exc() when displaying the caret when the end_offset in the exception is set to 0. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-45416: Fix use of asyncio.Condition with explicit asyncio.Lock objects, which was a regression due to removal of explicit loop arguments. Patch by Joongi Kim.

  • bpo-20028: Empty escapechar/quotechar is not allowed when initializing csv.Dialect. Patch by Vajrasky Kok and Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44904: Fix bug in the doctest module that caused it to fail if a docstring included an example with a classmethod property. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45406: Make inspect.getmodule() catch FileNotFoundError raised by :’func:inspect.getabsfile, and return None to indicate that the module could not be determined.

  • bpo-45411: Add extensions for files containing subtitles - .srt & .vtt - to the module.

  • bpo-10716: Migrated pydoc to HTML5 (without changing the look of it). Side effect is to update xmlrpc’s ServerHTMLDoc which now uses the CSS too. cgitb now relies less on pydoc (as it can’t use the CSS file).

  • bpo-27580: Add support of null characters in csv.

  • bpo-45262: Prevent use-after-free in asyncio. Make sure the cached running loop holder gets cleared on dealloc to prevent use-after-free in get_running_loop

  • bpo-45386: Make xmlrpc.client more robust to C runtimes where the underlying C strftime function results in a ValueError when testing for year formatting options.

  • bpo-20028: Improve error message of csv.Dialect when initializing. Patch by Vajrasky Kok and Donghee Na.

  • bpo-45343: Update bundled pip to 21.2.4 and setuptools to 58.1.0

  • bpo-45328: Fixed http.client.HTTPConnection to work properly in OSs that don’t support the TCP_NODELAY socket option.

  • bpo-45243: Add setlimit() and getlimit() to sqlite3.Connection for setting and getting SQLite limits by connection basis. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-45320: Removed from the inspect module:

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-45192: Fix the tempfile._infer_return_type function so that the dir argument of the tempfile functions accepts an object implementing the os.PathLike protocol.

    Patch by Kyungmin Lee.

  • bpo-45160: When tracing a tkinter variable used by a ttk OptionMenu, callbacks are no longer made twice.

  • bpo-25625: Added non parallel-safe chdir() context manager to change the current working directory and then restore it on exit. Simple wrapper around chdir().

  • bpo-24139: Add support for SQLite extended result codes in sqlite3.Error. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-24444: Fixed an error raised in argparse help display when help for an option is set to 1+ blank spaces or when choices arg is an empty container.

  • bpo-44547: Implement Fraction.__int__, so that a fractions.Fraction instance f passes an isinstance(f, typing.SupportsInt) check.

  • bpo-40321: Adds support for HTTP 308 redirects to urllib. See RFC 7538 for details. Patch by Jochem Schulenklopper.

  • bpo-41374: Ensure that socket.TCP_* constants are exposed on Cygwin 3.1.6 and greater.

  • bpo-35970: Add help flag to the base64 module’s command line interface. Patch contributed by Robert Kuska.


  • bpo-45726: Improve documentation for functools.singledispatch() and functools.singledispatchmethod.

  • bpo-45680: Amend the docs on GenericAlias objects to clarify that non-container classes can also implement __class_getitem__. Patch contributed by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45618: Update Sphinx version used to build the documentation to 4.2.0. Patch by Maciej Olko.

  • bpo-45655: Add a new “relevant PEPs” section to the top of the documentation for the typing module. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45604: Add level argument to multiprocessing.log_to_stderr function docs.

  • bpo-45516: Add protocol description to the documentation.

  • bpo-45464: Mention in the documentation of Built-in Exceptions that inheriting from multiple exception types in a single subclass is not recommended due to possible memory layout incompatibility.

  • bpo-45449: Add note about PEP 585 in

  • bpo-45516: Add protocol description to the documentation.

  • bpo-20692: Add Programming FAQ entry explaining that int literal attribute access requires either a space after or parentheses around the literal.


  • bpo-45678: Add tests for scenarios in which functools.singledispatchmethod is stacked on top of a method that has already been wrapped by two other decorators. Patch by Alex Waygood.

  • bpo-45578: Add tests for dis.distb()

  • bpo-45678: Add tests to ensure that functools.singledispatchmethod correctly wraps the attributes of the target function.

  • bpo-45668: PGO tests now pass when Python is built without test extension modules.

  • bpo-45577: Add subtests for all pickle protocols in test_zoneinfo.

  • bpo-45566: Fix test_frozen_pickle in test_dataclasses to check all pickle versions.

  • bpo-43592: test.libregrtest now raises the soft resource limit for the maximum number of file descriptors when the default is too low for our test suite as was often the case on macOS.

  • bpo-39679: Add more test cases for @functools.singledispatchmethod when combined with @classmethod or @staticmethod.

  • bpo-45410: When libregrtest spawns a worker process, stderr is now written into stdout to keep messages order. Use a single pipe for stdout and stderr, rather than two pipes. Previously, messages were out of order which made analysis of buildbot logs harder Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45402: Fix test_tools.test_sundry() when Python is built out of tree: fix how the tool locates the _freeze_module program. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45403: Fix test_sys.test_stdlib_dir() when Python is built outside the source tree: compare normalized paths. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45400: Fix test_name_error_suggestions_do_not_trigger_for_too_many_locals() of test_exceptions if a directory name contains “a1” (like “Python-3.11.0a1”): use a stricter regular expression. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-10572: Rename sqlite3 tests from test_sqlite to test_sqlite3, and relocate them to Lib/test/test_sqlite3. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.


  • bpo-43158: now uses values from configure script to build the _uuid extension module. Configure now detects util-linux’s libuuid, too.

  • bpo-45666: Fix warning of swprintf and %s usage in _testembed.c

  • bpo-45548: Modules/Setup and Modules/makesetup have been improved. The Setup file now contains working rules for all extensions. Outdated comments have been removed. Rules defined by makesetup track dependencies correctly.

  • bpo-45548: The math and cmath implementation now require a C99 compatible libm and no longer ship with workarounds for missing acosh, asinh, atanh, expm1, and log1p functions.

  • bpo-45595: and makesetup now track build dependencies on all Python header files and module specific header files.

  • bpo-45571: Modules/Setup now use PY_CFLAGS_NODIST instead of PY_CFLAGS to compile shared modules.

  • bpo-45570: pyexpat and _elementtree no longer define obsolete macros HAVE_EXPAT_CONFIG_H and USE_PYEXPAT_CAPI. XML_POOR_ENTROPY is now defined in expat_config.h.

  • bpo-43974: no longer defines Py_BUILD_CORE_MODULE. Instead every module, that uses the internal API, defines the macro.

  • bpo-45548: Fill in missing entries in Modules/Setup.

  • bpo-45532: Update sys.version to use main as fallback information. Patch by Jeong YunWon.

  • bpo-45536: The configure script now checks whether OpenSSL headers and libraries provide required APIs. Most common APIs are verified. The check detects outdated or missing OpenSSL. Failures do not stop configure.

  • bpo-45221: Fixed regression in handling of LDFLAGS and CPPFLAGS options where argparse.parse_known_args() could interpret an option as one of the built-in command line argument, for example -h for help.

  • bpo-45440: Building Python now requires a C99 <math.h> header file providing the following functions: copysign(), hypot(), isfinite(), isinf(), isnan(), round(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45405: Prevent internal configure error when running configure with recent versions of non-Apple clang. Patch by David Bohman.

  • bpo-45433: Avoid linking libpython with libcrypt.


  • bpo-43652: Update Tcl/Tk to 8.6.11, actually this time. The previous update incorrectly included 8.6.10.

  • bpo-45337: venv now warns when the created environment may need to be accessed at a different path, due to redirections, links or junctions. It also now correctly installs or upgrades components when the alternate path is required.

  • bpo-43851: Build SQLite SQLITE_OMIT_AUTOINIT on Windows. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.


  • bpo-44828: Avoid tkinter file dialog failure on macOS 12 Monterey when using the Tk 8.6.11 provided by macOS installers. Patch by Marc Culler of the Tk project.


  • bpo-45495: Add context keywords ‘case’ and ‘match’ to completions list.


  • bpo-29103: PyType_FromSpec* now copies the class name from the spec to a buffer owned by the class, so the original can be safely deallocated. Patch by Petr Viktorin.

  • bpo-45522: The internal freelists for frame, float, list, dict, async generators, and context objects can now be disabled.

  • bpo-35134: Exclude PyWeakref_GET_OBJECT() from the limited C API. It never worked since the PyWeakReference structure is opaque in the limited C API.

  • bpo-35081: Move the interpreteridobject.h header file from Include/ to Include/internal/. It only provides private functions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-35134: The non-limited API files cellobject.h, classobject.h, context.h, funcobject.h, genobject.h and longintrepr.h have been moved to the Include/cpython directory. Moreover, the eval.h header file was removed. These files must not be included directly, as they are already included in Python.h: Include Files. If they have been included directly, consider including Python.h instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45474: The following items are no longer available when Py_LIMITED_API is defined:

    These are not part of the limited API.

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45434: Remove the pystrhex.h header file. It only contains private functions. C extensions should only include the main <Python.h> header file. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45440: Remove the Py_FORCE_DOUBLE() macro. It was used by the Py_IS_INFINITY() macro. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45434: <Python.h> no longer includes the header files <stdlib.h>, <stdio.h>, <errno.h> and <string.h> when the Py_LIMITED_API macro is set to 0x030b0000 (Python 3.11) or higher. C extensions should explicitly include the header files after #include <Python.h>. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41123: Remove Py_UNICODE_COPY() and Py_UNICODE_FILL() macros, deprecated since Python 3.3. Use PyUnicode_CopyCharacters() or memcpy() (wchar_t* string), and PyUnicode_Fill() functions instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45412: Remove the following math macros using the errno variable:






    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45395: Custom frozen modules (the array set to PyImport_FrozenModules) are now treated as additions, rather than replacing all the default frozen modules. Frozen stdlib modules can still be disabled by setting the “code” field of the custom array entry to NULL.

  • bpo-43760: Add new PyThreadState_EnterTracing(), and PyThreadState_LeaveTracing() functions to the limited C API to suspend and resume tracing and profiling. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44220: PyStructSequence_UnnamedField is added to the Stable ABI.

Python 3.11.0 alpha 1

Release date: 2021-10-05


  • bpo-42278: Replaced usage of tempfile.mktemp() with TemporaryDirectory to avoid a potential race condition.

  • bpo-44600: Fix incorrect line numbers while tracing some failed patterns in match statements. Patch by Charles Burkland.

  • bpo-41180: Add auditing events to the marshal module, and stop raising code.__init__ events for every unmarshalled code object. Directly instantiated code objects will continue to raise an event, and audit event handlers should inspect or collect the raw marshal data. This reduces a significant performance overhead when loading from .pyc files.

  • bpo-44394: Update the vendored copy of libexpat to 2.4.1 (from 2.2.8) to get the fix for the CVE-2013-0340 “Billion Laughs” vulnerability. This copy is most used on Windows and macOS.

  • bpo-43124: Made the internal putcmd function in smtplib sanitize input for presence of \r and \n characters to avoid (unlikely) command injection.

  • bpo-44022: http.client now avoids infinitely reading potential HTTP headers after a 100 Continue status response from the server.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-43760: The number of hardware branches per instruction dispatch is reduced from two to one by adding a special instruction for tracing. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-45061: Add a deallocator to the bool type to detect refcount bugs in C extensions which call Py_DECREF(Py_True) or Py_DECREF(Py_False) by mistake. Detect also refcount bugs when the empty tuple singleton or the Unicode empty string singleton is destroyed by mistake. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-24076: sum() was further optimised for summing up single digit integers.

  • bpo-45190: Update Unicode databases to Unicode 14.0.0.

  • bpo-45167: Fix deepcopying of types.GenericAlias objects.

  • bpo-45155: int.to_bytes() and int.from_bytes() now take a default value of "big" for the byteorder argument. int.to_bytes() also takes a default value of 1 for the length argument.

  • bpo-44219: Release the GIL while performing isatty system calls on arbitrary file descriptors. In particular, this affects os.isatty(), os.device_encoding() and io.TextIOWrapper. By extension, in text mode is also affected. This change solves a deadlock in os.isatty(). Patch by Vincent Michel in bpo-44219.

  • bpo-44959: Added fallback to extension modules with ‘.sl’ suffix on HP-UX

  • bpo-45121: Fix issue where Protocol.__init__ raises RecursionError when it’s called directly or via super(). Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44348: The deallocator function of the BaseException type now uses the trashcan mechanism to prevent stack overflow. For example, when a RecursionError instance is raised, it can be linked to another RecursionError through the __context__ attribute or the __traceback__ attribute, and then a chain of exceptions is created. When the chain is destroyed, nested deallocator function calls can crash with a stack overflow if the chain is too long compared to the available stack memory. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45123: Fix PyAiter_Check to only check for the __anext__ presence (not for __aiter__). Rename PyAiter_Check to PyAIter_Check, PyObject_GetAiter -> PyObject_GetAIter.

  • bpo-1514420: Interpreter no longer attempts to open files with names in angle brackets (like “<string>” or “<stdin>”) when formatting an exception.

  • bpo-41031: Match C and Python code formatting of unprintable exceptions and exceptions in the __main__ module.

  • bpo-37330: open(),, and fileinput.FileInput no longer accept 'U' (“universal newline”) in the file mode. This flag was deprecated since Python 3.3. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45083: When the interpreter renders an exception, its name now has a complete qualname. Previously only the class name was concatenated to the module name, which sometimes resulted in an incorrect full name being displayed.

    (This issue impacted only the C code exception rendering, the traceback module was using qualname already).

  • bpo-34561: List sorting now uses the merge-ordering strategy from Munro and Wild’s powersort(). Unlike the former strategy, this is provably near-optimal in the entropy of the distribution of run lengths. Most uses of list.sort() probably won’t see a significant time difference, but may see significant improvements in cases where the former strategy was exceptionally poor. However, as these are all fast linear-time approximations to a problem that’s inherently at best quadratic-time to solve truly optimally, it’s also possible to contrive cases where the former strategy did better.

  • bpo-45056: Compiler now removes trailing unused constants from co_consts.

  • bpo-45020: Add a new command line option, “-X frozen_modules=[on|off]” to opt out of (or into) using optional frozen modules. This defaults to “on” (or “off” if it’s running out of the source tree).

  • bpo-45012: In posix, release GIL during stat(), lstat(), and fstatat() syscalls made by os.DirEntry.stat(). Patch by Stanisław Skonieczny.

  • bpo-45018: Fixed pickling of range iterators that iterated for over 2**32 times.

  • bpo-45000: A SyntaxError is now raised when trying to delete __debug__. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44963: Implement send() and throw() methods for anext_awaitable objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44962: Fix a race in WeakKeyDictionary, WeakValueDictionary and WeakSet when two threads attempt to commit the last pending removal. This fixes asyncio.create_task and fixes a data loss in where shutdown_asyncgens is not run

  • bpo-24234: Implement the __bytes__() special method on the bytes type, so a bytes object b passes an isinstance(b, typing.SupportsBytes) check.

  • bpo-24234: Implement the __complex__() special method on the complex type, so a complex number z passes an isinstance(z, typing.SupportsComplex) check.

  • bpo-44954: Fixed a corner case bug where the result of float.fromhex('0x.8p-1074') was rounded the wrong way.

  • bpo-44947: Refine the syntax error for trailing commas in import statements. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44945: Specialize the BINARY_ADD instruction using the PEP 659 machinery. Adds five new instructions:






  • bpo-44929: Fix some edge cases of enum.Flag string representation in the REPL. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44914: Class version tags are no longer recycled.

    This means that a version tag serves as a unique identifier for the state of a class. We rely on this for effective specialization of the LOAD_ATTR and other instructions.

  • bpo-44698: Restore behaviour of complex exponentiation with integer-valued exponent of type float or complex.

  • bpo-44895: A debug variable PYTHONDUMPREFSFILE is added for creating a dump file which is generated by --with-trace-refs. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44900: Add five superinstructions for PEP 659 quickening:






  • bpo-44889: Initial implementation of adaptive specialization of LOAD_METHOD. The following specialized forms were added:




  • bpo-44890: Specialization stats are always collected in debug builds.

  • bpo-44885: Correct the ast locations of f-strings with format specs and repeated expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44878: Remove the loop from the bytecode interpreter. All instructions end with a DISPATCH macro, so the loop is now redundant.

  • bpo-44878: Remove switch statement for interpreter loop when using computed gotos. This makes sure that we only have one dispatch table in the interpreter.

  • bpo-44874: Deprecate the old trashcan macros (Py_TRASHCAN_SAFE_BEGIN/Py_TRASHCAN_SAFE_END). They should be replaced by the new macros Py_TRASHCAN_BEGIN and Py_TRASHCAN_END.

  • bpo-44872: Use new trashcan macros (Py_TRASHCAN_BEGIN/END) in frameobject.c instead of the old ones (Py_TRASHCAN_SAFE_BEGIN/END).

  • bpo-33930: Fix segmentation fault with deep recursion when cleaning method objects. Patch by Augusto Goulart and Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-25782: Fix bug where PyErr_SetObject hangs when the current exception has a cycle in its context chain.

  • bpo-44856: Fix reference leaks in the error paths of update_bases() and __build_class__. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44826: Initial implementation of adaptive specialization of STORE_ATTR

    Three specialized forms of STORE_ATTR are added:




  • bpo-44838: Fixed a bug that was causing the parser to raise an incorrect custom SyntaxError for invalid ‘if’ expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44821: Create instance dictionaries (__dict__) eagerly, to improve regularity of object layout and assist specialization.

  • bpo-44792: Improve syntax errors for if expressions. Patch by Miguel Brito

  • bpo-34013: Generalize the invalid legacy statement custom error message (like the one generated when “print” is called without parentheses) to include more generic expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44732: Rename types.Union to types.UnionType.

  • bpo-44725: Expose specialization stats in python via _opcode.get_specialization_stats().

  • bpo-44717: Improve AttributeError on circular imports of submodules.

  • bpo-44698: Fix undefined behaviour in complex object exponentiation.

  • bpo-44653: Support typing types in parameter substitution in the union type.

  • bpo-44676: Add ability to serialise types.Union objects. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44633: Parameter substitution of the union type with wrong types now raises TypeError instead of returning NotImplemented.

  • bpo-44661: Update property_descr_set to use vectorcall if possible. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44662: Add __module__ to types.Union. This also fixes types.Union issues with typing.Annotated. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44655: Include the name of the type in unset __slots__ attribute errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44655: Don’t include a missing attribute with the same name as the failing one when offering suggestions for missing attributes. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44646: Fix the hash of the union type: it no longer depends on the order of arguments.

  • bpo-44636: Collapse union of equal types. E.g. the result of int | int is now int. Fix comparison of the union type with non-hashable objects. E.g. int | str == {} no longer raises a TypeError.

  • bpo-44611: On Windows, os.urandom(): uses BCryptGenRandom API instead of CryptGenRandom API which is deprecated from Microsoft Windows API. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44635: Convert None to type(None) in the union type constructor.

  • bpo-26280: Implement adaptive specialization for BINARY_SUBSCR

    Three specialized forms of BINARY_SUBSCR are added:




  • bpo-44589: Mapping patterns in match statements with two or more equal literal keys will now raise a SyntaxError at compile-time.

  • bpo-44606: Fix __instancecheck__ and __subclasscheck__ for the union type.

  • bpo-42073: The @classmethod decorator can now wrap other classmethod-like descriptors.

  • bpo-41972: Tuned the string-searching algorithm of fastsearch.h to have a shorter inner loop for most cases.

  • bpo-44590: All necessary data for executing a Python function (local variables, stack, etc) is now kept in a per-thread stack. Frame objects are lazily allocated on demand. This increases performance by about 7% on the standard benchmark suite. Introspection and debugging are unaffected as frame objects are always available when needed. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-44584: The threading debug (PYTHONTHREADDEBUG environment variable) is deprecated in Python 3.10 and will be removed in Python 3.12. This feature requires a debug build of Python. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43895: An obsolete internal cache of shared object file handles added in 1995 that attempted, but did not guarantee, that a .so would not be dlopen’ed twice to work around flaws in mid-1990s posix-ish operating systems has been removed from dynload_shlib.c.

  • bpo-44490: typing now searches for type parameters in types.Union objects. get_type_hints will also properly resolve annotations with nested types.Union objects. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-43950: Code objects can now provide the column information for instructions when available. This is levaraged during traceback printing to show the expressions responsible for errors.

    Contributed by Pablo Galindo, Batuhan Taskaya and Ammar Askar as part of PEP 657.

  • bpo-44562: Remove uses of PyObject_GC_Del() in error path when initializing types.GenericAlias.

  • bpo-41486: Fix a memory consumption and copying performance regression in earlier 3.10 beta releases if someone used an output buffer larger than 4GiB with zlib.decompress on input data that expands that large.

  • bpo-43908: Heap types with the Py_TPFLAGS_IMMUTABLETYPE flag can now inherit the PEP 590 vectorcall protocol. Previously, this was only possible for static types. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44553: Implement GC methods for types.Union to break reference cycles and prevent memory leaks.

  • bpo-44490: Add __parameters__ attribute and __getitem__ operator to types.Union. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44523: Remove the pass-through for hash() of weakref.proxy objects to prevent unintended consequences when the original referred object dies while the proxy is part of a hashable object. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44483: Fix a crash in types.Union objects when creating a union of an object with bad __module__ field.

  • bpo-44486: Modules will always have a dictionary, even when created by types.ModuleType.__new__()

  • bpo-44472: Fix ltrace functionality when exceptions are raised. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-12022: A TypeError is now raised instead of an AttributeError in with and async with statements for objects which do not support the context manager or asynchronous context manager protocols correspondingly.

  • bpo-44297: Make sure that the line number is set when entering a comprehension scope. Ensures that backtraces inclusing generator expressions show the correct line number.

  • bpo-44456: Improve the syntax error when mixing positional and keyword patterns. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44409: Fix error location information for tokenizer errors raised on initialization of the tokenizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44396: Fix a possible crash in the tokenizer when raising syntax errors for unclosed strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44376: Exact integer exponentiation (like i**2 or pow(i, 2)) with a small exponent is much faster, due to reducing overhead in such cases.

  • bpo-44313: Directly imported objects and modules (through import and from import statements) don’t generate LOAD_METHOD/CALL_METHOD for directly accessed objects on their namespace. They now use the regular LOAD_ATTR/CALL_FUNCTION.

  • bpo-44338: Implement adaptive specialization for LOAD_GLOBAL

    Two specialized forms of LOAD_GLOBAL are added:



  • bpo-44368: Improve syntax errors for invalid “as” targets. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44349: Fix an edge case when displaying text from files with encoding in syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44337: Initial implementation of adaptive specialization of LOAD_ATTR

    Four specialized forms of LOAD_ATTR are added:





  • bpo-44335: Fix a regression when identifying incorrect characters in syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43693: Computation of the offsets of cell variables is done in the compiler instead of at runtime. This reduces the overhead of handling cell and free variables, especially in the case where a variable is both an argument and cell variable.

  • bpo-44317: Improve tokenizer error with improved locations. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44304: Fix a crash in the sqlite3 module that happened when the garbage collector clears sqlite.Statement objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44305: Improve error message for try blocks without except or finally blocks. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43413: Constructors of subclasses of some builtin classes (e.g. tuple, list, frozenset) no longer accept arbitrary keyword arguments. [reverted in 3.11a4] Subclass of set can now define a __new__() method with additional keyword parameters without overriding also __init__().

  • bpo-43667: Improve Unicode support in non-UTF locales on Oracle Solaris. This issue does not affect other Solaris systems.

  • bpo-43693: A new opcode MAKE_CELL has been added that effectively moves some of the work done on function entry into the compiler and into the eval loop. In addition to creating the required cell objects, the new opcode converts relevant arguments (and other locals) to cell variables on function entry.

  • bpo-44232: Fix a regression in type() when a metaclass raises an exception. The C function type_new() must properly report the exception when a metaclass constructor raises an exception and the winner class is not the metaclass. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44201: Avoid side effects of checking for specialized syntax errors in the REPL that was causing it to ask for extra tokens after a syntax error had been detected. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43693: PyCodeObject gained co_fastlocalnames and co_fastlocalkinds as the authoritative source of fast locals info. Marshaled code objects have changed accordingly.

  • bpo-44184: Fix a crash at Python exit when a deallocator function removes the last strong reference to a heap type. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44187: Implement quickening in the interpreter. This offers no advantages as yet, but is an enabler of future optimizations. See PEP 659 for full explanation.

  • bpo-44180: The parser doesn’t report generic syntax errors that happen in a position further away that the one it reached in the first pass. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44168: Fix error message in the parser involving keyword arguments with invalid expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44156: String caches in compile.c are now subinterpreter compatible.

  • bpo-44143: Fixed a crash in the parser that manifest when raising tokenizer errors when an existing exception was present. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-44032: Move ‘fast’ locals and other variables from the frame object to a per-thread datastack.

  • bpo-44114: Fix incorrect dictkeys_reversed and dictitems_reversed function signatures in C code, which broke webassembly builds.

  • bpo-44110: Improve str.__getitem__() error message

  • bpo-26110: Add CALL_METHOD_KW opcode to speed up method calls with keyword arguments. Idea originated from PyPy. A side effect is executing CALL_METHOD is now branchless in the evaluation loop.

  • bpo-28307: Compiler now optimizes simple C-style formatting with literal format containing only format codes %s, %r and %a by converting them to f-string expressions.

  • bpo-43149: Correct the syntax error message regarding multiple exception types to not refer to “exception groups”. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43822: The parser will prioritize tokenizer errors over custom syntax errors when raising exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40222: “Zero cost” exception handling.

    • Uses a lookup table to determine how to handle exceptions.

    • Removes SETUP_FINALLY and POP_TOP block instructions, eliminating the runtime overhead of try statements.

    • Reduces the size of the frame object by about 60%.

    Patch by Mark Shannon

  • bpo-43918: Document the signature and default argument in the docstring of the new anext builtin.

  • bpo-43833: Emit a deprecation warning if the numeric literal is immediately followed by one of keywords: and, else, for, if, in, is, or. Raise a syntax error with more informative message if it is immediately followed by other keyword or identifier.

  • bpo-43879: Add native_thread_id to PyThreadState. Patch by Gabriele N. Tornetta.

  • bpo-43693: Compute cell offsets relative to locals in compiler. Allows the interpreter to treats locals and cells a single array, which is slightly more efficient. Also make the LOAD_CLOSURE opcode an alias for LOAD_FAST. Preserving LOAD_CLOSURE helps keep bytecode a bit more readable.

  • bpo-17792: More accurate error messages for access of unbound locals or free vars.

  • bpo-28146: Fix a confusing error message in str.format().

  • bpo-11105: When compiling ast.AST objects with recursive references through compile(), the interpreter doesn’t crash anymore instead it raises a RecursionError.

  • bpo-39091: Fix crash when using passing a non-exception to a generator’s throw() method. Patch by Noah Oxer

  • bpo-33346: Asynchronous comprehensions are now allowed inside comprehensions in asynchronous functions. Outer comprehensions implicitly become asynchronous.


  • bpo-45371: Fix clang rpath issue in distutils. The UnixCCompiler now uses correct clang option to add a runtime library directory (rpath) to a shared library.

  • bpo-45329: Fix freed memory access in pyexpat.xmlparser when building it with an installed expat library <= 2.2.0.

  • bpo-41710: On Unix, if the sem_clockwait() function is available in the C library (glibc 2.30 and newer), the threading.Lock.acquire() method now uses the monotonic clock (time.CLOCK_MONOTONIC) for the timeout, rather than using the system clock (time.CLOCK_REALTIME), to not be affected by system clock changes. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-1596321: Fix the threading._shutdown() function when the threading module was imported first from a thread different than the main thread: no longer log an error at Python exit.

  • bpo-45274: Fix a race condition in the Thread.join() method of the threading module. If the function is interrupted by a signal and the signal handler raises an exception, make sure that the thread remains in a consistent state to prevent a deadlock. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-21302: In Unix operating systems, time.sleep() now uses the nanosleep() function, if clock_nanosleep() is not available but nanosleep() is available. nanosleep() allows to sleep with nanosecond precision.

  • bpo-21302: On Windows, time.sleep() now uses a waitable timer which has a resolution of 100 nanoseconds (10-7 seconds). Previously, it had a resolution of 1 millisecond (10-3 seconds). Patch by Benjamin Szőke and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45238: Fix unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase.debug(): it runs now asynchronous methods and callbacks.

  • bpo-36674: unittest.TestCase.debug() raises now a unittest.SkipTest if the class or the test method are decorated with the skipping decorator.

  • bpo-45235: Fix an issue where argparse would not preserve values in a provided namespace when using a subparser with defaults.

  • bpo-45183: Have zipimport.zipimporter.find_spec() not raise an exception when the underlying zip file has been deleted and the internal cache has been reset via invalidate_cache().

  • bpo-45234: Fixed a regression in copyfile(), copy(), copy2() raising FileNotFoundError when source is a directory, which should raise IsADirectoryError

  • bpo-45228: Fix stack buffer overflow in parsing J1939 network address.

  • bpo-45225: use map function instead of genexpr in capwords.

  • bpo-42135: Fix typo: importlib.find_loader is really slated for removal in Python 3.12 not 3.10, like the others in PR 25169.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-20524: Improves error messages on .format() operation for str, float, int, and complex. New format now shows the problematic pattern and the object type.

  • bpo-45168: Change dis.dis() output to omit op arg values that cannot be resolved due to co_consts, co_names etc not being provided. Previously the oparg itself was repeated in the value field, which is not useful and can be confusing.

  • bpo-21302: In Unix operating systems, time.sleep() now uses the clock_nanosleep() function, if available, which allows to sleep for an interval specified with nanosecond precision.

  • bpo-45173: Remove from the configparser module: the SafeConfigParser class, the filename property of the ParsingError class, the readfp() method of the ConfigParser class, deprecated since Python 3.2.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-44987: Pure ASCII strings are now normalized in constant time by unicodedata.normalize(). Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-35474: Calling mimetypes.guess_all_extensions() with strict=False no longer affects the result of the following call with strict=True. Also, mutating the returned list no longer affects the global state.

  • bpo-45166: typing.get_type_hints() now works with Final wrapped in ForwardRef.

  • bpo-45162: Remove many old deprecated unittest features:

    • fail*” and “assert*” aliases of TestCase methods.

    • Broken from start TestCase method assertDictContainsSubset().

    • Ignored <unittest.TestLoader.loadTestsFromModule> TestLoader.loadTestsFromModule() parameter use_load_tests.

    • Old alias _TextTestResult of TextTestResult.

  • bpo-38371: Remove the deprecated split() method of _tkinter.TkappType. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-20499: Improve the speed and accuracy of statistics.pvariance().

  • bpo-45132: Remove __getitem__() methods of xml.dom.pulldom.DOMEventStream, wsgiref.util.FileWrapper and fileinput.FileInput, deprecated since Python 3.9.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-45129: Due to significant security concerns, the reuse_address parameter of asyncio.loop.create_datagram_endpoint(), disabled in Python 3.9, is now entirely removed. This is because of the behavior of the socket option SO_REUSEADDR in UDP.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-45124: The bdist_msi command, deprecated in Python 3.9, is now removed.

    Use bdist_wheel (wheel packages) instead.

    Patch by Hugo van Kemenade.

  • bpo-30856: unittest.TestResult methods addFailure(), addError(), addSkip() and addSubTest() are now called immediately after raising an exception in test or finishing a subtest. Previously they were called only after finishing the test clean up.

  • bpo-45034: Changes how error is formatted for struct.pack with 'H' and 'h' modes and too large / small numbers. Now it shows the actual numeric limits, while previously it was showing arithmetic expressions.

  • bpo-25894: unittest now always reports skipped and failed subtests separately: separate characters in default mode and separate lines in verbose mode. Also the test description is now output for errors in test method, class and module cleanups.

  • bpo-45081: Fix issue when dataclasses that inherit from typing.Protocol subclasses have wrong __init__. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-45085: The binhex module, deprecated in Python 3.9, is now removed. The following binascii functions, deprecated in Python 3.9, are now also removed:

    • a2b_hqx(), b2a_hqx();

    • rlecode_hqx(), rledecode_hqx().

    The binascii.crc_hqx() function remains available.

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-40360: The lib2to3 package is now deprecated and may not be able to parse Python 3.10 or newer. See the PEP 617 (New PEG parser for CPython). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-45075: Rename traceback.StackSummary.format_frame() to traceback.StackSummary.format_frame_summary(). This method was added for 3.11 so it was not released yet.

    Updated code and docs to better distinguish frame and FrameSummary.

  • bpo-31299: Add option to completely drop frames from a traceback by returning None from a format_frame() override.

  • bpo-41620: run() now always return a TestResult instance. Previously it returned None if the test class or method was decorated with a skipping decorator.

  • bpo-45021: Fix a potential deadlock at shutdown of forked children when using concurrent.futures module

  • bpo-43913: Fix bugs in cleaning up classes and modules in unittest:

    • Functions registered with addModuleCleanup() were not called unless the user defines tearDownModule() in their test module.

    • Functions registered with addClassCleanup() were not called if tearDownClass is set to None.

    • Buffering in TestResult did not work with functions registered with addClassCleanup() and addModuleCleanup().

    • Errors in functions registered with addClassCleanup() and addModuleCleanup() were not handled correctly in buffered and debug modes.

    • Errors in setUpModule() and functions registered with addModuleCleanup() were reported in wrong order.

    • And several lesser bugs.

  • bpo-45030: Fix integer overflow in pickling and copying the range iterator.

  • bpo-45001: Made email date parsing more robust against malformed input, namely a whitespace-only Date: header. Patch by Wouter Bolsterlee.

  • bpo-45010: Remove support of special method __div__ in unittest.mock. It is not used in Python 3.

  • bpo-39218: Improve accuracy of variance calculations by using x*x instead of x**2.

  • bpo-43613: Improve the speed of gzip.compress() and gzip.decompress() by compressing and decompressing at once in memory instead of in a streamed fashion.

  • bpo-37596: Ensure that set and frozenset objects are always marshalled reproducibly.

  • bpo-44019: A new function has been added, such that, *args, **kwargs) == obj(*args, **kwargs).

  • bpo-42255: webbrowser.MacOSX is deprecated and will be removed in Python 3.13. It is untested and undocumented and also not used by webbrowser itself. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44955: Method stopTestRun() is now always called in pair with method startTestRun() for TestResult objects implicitly created in run(). Previously it was not called for test methods and classes decorated with a skipping decorator.

  • bpo-39039: raises ReadError when a zlib error occurs during file extraction.

  • bpo-44935: subprocess on Solaris now also uses os.posix_spawn() for better performance.

  • bpo-44911: IsolatedAsyncioTestCase will no longer throw an exception while cancelling leaked tasks. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-41322: Added DeprecationWarning for tests and async tests that return a value!=None (as this may indicate an improperly written test, for example a test written as a generator function).

  • bpo-44524: Make exception message more useful when subclass from typing special form alias. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-38956: argparse.BooleanOptionalAction’s default value is no longer printed twice when used with argparse.ArgumentDefaultsHelpFormatter.

  • bpo-44860: Fix the posix_user scheme in sysconfig to not depend on sys.platlibdir.

  • bpo-44859: Improve error handling in sqlite3 and raise more accurate exceptions.

    • MemoryError is now raised instead of sqlite3.Warning when memory is not enough for encoding a statement to UTF-8 in Connection.__call__() and Cursor.execute().

    • UnicodEncodeError is now raised instead of sqlite3.Warning when the statement contains surrogate characters in Connection.__call__() and Cursor.execute().

    • TypeError is now raised instead of ValueError for non-string script argument in Cursor.executescript().

    • ValueError is now raised for script containing the null character instead of truncating it in Cursor.executescript().

    • Correctly handle exceptions raised when getting boolean value of the result of the progress handler.

    • Add many tests covering different corner cases.

  • bpo-44581: Upgrade bundled pip to 21.2.3 and setuptools to 57.4.0

  • bpo-44849: Fix the os.set_inheritable() function on FreeBSD 14 for file descriptor opened with the O_PATH flag: ignore the EBADF error on ioctl(), fallback on the fcntl() implementation. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44605: The @functools.total_ordering() decorator now works with metaclasses.

  • bpo-44524: Fixed an issue wherein the __name__ and __qualname__ attributes of subscribed specialforms could be None.

  • bpo-44839: MemoryError raised in user-defined functions will now produce a MemoryError in sqlite3. OverflowError will now be converted to DataError. Previously OperationalError was produced in these cases.

  • bpo-44822: sqlite3 user-defined functions and aggregators returning strings with embedded NUL characters are no longer truncated. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44801: Ensure that the ParamSpec variable in Callable can only be substituted with a parameters expression (a list of types, an ellipsis, ParamSpec or Concatenate).

  • bpo-44806: Non-protocol subclasses of typing.Protocol ignore now the __init__ method inherited from protocol base classes.

  • bpo-27275: collections.OrderedDict.popitem() and collections.OrderedDict.pop() no longer call __getitem__ and __delitem__ methods of the OrderedDict subclasses.

  • bpo-44793: Fix checking the number of arguments when subscribe a generic type with ParamSpec parameter.

  • bpo-44784: In importlib.metadata tests, override warnings behavior under expected DeprecationWarnings (importlib_metadata 4.6.3).

  • bpo-44667: The tokenize.tokenize() doesn’t incorrectly generate a NEWLINE token if the source doesn’t end with a new line character but the last line is a comment, as the function is already generating a NL token. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44771: Added importlib.simple module implementing adapters from a low-level resources reader interface to a TraversableResources interface. Legacy API (path, contents, …) is now supported entirely by the .files() API with a compatibility shim supplied for resource loaders without that functionality. Feature parity with importlib_resources 5.2.

  • bpo-44752: rcompleter does not call getattr() on property objects to avoid the side-effect of evaluating the corresponding method.

  • bpo-44747: Refactor usage of sys._getframe in typing module. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42378: Fixes the issue with log file being overwritten when logging.FileHandler is used in atexit with filemode set to 'w'. Note this will cause the message in atexit not being logged if the log stream is already closed due to shutdown of logging.

  • bpo-44720: weakref.proxy objects referencing non-iterators now raise TypeError rather than dereferencing the null tp_iternext slot and crashing.

  • bpo-44704: The implementation of now matches that of frozenset.__hash__().

  • bpo-44666: Fixed issue in compileall.compile_file() when sys.stdout is redirected. Patch by Stefan Hölzl.

  • bpo-44688: sqlite3.Connection.create_collation() now accepts non-ASCII collation names. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-44690: Adopt binacii.a2b_base64’s strict mode in base64.b64decode.

  • bpo-42854: Fixed a bug in the _ssl module that was throwing OverflowError when using _ssl._SSLSocket.write() and for a big value of the len parameter. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-44686: Replace unittest.mock._importer with pkgutil.resolve_name.

  • bpo-44353: Make NewType.__call__ faster by implementing it in C. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44682: Change the pdb commands directive to disallow setting commands for an invalid breakpoint and to display an appropriate error.

  • bpo-44353: Refactor typing.NewType from function into callable class. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44678: Added a separate error message for discontinuous padding in binascii.a2b_base64 strict mode.

  • bpo-44524: Add missing __name__ and __qualname__ attributes to typing module classes. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-40897: Give priority to using the current class constructor in inspect.signature(). Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-44638: Add a reference to the zipp project and hint as to how to use it.

  • bpo-44648: Fixed wrong error being thrown by inspect.getsource() when examining a class in the interactive session. Instead of TypeError, it should be OSError with appropriate error message.

  • bpo-44608: Fix memory leak in _tkinter._flatten() if it is called with a sequence or set, but not list or tuple.

  • bpo-44594: Fix an edge case of ExitStack and AsyncExitStack exception chaining. They will now match with block behavior when __context__ is explicitly set to None when the exception is in flight.

  • bpo-42799: In fnmatch, the cache size for compiled regex patterns (functools.lru_cache()) was bumped up from 256 to 32768, affecting functions: fnmatch.fnmatch(), fnmatch.fnmatchcase(), fnmatch.filter().

  • bpo-41928: Update shutil.copyfile() to raise FileNotFoundError instead of confusing IsADirectoryError when a path ending with a os.path.sep does not exist; shutil.copy() and shutil.copy2() are also affected.

  • bpo-44569: Added the StackSummary.format_frame() function in traceback. This allows users to customize the way individual lines are formatted in tracebacks without re-implementing logic to handle recursive tracebacks.

  • bpo-44566: handle StopIteration subclass raised from @contextlib.contextmanager generator

  • bpo-44558: Make the implementation consistency of indexOf() between C and Python versions. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-41249: Fixes TypedDict to work with typing.get_type_hints() and postponed evaluation of annotations across modules.

  • bpo-44554: Refactor argument processing in pdb.main() to simplify detection of errors in input loading and clarify behavior around module or script invocation.

  • bpo-34798: Break up paragraph about pprint.PrettyPrinter construction parameters to make it easier to read.

  • bpo-44539: Added support for recognizing JPEG files without JFIF or Exif markers.

  • bpo-44461: Fix bug with pdb’s handling of import error due to a package which does not have a __main__ module

  • bpo-43625: Fix a bug in the detection of CSV file headers by csv.Sniffer.has_header() and improve documentation of same.

  • bpo-44516: Update vendored pip to 21.1.3

  • bpo-42892: Fixed an exception thrown while parsing a malformed multipart email by email.message.EmailMessage.

  • bpo-44468: typing.get_type_hints() now finds annotations in classes and base classes with unexpected __module__. Previously, it skipped those MRO elements.

  • bpo-44491: Allow clearing the sqlite3 authorizer callback by passing None to set_authorizer(). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43977: Set the proper Py_TPFLAGS_MAPPING and Py_TPFLAGS_SEQUENCE flags for subclasses created before a parent has been registered as a or

  • bpo-44482: Fix very unlikely resource leak in glob in alternate Python implementations.

  • bpo-44466: The faulthandler module now detects if a fatal error occurs during a garbage collector collection. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44471: A TypeError is now raised instead of an AttributeError in contextlib.ExitStack.enter_context() and contextlib.AsyncExitStack.enter_async_context() for objects which do not support the context manager or asynchronous context manager protocols correspondingly.

  • bpo-44404: tkinter’s after() method now supports callables without the __name__ attribute.

  • bpo-41546: Make pprint (like the builtin print) not attempt to write to stdout when it is None.

  • bpo-44458: BUFFER_BLOCK_SIZE is now declared static, to avoid linking collisions when bz2, lmza or zlib are statically linked.

  • bpo-44464: Remove exception for flake8 in deprecated importlib.metadata interfaces. Sync with importlib_metadata 4.6.

  • bpo-44446: Take into account that lineno might be None in traceback.FrameSummary.

  • bpo-44439: Fix in bz2.BZ2File.write() / lzma.LZMAFile.write() methods, when the input data is an object that supports the buffer protocol, the file length may be wrong.

  • bpo-44434: _thread.start_new_thread() no longer calls PyThread_exit_thread() explicitly at the thread exit, the call was redundant. On Linux with the glibc, pthread_exit() aborts the whole process if dlopen() fails to open file (ex: EMFILE error). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42972: The _thread.RLock type now fully implement the GC protocol: add a traverse function and the Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_GC flag. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-44422: The threading.enumerate() function now uses a reentrant lock to prevent a hang on reentrant call. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-38291: Importing or now prints a DeprecationWarning.

  • bpo-37880: argparse actions store_const and append_const each receive a default value of None when the const kwarg is not provided. Previously, this raised a TypeError.

  • bpo-44389: Fix deprecation of ssl.OP_NO_TLSv1_3

  • bpo-27827: pathlib.PureWindowsPath.is_reserved() now identifies a greater range of reserved filenames, including those with trailing spaces or colons.

  • bpo-44395: Fix as_string() to pass unixfrom properly. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-34266: Handle exceptions from parsing the arg of pdb’s run/restart command.

  • bpo-44362: Improve ssl module’s deprecation messages, error reporting, and documentation for deprecations.

  • bpo-44342: [Enum] Change pickling from by-value to by-name.

  • bpo-44356: [Enum] Allow multiple data-type mixins if they are all the same.

  • bpo-44351: Restore back parse_makefile() in distutils.sysconfig because it behaves differently than the similar implementation in sysconfig.

  • bpo-35800: smtpd.MailmanProxy is now removed as it is unusable without an external module, mailman. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-44357: Added a function that returns cube root of the given number math.cbrt()

  • bpo-44339: Change math.pow(±0.0, -math.inf) to return inf instead of raising ValueError. This brings the special-case handling of math.pow into compliance with the IEEE 754 standard.

  • bpo-44242: Remove missing flag check from Enum creation and move into a verify decorator.

  • bpo-44246: In importlib.metadata, restore compatibility in the result from Distribution.entry_points (EntryPoints) to honor expectations in older implementations and issuing deprecation warnings for these cases: A. EntryPoints objects are once again mutable, allowing for sort() and other list-based mutation operations. Avoid deprecation warnings by casting to a mutable sequence (e.g. list(dist.entry_points).sort()). B. EntryPoints results once again allow for access by index. To avoid deprecation warnings, cast the result to a Sequence first (e.g. tuple(dist.entry_points)[0]).

  • bpo-44246: In importlib.metadata.entry_points, de-duplication of distributions no longer requires loading the full metadata for PathDistribution objects, improving entry point loading performance by ~10x.

  • bpo-43858: Added a function that returns a copy of a dict of logging levels: logging.getLevelNamesMapping()

  • bpo-44260: The random.Random constructor no longer reads system entropy without need.

  • bpo-44254: On Mac, give turtledemo button text a color that works on both light or dark background. Programmers cannot control the latter.

  • bpo-44258: Support PEP 515 for Fraction’s initialization from string.

  • bpo-44235: Remove deprecated functions in the gettext. Patch by Donghee Na.

  • bpo-38693: Prefer f-strings to .format in importlib.resources.

  • bpo-33693: Importlib.metadata now prefers f-strings to .format.

  • bpo-44241: Incorporate minor tweaks from importlib_metadata 4.1: SimplePath protocol, support for Metadata 2.2.

  • bpo-43216: Remove the @asyncio.coroutine decorator enabling legacy generator-based coroutines to be compatible with async/await code; remove asyncio.coroutines.CoroWrapper used for wrapping legacy coroutine objects in the debug mode. The decorator has been deprecated since Python 3.8 and the removal was initially scheduled for Python 3.10. Patch by Illia Volochii.

  • bpo-44210: Make importlib.metadata._meta.PackageMetadata public.

  • bpo-43643: Declare as a property per the spec.

  • bpo-27334: The sqlite3 context manager now performs a rollback (thus releasing the database lock) if commit failed. Patch by Luca Citi and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-4928: Documented existing behavior on POSIX: NamedTemporaryFiles are not deleted when creating process is killed with SIGKILL

  • bpo-44154: Optimize fractions.Fraction pickling for large components.

  • bpo-33433: For IPv4 mapped IPv6 addresses (RFC 4291 Section, the ipaddress.IPv6Address.is_private check is deferred to the mapped IPv4 address. This solves a bug where public mapped IPv4 addresses were considered private by the IPv6 check.

  • bpo-44150: Add optional weights argument to statistics.fmean().

  • bpo-44142: ast.unparse() will now drop the redundant parentheses when tuples used as assignment targets (e.g in for loops).

  • bpo-44145: hmac computations were not releasing the GIL while calling the OpenSSL HMAC_Update C API (a new feature in 3.9). This unintentionally prevented parallel computation as other hashlib algorithms support.

  • bpo-44095: zipfile.Path now supports zipfile.Path.stem, zipfile.Path.suffixes, and zipfile.Path.suffix attributes.

  • bpo-44077: It’s now possible to receive the type of service (ToS), a.k.a. differentiated services (DS), a.k.a. differentiated services code point (DSCP) and explicit congestion notification (ECN) IP header fields with socket.IP_RECVTOS.

  • bpo-37788: Fix a reference leak when a Thread object is never joined.

  • bpo-38908: Subclasses of typing.Protocol which only have data variables declared will now raise a TypeError when checked with isinstance unless they are decorated with runtime_checkable(). Previously, these checks passed silently. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-44098: typing.ParamSpec will no longer be found in the __parameters__ of most typing generics except in valid use locations specified by PEP 612. This prevents incorrect usage like typing.List[P][int]. This change means incorrect usage which may have passed silently in 3.10 beta 1 and earlier will now error.

  • bpo-44089: Allow subclassing csv.Error in 3.10 (it was allowed in 3.9 and earlier but was disallowed in early versions of 3.10).

  • bpo-44081: ast.unparse() now doesn’t use redundant spaces to separate lambda and the : if there are no parameters.

  • bpo-44061: Fix regression in previous release when calling pkgutil.iter_modules() with a list of pathlib.Path objects

  • bpo-44059: Register the SerenityOS Browser in the webbrowser module.

  • bpo-36515: The hashlib module no longer does unaligned memory accesses when compiled for ARM platforms.

  • bpo-40465: Remove random module features deprecated in Python 3.9.

  • bpo-44018: random.seed() no longer mutates bytearray inputs.

  • bpo-38352: Add IO, BinaryIO, TextIO, Match, and Pattern to typing.__all__. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-44002: urllib.parse now uses functool.lru_cache() for its internal URL splitting and quoting caches instead of rolling its own like its the ’90s.

    The undocumented internal urllib.parse Quoted class API is now deprecated, for removal in 3.14.

  • bpo-43972: When http.server.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler sends a 301 (Moved Permanently) for a directory path not ending with /, add a Content-Length: 0 header. This improves the behavior for certain clients.

  • bpo-28528: Fix a bug in pdb where checkline() raises AttributeError if it is called after reset().

  • bpo-43853: Improved string handling for sqlite3 user-defined functions and aggregates:

    • It is now possible to pass strings with embedded null characters to UDFs

    • Conversion failures now correctly raise MemoryError

    Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43666: AIX: Lib/_aix_support.get_platform() may fail in an AIX WPAR. The fileset bos.rte appears to have a builddate in both LPAR and WPAR so this fileset is queried rather than bos.mp64. To prevent a similar situation (no builddate in ODM) a value (9988) sufficient for completing a build is provided. Patch by M Felt.

  • bpo-43650: Fix MemoryError in shutil.unpack_archive() which fails inside shutil._unpack_zipfile() on large files. Patch by Igor Bolshakov.

  • bpo-43612: zlib.compress() now accepts a wbits parameter which allows users to compress data as a raw deflate block without zlib headers and trailers in one go. Previously this required instantiating a zlib.compressobj. It also provides a faster alternative to gzip.compress when wbits=31 is used.

  • bpo-43392: importlib._bootstrap._find_and_load() now implements a two-step check to avoid locking when modules have been already imported and are ready. This improves performance of repeated calls to importlib.import_module() and importlib.__import__().

  • bpo-43318: Fix a bug where pdb does not always echo cleared breakpoints.

  • bpo-43234: Prohibit passing non-concurrent.futures.ThreadPoolExecutor executors to loop.set_default_executor() following a deprecation in Python 3.8. Patch by Illia Volochii.

  • bpo-43232: Prohibit previously deprecated potentially disruptive operations on asyncio.trsock.TransportSocket. Patch by Illia Volochii.

  • bpo-30077: Added support for Apple’s aifc/sowt pseudo-compression

  • bpo-42971: Add definition of errno.EQFULL for platforms that define this constant (such as macOS).

  • bpo-43086: Added a new optional strict_mode parameter to binascii.a2b_base64. When scrict_mode is set to True, the a2b_base64 function will accept only valid base64 content. More details about what “valid base64 content” is, can be found in the function’s documentation.

  • bpo-43024: Improve the help signature of traceback.print_exception(), traceback.format_exception() and traceback.format_exception_only().

  • bpo-33809: Add the traceback.TracebackException.print() method which prints the formatted exception information.

  • bpo-42862: sqlite3 now utilizes functools.lru_cache() to implement the connection statement cache. As a small optimisation, the default statement cache size has been increased from 100 to 128. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41818: Soumendra Ganguly: add termios.tcgetwinsize(), termios.tcsetwinsize().

  • bpo-40497: subprocess.check_output() now raises ValueError when the invalid keyword argument check is passed by user code. Previously such use would fail later with a TypeError. Patch by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-37449: ensurepip now uses importlib.resources.files() traversable APIs

  • bpo-40956: Use Argument Clinic in sqlite3. Patches by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41730: DeprecationWarning is now raised when importing tkinter.tix, which has been deprecated in documentation since Python 3.6.

  • bpo-20684: Remove unused _signature_get_bound_param function from inspect - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-41402: Fix email.message.EmailMessage.set_content() when called with binary data and 7bit content transfer encoding.

  • bpo-32695: The compresslevel and preset keyword arguments of are now both documented and tested.

  • bpo-41137: Use utf-8 encoding while reading .pdbrc files. Patch by Srinivas Reddy Thatiparthy

  • bpo-24391: Improved reprs of threading synchronization objects: Semaphore, BoundedSemaphore, Event and Barrier.

  • bpo-5846: Deprecated the following unittest functions, scheduled for removal in Python 3.13:

    • findTestCases()

    • makeSuite()

    • getTestCaseNames()

    Use TestLoader methods instead:

    Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40563: Support pathlike objects on dbm/shelve. Patch by Hakan Çelik and Henry-Joseph Audéoud.

  • bpo-34990: Fixed a Y2k38 bug in the compileall module where it would fail to compile files with a modification time after the year 2038.

  • bpo-39549: Whereas the code for reprlib.Repr had previously used a hardcoded string value of ‘…’, this PR updates it to use of a “fillvalue” attribute, whose value defaults to ‘…’ and can be reset in either individual reprlib.Repr instances or in subclasses thereof.

  • bpo-37022: pdb now displays exceptions from repr() with its p and pp commands.

  • bpo-38840: Fix test___all__ on platforms lacking a shared memory implementation.

  • bpo-39359: Add one missing check that the password is a bytes object for an encrypted zipfile.

  • bpo-38741: configparser: using ‘]’ inside a section header will no longer cut the section name short at the ‘]’

  • bpo-38415: Added missing behavior to contextlib.asynccontextmanager() to match