Changelog

Python next

Release date: XXXX-XX-XX

Security

  • bpo-43472: Ensures interpreter-level audit hooks receive the cpython.PyInterpreterState_New event when called through the _xxsubinterpreters module.

  • bpo-43362: Fix invalid free in _sha3 module. The issue was introduced in 3.10.0a1. Python 3.9 and earlier are not affected.

  • bpo-43756: Add new audit event glob.glob/2 to incorporate the new root_dir and dir_fd arguments added to glob.glob() and glob.iglob().

  • bpo-43075: Fix Regular Expression Denial of Service (ReDoS) vulnerability in urllib.request.AbstractBasicAuthHandler. The ReDoS-vulnerable regex has quadratic worst-case complexity and it allows cause a denial of service when identifying crafted invalid RFCs. This ReDoS issue is on the client side and needs remote attackers to control the HTTP server.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-38605: Revert making from __future__ import annotations the default. This follows the Steering Council decision to postpone PEP 563 changes to at least Python 3.11. See the original email for more information regarding the decision: https://mail.python.org/archives/list/python-dev@python.org/thread/CLVXXPQ2T2LQ5MP2Y53VVQFCXYWQJHKZ/. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43475: Hashes of NaN values now depend on object identity. Formerly, they always hashed to 0 even though NaN values are not equal to one another. Having the same hash for unequal values caused pile-ups in hash tables.

  • bpo-43859: Improve the error message for IndentationError exceptions. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-41323: Constant tuple folding in bytecode optimizer now reuses tuple in constant table.

  • bpo-43846: Data stack usage is much reduced for large literal and call expressions.

  • bpo-38530: When printing NameError raised by the interpreter, PyErr_Display() will offer suggestions of similar variable names in the function that the exception was raised from. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43823: Improve syntax errors for invalid dictionary literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43822: Improve syntax errors in the parser for missing commas between expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43798: ast.alias nodes now include source location metadata attributes e.g. lineno, col_offset.

  • bpo-43797: Improve SyntaxError error messages for invalid comparisons. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43760: Move the flag for checking whether tracing is enabled to the C stack, from the heap. Should speed up dispatch in the interpreter.

  • bpo-43682: Static methods (@staticmethod) and class methods (@classmethod) now inherit the method attributes (__module__, __name__, __qualname__, __doc__, __annotations__) and have a new __wrapped__ attribute. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43751: Fixed a bug where anext(ait, default) would erroneously return None.

  • bpo-42128: __match_args__ is no longer allowed to be a list.

  • bpo-43683: Add GEN_START opcode. Marks start of generator, including async, or coroutine and handles sending values to a newly created generator or coroutine.

  • bpo-43105: Importlib now resolves relative paths when creating module spec objects from file locations.

  • bpo-43682: Static methods (@staticmethod) are now callable as regular functions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-38530: When printing AttributeError, PyErr_Display() will offer suggestions of similar attribute names in the object that the exception was raised from. Patch by Pablo Galindo

Library

  • bpo-43284: platform.win32_ver derives the windows version from sys.getwindowsversion().platform_version which in turn derives the version from kernel32.dll (which can be of a different version than Windows itself). Therefore change the platform.win32_ver to determine the version using the platform module’s _syscmd_ver private function to return an accurate version.

  • bpo-42854: The ssl module now uses SSL_read_ex and SSL_write_ex internally. The functions support reading and writing of data larger than 2 GB. Writing zero-length data no longer fails with a protocol violation error.

  • bpo-42333: Port _ssl extension module to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-43880: ssl now raises DeprecationWarning for OP_NO_SSL/TLS* options, old TLS versions, old protocols, and other features that have been deprecated since Python 3.6, 3.7, or OpenSSL 1.1.0.

  • bpo-43867: The multiprocessing Server class now explicitly catchs SystemExit and closes the client connection in this case. It happens when the Server.serve_client() method reachs the end of file (EOF).

  • bpo-40443: Remove unused imports: pyclbr no longer uses copy, and typing no longer uses ast. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43820: Remove an unneeded copy of the namespace passed to dataclasses.make_dataclass().

  • bpo-43787: Add __iter__() method to bz2.BZ2File, gzip.GzipFile, and lzma.LZMAFile. It makes iterating them about 2x faster. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-43680: Deprecate io.OpenWrapper and _pyio.OpenWrapper: use io.open and _pyio.open instead. Until Python 3.9, _pyio.open was not a static method and builtins.open was set to OpenWrapper to not become a bound method when set to a class variable. _io.open is a built-in function whereas _pyio.open is a Python function. In Python 3.10, _pyio.open() is now a static method, and builtins.open() is now io.open().

  • bpo-43680: The Python _pyio.open() function becomes a static method to behave as io.open() built-in function: don’t become a bound method when stored as a class variable. It becomes possible since static methods are now callable in Python 3.10. Moreover, _pyio.OpenWrapper() becomes a simple alias to _pyio.open(). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41515: Fix KeyError raised in typing.get_type_hints() due to synthetic modules that don’t appear in sys.modules.

  • bpo-42248: [Enum] ensure exceptions raised in _missing__ are released

  • bpo-43744: fix issue with enum member name matching the start of a private variable name

  • bpo-43772: Fixed the return value of TypeVar.__ror__. Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-43764: Add match_args parameter to @dataclass decorator to allow suppression of __match_args__ generation.

  • bpo-43799: OpenSSL 3.0.0: define OPENSSL_API_COMPAT 1.1.1 to suppress deprecation warnings. Python requires OpenSSL 1.1.1 APIs.

  • bpo-43478: Mocks can no longer be used as the specs for other Mocks. As a result, an already-mocked object cannot have an attribute mocked using autospec=True or be the subject of a create_autospec(...) call. This can uncover bugs in tests since these Mock-derived Mocks will always pass certain tests (e.g. isinstance()) and builtin assert functions (e.g. assert_called_once_with) will unconditionally pass.

  • bpo-43794: Add ssl.OP_IGNORE_UNEXPECTED_EOF constants (OpenSSL 3.0.0)

  • bpo-43785: Improve bz2.BZ2File performance by removing the RLock from BZ2File. This makes BZ2File thread unsafe in the face of multiple simultaneous readers or writers, just like its equivalent classes in gzip and lzma have always been. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-43789: OpenSSL 3.0.0: Don’t call the password callback function a second time when first call has signaled an error condition.

  • bpo-43788: The header files for ssl error codes are now OpenSSL version-specific. Exceptions will now show correct reason and library codes. The make_ssl_data.py script has been rewritten to use OpenSSL’s text file with error codes.

  • bpo-47383: The P.args and P.kwargs attributes of typing.ParamSpec are now instances of the new classes typing.ParamSpecArgs and typing.ParamSpecKwargs, which enables a more useful repr(). Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-43731: Add an encoding parameter logging.fileConfig().

  • bpo-43712: Add encoding and errors parameters to fileinput.input() and fileinput.FileInput.

  • bpo-38659: A simple_enum decorator is added to the enum module to convert a normal class into an Enum. test_simple_enum added to test simple enums against a corresponding normal Enum. Standard library modules updated to use simple_enum.

  • bpo-43764: Fix an issue where __match_args__ generation could fail for some dataclasses.

  • bpo-43752: Fix sqlite3 regression for zero-sized blobs with converters, where b"" was returned instead of None. The regression was introduced by GH-24723. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43723: The following threading methods are now deprecated and should be replaced:

    Patch by Jelle Zijlstra.

  • bpo-2135: Deprecate find_module() and find_loader() implementations in importlib and zipimport.

  • bpo-43522: Fix problem with hostname_checks_common_name. OpenSSL does not copy hostflags from struct SSL_CTX to struct SSL.

  • bpo-42967: Allow bytes separator argument in urllib.parse.parse_qs and urllib.parse.parse_qsl when parsing str query strings. Previously, this raised a TypeError.

  • bpo-43296: Improve sqlite3 error handling: sqlite3_value_blob() errors that set SQLITE_NOMEM now raise MemoryError. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43265: Improve sqlite3.Connection.backup() error handling. The error message for non-existant target database names is now unknown database <database name> instead of SQL logic error. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-41282: Install schemes in distutils.command.install are now loaded from sysconfig.

  • bpo-43176: Fixed processing of a dataclass that inherits from a frozen dataclass with no fields. It is now correctly detected as an error.

  • bpo-43080: pprint now has support for dataclasses.dataclass. Patch by Lewis Gaul.

  • bpo-42904: typing.get_type_hints() now checks the local namespace of a class when evaluating PEP 563 annotations inside said class.

  • bpo-36470: Fix dataclasses with InitVars and replace(). Patch by Claudiu Popa.

  • bpo-40849: Expose X509_V_FLAG_PARTIAL_CHAIN ssl flag

  • bpo-39906: pathlib.Path.stat() and chmod() now accept a follow_symlinks keyword-only argument for consistency with corresponding functions in the os module.

  • bpo-39899: os.path.expanduser() now refuses to guess Windows home directories if the basename of current user’s home directory does not match their username.

    pathlib.Path.expanduser() and home() now consistently raise RuntimeError exception when a home directory cannot be resolved. Previously a KeyError exception could be raised on Windows when the "USERNAME" environment variable was unset.

  • bpo-36076: Added SNI support to ssl.get_server_certificate().

  • bpo-33731: Provide a locale.localize() function, which converts a normalized number string into a locale format.

Documentation

  • bpo-43778: Fix the Sphinx glossary_search extension: create the _static/ sub-directory if it doesn’t exist.

  • bpo-43755: Update documentation to reflect that unparenthesized lambda expressions can no longer be the expression part in an if clause in comprehensions and generator expressions since Python 3.9.

  • bpo-43739: Fixing the example code in Doc/extending/extending.rst to declare and initialize the pmodule variable to be of the right type.

Tests

  • bpo-43842: Fix a race condition in the SMTP test of test_logging. Don’t close a file descriptor (socket) from a different thread while asyncore.loop() is polling the file descriptor. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43843: test.libregrtest now marks a test as ENV_CHANGED (altered the execution environment) if a thread raises an exception but does not catch it. It sets a hook on threading.excepthook(). Use --fail-env-changed option to mark the test as failed. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43811: Tests multiple OpenSSL versions on GitHub Actions. Use ccache to speed up testing.

  • bpo-43791: OpenSSL 3.0.0: Disable testing of legacy protocols TLS 1.0 and 1.1. Tests are failing with TLSV1_ALERT_INTERNAL_ERROR.

Build

  • bpo-43567: Improved generated code refresh (AST/tokens/opcodes/keywords) on Windows.

  • bpo-43669: Implement PEP 644. Python now requires OpenSSL 1.1.1 or newer.

Windows

C API

  • bpo-43753: Add the Py_Is(x, y) function to test if the x object is the y object, the same as x is y in Python. Add also the Py_IsNone(), Py_IsTrue(), Py_IsFalse() functions to test if an object is, respectively, the None singleton, the True singleton or the False singleton. Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 7

Release date: 2021-04-05

Security

  • bpo-42988: CVE-2021-3426: Remove the getfile feature of the pydoc module which could be abused to read arbitrary files on the disk (directory traversal vulnerability). Moreover, even source code of Python modules can contain sensitive data like passwords. Vulnerability reported by David Schwörer.

  • bpo-43285: ftplib no longer trusts the IP address value returned from the server in response to the PASV command by default. This prevents a malicious FTP server from using the response to probe IPv4 address and port combinations on the client network.

    Code that requires the former vulnerable behavior may set a trust_server_pasv_ipv4_address attribute on their ftplib.FTP instances to True to re-enable it.

  • bpo-43439: Add audit hooks for gc.get_objects(), gc.get_referrers() and gc.get_referents(). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-27129: Update CPython bytecode magic number.

  • bpo-43672: Raise ImportWarning when calling find_loader().

  • bpo-43660: Fix crash that happens when replacing sys.stderr with a callable that can remove the object while an exception is being printed. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-27129: The bytecode interpreter uses instruction, rather byte, offsets internally. This reduces the number of EXTENDED_ARG instructions needed and streamlines instruction dispatch a bit.

  • bpo-40645: Fix reference leak in the _hashopenssl extension. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42134: Calls to find_module() by the import system now raise ImportWarning.

  • bpo-41064: Improve the syntax error for invalid usage of double starred elements (‘**’) in f-strings. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43575: Speed up calls to map() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-42137: The import system now prefers using __spec__ for ModuleType.__repr__ over module_repr().

  • bpo-43452: Added micro-optimizations to _PyType_Lookup() to improve cache lookup performance in the common case of cache hits.

  • bpo-43555: Report the column offset for SyntaxError for invalid line continuation characters. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43517: Fix misdetection of circular imports when using from pkg.mod import attr, which caused false positives in non-trivial multi-threaded code.

  • bpo-43497: Emit SyntaxWarnings for assertions with tuple constants, this is a regression introduced in python3.7

  • bpo-39316: Tracing now has correct line numbers for attribute accesses when the the attribute is on a different line from the object. Improves debugging and profiling for multi-line method chains.

  • bpo-35883: Python no longer fails at startup with a fatal error if a command line argument contains an invalid Unicode character. The Py_DecodeLocale() function now escapes byte sequences which would be decoded as Unicode characters outside the [U+0000; U+10ffff] range.

  • bpo-43410: Fix a bug that was causing the parser to crash when emiting syntax errors when reading input from stdin. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43406: Fix a possible race condition where PyErr_CheckSignals tries to execute a non-Python signal handler.

  • bpo-42128: Add __match_args__ to structsequence based classes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43390: CPython now sets the SA_ONSTACK flag in PyOS_setsig for the VM’s default signal handlers. This is friendlier to other in-process code that an extension module or embedding use could pull in (such as Golang’s cgo) where tiny thread stacks are the norm and sigaltstack() has been used to provide for signal handlers. This is a no-op change for the vast majority of processes that don’t use sigaltstack.

  • bpo-43287: Speed up calls to filter() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37448: Add a radix tree based memory map to track in-use obmalloc arenas. Use to replace the old implementation of address_in_range(). The radix tree approach makes it easy to increase pool sizes beyond the OS page size. Boosting the pool and arena size allows obmalloc to handle a significantly higher percentage of requests from its ultra-fast paths.

    It also has the advantage of eliminating the memory unsanitary behavior of the previous address_in_range(). The old address_in_range() was marked with the annotations _Py_NO_SANITIZE_ADDRESS, _Py_NO_SANITIZE_THREAD, and _Py_NO_SANITIZE_MEMORY. Those annotations are no longer needed.

    To disable the radix tree map, set a preprocessor flag as follows: -DWITH_PYMALLOC_RADIX_TREE=0.

    Co-authored-by: Tim Peters <tim.peters@gmail.com>

  • bpo-29988: Only handle asynchronous exceptions and requests to drop the GIL when returning from a call or on the back edges of loops. Makes sure that __exit__() is always called in with statements, even for interrupts.

Library

  • bpo-43720: Document various stdlib deprecations in imp, pkgutil, and importlib.util for removal in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-43433: xmlrpc.client.ServerProxy no longer ignores query and fragment in the URL of the server.

  • bpo-31956: The index() method of array.array now has optional start and stop parameters.

  • bpo-40066: Enum: adjust repr() to show only enum and member name (not value, nor angle brackets) and str() to show only member name. Update and improve documentation to match.

  • bpo-42136: Deprecate all module_repr() methods found in importlib as their use is being phased out by Python 3.12.

  • bpo-35930: Raising an exception raised in a “future” instance will create reference cycles.

  • bpo-41369: Finish updating the vendored libmpdec to version 2.5.1. Patch by Stefan Krah.

  • bpo-43422: Revert the _decimal C API which was added in bpo-41324.

  • bpo-43577: Fix deadlock when using ssl.SSLContext debug callback with ssl.SSLContext.sni_callback().

  • bpo-43571: It’s now possible to create MPTCP sockets with IPPROTO_MPTCP

  • bpo-43542: image/heic and image/heif were added to mimetypes.

  • bpo-40645: The hmac module now uses OpenSSL’s HMAC implementation when digestmod argument is a hash name or builtin hash function.

  • bpo-43510: Implement PEP 597: Add EncodingWarning warning, -X warn_default_encoding option, PYTHONWARNDEFAULTENCODING environment variable and encoding="locale" argument value.

  • bpo-43521: ast.unparse can now render NaNs and empty sets.

  • bpo-42914: pprint.pprint() gains a new boolean underscore_numbers optional argument to emit integers with thousands separated by an underscore character for improved readability (for example 1_000_000 instead of 1000000).

  • bpo-41361: rotate() calls are now slightly faster due to faster argument parsing.

  • bpo-43423: subprocess.communicate() no longer raises an IndexError when there is an empty stdout or stderr IO buffer during a timeout on Windows.

  • bpo-27820: Fixed long-standing bug of smtplib.SMTP where doing AUTH LOGIN with initial_response_ok=False will fail.

    The cause is that SMTP.auth_login _always_ returns a password if provided with a challenge string, thus non-compliant with the standard for AUTH LOGIN.

    Also fixes bug with the test for smtpd.

  • bpo-43445: Add frozen modules to sys.stdlib_module_names. For example, add "_frozen_importlib" and "_frozen_importlib_external" names.

  • bpo-43245: Add keyword arguments support to ChainMap.new_child().

  • bpo-29982: Add optional parameter ignore_cleanup_errors to tempfile.TemporaryDirectory() and allow multiple cleanup() attempts. Contributed by C.A.M. Gerlach.

  • bpo-43428: Include changes from importlib_metadata 3.7:

    Performance enhancements to distribution discovery.

    entry_points only returns unique distributions.

    Introduces new EntryPoints object for containing a set of entry points with convenience methods for selecting entry points by group or name. entry_points now returns this object if selection parameters are supplied but continues to return a dict object for compatibility. Users are encouraged to rely on the selection interface. The dict object result is likely to be deprecated in the future.

    Added packages_distributions function to return a mapping of packages to the distributions that provide them.

  • bpo-43332: Improves the networking efficiency of http.client when using a proxy via set_tunnel(). Fewer small send calls are made during connection setup.

  • bpo-43420: Improve performance of fractions.Fraction arithmetics for large components. Contributed by Sergey B. Kirpichev.

  • bpo-43356: Allow passing a signal number to _thread.interrupt_main().

  • bpo-43399: Fix ElementTree.extend not working on iterators when using the Python implementation

  • bpo-43369: Improve sqlite3 error handling: If sqlite3_column_text() and sqlite3_column_blob() set SQLITE_NOMEM, MemoryError is now raised. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43368: Fix a regression introduced in GH-24562, where an empty bytestring was fetched as None instead of b'' in sqlite3. Patch by Mariusz Felisiak.

  • bpo-41282: Fixed stacklevel of DeprecationWarning emitted from import distutils.

  • bpo-42129: importlib.resources now honors namespace packages, merging resources from each location in the namespace as introduced in importlib_resources 3.2 and including incidental changes through 5.0.3.

  • bpo-43295: datetime.datetime.strptime() now raises ValueError instead of IndexError when matching 'z' with the %z format specifier.

  • bpo-43125: Return empty string if base64mime.body_encode receive empty bytes

  • bpo-43084: curses.window.enclose() returns now True or False (as was documented) instead of 1 or 0.

  • bpo-42994: Add MIME types for opus, AAC, 3gpp and 3gpp2

  • bpo-14678: Add an invalidate_caches() method to the zipimport.zipimporter class to support importlib.invalidate_caches(). Patch by Desmond Cheong.

  • bpo-42782: Fail fast in shutil.move() to avoid creating destination directories on failure.

  • bpo-40066: Enum’s repr() and str() have changed: repr() is now EnumClass.MemberName and str() is MemberName. Additionally, stdlib Enum’s whose contents are available as module attributes, such as RegexFlag.IGNORECASE, have their repr() as module.name, e.g. re.IGNORECASE.

  • bpo-26053: Fixed bug where the pdb interactive run command echoed the args from the shell command line, even if those have been overridden at the pdb prompt.

  • bpo-24160: Fixed bug where breakpoints did not persist across multiple debugger sessions in pdb’s interactive mode.

  • bpo-40701: When the tempfile.tempdir global variable is set to a value of type bytes, it is now handled consistently. Previously exceptions could be raised from some tempfile APIs when the directory did not already exist in this situation. Also ensures that the tempfile.gettempdir() and tempfile.gettempdirb() functions always return str and bytes respectively.

  • bpo-39342: Expose X509_V_FLAG_ALLOW_PROXY_CERTS as VERIFY_ALLOW_PROXY_CERTS to allow proxy certificate validation as explained in https://www.openssl.org/docs/man1.1.1/man7/proxy-certificates.html.

  • bpo-31861: Add builtins.aiter and builtins.anext. Patch by Joshua Bronson (@jab), Daniel Pope (@lordmauve), and Justin Wang (@justin39).

Documentation

Tests

  • bpo-37945: Fix test_getsetlocale_issue1813() of test_locale: skip the test if setlocale() fails. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41561: Add workaround for Ubuntu’s custom OpenSSL security level policy.

Build

  • bpo-43179: Introduce and correctly use ALIGNOF_X in place of SIZEOF_X for alignment-related code in optimized string routines. Patch by Jessica Clarke.

  • bpo-43631: Update macOS, Windows, and CI to OpenSSL 1.1.1k.

  • bpo-43617: Improve configure.ac: Check for presence of autoconf-archive package and remove our copies of M4 macros.

  • bpo-43466: The configure script now supports --with-openssl-rpath option.

  • bpo-43372: Use _freeze_importlib to generate code for the __hello__ module. This approach ensures the code matches the interpreter version. Previously, PYTHON_FOR_REGEN was used to generate the code, which might be wrong. The marshal format for code objects has changed with bpo-42246, commit 877df851. Update the code and the expected code sizes in ctypes test_frozentable.

Windows

  • bpo-43440: Build sqlite3 with the R*Tree module enabled. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

IDLE

  • bpo-42225: Document that IDLE can fail on Unix either from misconfigured IP masquerage rules or failure displaying complex colored (non-ascii) characters.

C API

  • bpo-43688: The limited C API is now supported if Python is built in debug mode (if the Py_DEBUG macro is defined). In the limited C API, the Py_INCREF() and Py_DECREF() functions are now implemented as opaque function calls, rather than accessing directly the PyObject.ob_refcnt member, if Python is built in debug mode and the Py_LIMITED_API macro targets Python 3.10 or newer. It became possible to support the limited C API in debug mode because the PyObject structure is the same in release and debug mode since Python 3.8 (see bpo-36465).

    The limited C API is still not supported in the --with-trace-refs special build (Py_TRACE_REFS macro).

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the pyarena.h header file with functions:

    • PyArena_New()

    • PyArena_Free()

    • PyArena_Malloc()

    • PyArena_AddPyObject()

    These functions were undocumented, excluded from the limited C API, and were only used internally by the compiler. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the compiler and parser functions using struct _mod type, because the public AST C API was removed:

    • PyAST_Compile()

    • PyAST_CompileEx()

    • PyAST_CompileObject()

    • PyFuture_FromAST()

    • PyFuture_FromASTObject()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFile()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFileObject()

    • PyParser_ASTFromFilename()

    • PyParser_ASTFromString()

    • PyParser_ASTFromStringObject()

    These functions were undocumented and excluded from the limited C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove ast.h, asdl.h, and Python-ast.h header files. These functions were undocumented and excluded from the limited C API. Most names defined by these header files were not prefixed by Py and so could create names conflicts. For example, Python-ast.h defined a Yield macro which was conflict with the Yield name used by the Windows <winbase.h> header. Use the Python ast module instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43541: Fix a PyEval_EvalCodeEx() regression: fix reference counting on builtins. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the symtable.h header file and the undocumented functions:

    • PyST_GetScope()

    • PySymtable_Build()

    • PySymtable_BuildObject()

    • PySymtable_Free()

    • Py_SymtableString()

    • Py_SymtableStringObject()

    The Py_SymtableString() function was part the stable ABI by mistake but it could not be used, because the symtable.h header file was excluded from the limited C API.

    The Python symtable module remains available and is unchanged.

    Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43244: Remove the PyAST_Validate() function. It is no longer possible to build a AST object (mod_ty type) with the public C API. The function was already excluded from the limited C API (PEP 384). Patch by Victor Stinner.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 6

Release date: 2021-03-01

Security

  • bpo-42967: Fix web cache poisoning vulnerability by defaulting the query args separator to &, and allowing the user to choose a custom separator.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-43321: Fix SystemError raised when PyArg_Parse*() is used with # but without PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN defined.

  • bpo-36346: PyArg_Parse*() functions now emits DeprecationWarning when u or Z format is used. See PEP 623 for detail.

  • bpo-43277: Add a new PySet_CheckExact() function to the C-API to check if an object is an instance of set but not an instance of a subtype. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42990: The types.FunctionType constructor now inherits the current builtins if the globals dictionary has no "__builtins__" key, rather than using {"None": None} as builtins: same behavior as eval() and exec() functions. Defining a function with def function(...): ... in Python is not affected, globals cannot be overriden with this syntax: it also inherits the current builtins. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42990: Functions have a new __builtins__ attribute which is used to look for builtin symbols when a function is executed, instead of looking into __globals__['__builtins__']. Patch by Mark Shannon and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43149: Improve the error message in the parser for exception groups without parentheses. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43121: Fixed an incorrect SyntaxError message for missing comma in literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42819: readline: Explicitly disable bracketed paste in the interactive interpreter, even if it’s set in the inputrc, is enabled by default (eg GNU Readline 8.1), or a user calls readline.read_init_file(). The Python REPL has not implemented bracketed paste support. Also, bracketed mode writes the "\x1b[?2004h" escape sequence into stdout which causes test failures in applications that don’t support it. It can still be explicitly enabled by calling readline.parse_and_bind("set enable-bracketed-paste on"). Patch by Dustin Rodrigues.

  • bpo-42808: Simple calls to type(object) are now faster due to the vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-42217: Make the compiler merges same co_code and co_linetable objects in a module like already did for co_consts.

  • bpo-41972: Substring search functions such as str1 in str2 and str2.find(str1) now sometimes use the “Two-Way” string comparison algorithm to avoid quadratic behavior on long strings.

  • bpo-42128: Implement PEP 634 (structural pattern matching). Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-40692: In the concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor, validate that multiprocess.synchronize() is available on a given platform and rely on that check in the concurrent.futures test suite so we can run tests that are unrelated to ProcessPoolExecutor on those platforms.

  • bpo-38302: If object.__ipow__() returns NotImplemented, the operator will correctly fall back to object.__pow__() and object.__rpow__() as expected.

Library

  • bpo-43316: The python -m gzip command line application now properly fails when detecting an unsupported extension. It exits with a non-zero exit code and prints an error message to stderr.

  • bpo-43317: Set the chunk size for the gzip module main function to io.DEFAULT_BUFFER_SIZE. This is slightly faster than the 1024 bytes constant that was used previously.

  • bpo-43146: Handle None in single-arg versions of print_exception() and format_exception().

  • bpo-43260: Fix TextIOWrapper can not flush internal buffer forever after very large text is written.

  • bpo-43258: Prevent needless allocation of sqlite3 aggregate function context when no rows match an aggregate query. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43251: Improve sqlite3 error handling: sqlite3_column_name() failures now result in MemoryError. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40956: Fix segfault in sqlite3.Connection.backup() if no argument was provided. The regression was introduced by GH-23838. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43172: The readline module now passes its tests when built directly against libedit. Existing irreconcilable API differences remain in readline.get_begidx() and readline.get_endidx() behavior based on libreadline vs libedit use.

  • bpo-43163: Fix a bug in codeop that was causing it to not ask for more input when multi-line snippets have unclosed parentheses. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43162: deprecate unsupported ability to access enum members as attributes of other enum members

  • bpo-43146: Fix recent regression in None argument handling in traceback module functions.

  • bpo-43102: The namedtuple __new__ method had its __builtins__ set to None instead of an actual dictionary. This created problems for introspection tools.

  • bpo-43106: Added O_EVTONLY, O_FSYNC, O_SYMLINK and O_NOFOLLOW_ANY for macOS. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-42960: Adds resource.RLIMIT_KQUEUES constant from FreeBSD to the resource module.

  • bpo-42151: Make the pure Python implementation of xml.etree.ElementTree behave the same as the C implementation (_elementree) regarding default attribute values (by not setting specified_attributes=1).

  • bpo-29753: In ctypes, now packed bitfields are calculated properly and the first item of packed bitfields is now shrank correctly.

Documentation

  • bpo-27646: Clarify that ‘yield from <expr>’ works with any iterable, not just iterators.

  • bpo-36346: Update some deprecated unicode APIs which are documented as “will be removed in 4.0” to “3.12”. See PEP 623 for detail.

Tests

  • bpo-43288: Fix test_importlib to correctly skip Unicode file tests if the fileystem does not support them.

Build

  • bpo-43174: Windows build now uses /utf-8 compiler option.

  • bpo-43103: Add a new configure --without-static-libpython option to not build the libpythonMAJOR.MINOR.a static library and not install the python.o object file.

  • bpo-13501: The configure script can now use libedit instead of readline with the command line option --with-readline=editline.

  • bpo-42603: Make configure script use pkg-config to detect the location of Tcl/Tk headers and libraries, used to build tkinter.

    On macOS, a Tcl/Tk configuration provided by pkg-config will be preferred over Tcl/Tk frameworks installed in /{System/,}Library/Frameworks. If both exist and the latter is preferred, the appropriate --with-tcltk-* configuration options need to be explicitly set.

  • bpo-39448: Add the “regen-frozen” makefile target that regenerates the code for the frozen __hello__ module.

Windows

  • bpo-43155: PyCMethod_New() is now present in python3.lib.

macOS

  • bpo-41837: Update macOS installer build to use OpenSSL 1.1.1j.

IDLE

  • bpo-43283: Document why printing to IDLE’s Shell is often slower than printing to a system terminal and that it can be made faster by pre-formatting a single string before printing.

C API

  • bpo-43278: Always put compiler and system information on the first line of the REPL welcome message.

  • bpo-43270: Remove the private _PyErr_OCCURRED() macro: use the public PyErr_Occurred() function instead.

  • bpo-35134: Move odictobject.h, parser_interface.h, picklebufobject.h, pydebug.h, and pyfpe.h into the cpython/ directory. They must not be included directly, as they are already included by Python.h: Include Files.

  • bpo-35134: Move pyarena.h, pyctype.h, and pytime.h into the cpython/ directory. They must not be included directly, as they are already included by Python.h: Include Files.

  • bpo-40170: PyExceptionClass_Name() is now always declared as a function, in order to hide implementation details. The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_name directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43239: The PyCFunction_New() function is now exported in the ABI when compiled with -fvisibility=hidden.

  • bpo-40170: PyIter_Check() is now always declared as a function, in order to hide implementation details. The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_iternext directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40170: Convert PyDescr_IsData() macro to a function to hide implementation details: The macro accessed PyTypeObject.tp_descr_set directly. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-43181: Convert PyObject_TypeCheck() macro to a static inline function. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 5

Release date: 2021-02-02

Security

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42990: Refactor the PyEval_ family of functions.

    • An new function _PyEval_Vector is added to simplify calls to Python from C.

    • _PyEval_EvalCodeWithName is removed

    • PyEval_EvalCodeEx is retained as part of the API, but is not used internally

  • bpo-38631: Replace Py_FatalError() calls in the compiler with regular SystemError exceptions. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42997: Improve error message for missing “:” before blocks. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-43017: Improve error message in the parser when using un-parenthesised tuples in comprehensions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42986: Fix parser crash when reporting syntax errors in f-string with newlines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40176: Syntax errors for unterminated string literals now point to the start of the string instead of reporting EOF/EOL.

  • bpo-42927: The inline cache for LOAD_ATTR now also optimizes access to attributes defined by __slots__. This makes reading such attribute up to 30% faster.

  • bpo-42864: Improve error messages in the parser when parentheses are not closed. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42924: Fix bytearray repetition incorrectly copying data from the start of the buffer, even if the data is offset within the buffer (e.g. after reassigning a slice at the start of the bytearray to a shorter byte string).

  • bpo-42882: Fix the _PyUnicode_FromId() function (_Py_IDENTIFIER(var) API) when Py_Initialize() / Py_Finalize() is called multiple times: preserve _PyRuntime.unicode_ids.next_index value.

  • bpo-42827: Fix a crash when working out the error line of a SyntaxError in some multi-line expressions.

  • bpo-42823: frame.f_lineno is correct even if frame.f_trace is set to True

  • bpo-37324: Remove deprecated aliases to Collections Abstract Base Classes from the collections module.

  • bpo-41994: Fixed possible leak in import when sys.modules is not a dict.

  • bpo-27772: In string formatting, preceding the width field by '0' no longer affects the default alignment for strings.

Library

  • bpo-43108: Fixed a reference leak in the curses module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-43077: Update the bundled pip to 21.0.1 and setuptools to 52.0.0.

  • bpo-41282: Deprecate distutils in documentation and add warning on import.

  • bpo-43014: Improve performance of tokenize by 20-30%. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-42323: Fix math.nextafter() for NaN on AIX.

  • bpo-42955: Add sys.stdlib_module_names, containing the list of the standard library module names. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42944: Fix random.Random.sample when counts argument is not None.

  • bpo-42934: Use TracebackException’s new compact param in TestResult to reduce time and memory consumed by traceback formatting.

  • bpo-42931: Add randbytes() to random.__all__.

  • bpo-38250: [Enum] Flags consisting of a single bit are now considered canonical, and will be the only flags returned from listing and iterating over a Flag class or a Flag member. Multi-bit flags are considered aliases; they will be returned from lookups and operations that result in their value. Iteration for both Flag and Flag members is in definition order.

  • bpo-42877: Added the compact parameter to the constructor of traceback.TracebackException to reduce time and memory for use cases that only need to call TracebackException.format() and TracebackException.format_exception_only().

  • bpo-42923: The Py_FatalError() function and the faulthandler module now dump the list of extension modules on a fatal error.

  • bpo-42848: Removed recursion from TracebackException to allow it to handle long exception chains.

  • bpo-42901: [Enum] move member creation from EnumMeta.__new__ to _proto_member.__set_name__, allowing members to be created and visible in __init_subclass__.

  • bpo-42780: Fix os.set_inheritable() for O_PATH file descriptors on Linux.

  • bpo-42866: Fix a reference leak in the getcodec() function of CJK codecs. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42846: Convert the 6 CJK codec extension modules (_codecs_cn, _codecs_hk, _codecs_iso2022, _codecs_jp, _codecs_kr and _codecs_tw) to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42851: remove __init_subclass__ support for Enum members

  • bpo-42834: Make internal caches of the _json module compatible with subinterpreters.

  • bpo-41748: Fix HTMLParser parsing rules for element attributes containing commas with spaces. Patch by Karl Dubost.

  • bpo-40810: Require SQLite 3.7.15 or newer. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-1635741: Convert the _multibytecodec extension module (CJK codecs) to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42802: The distutils bdist_wininst command deprecated in Python 3.8 has been removed. The distutils bidst_wheel command is now recommended to distribute binary packages on Windows.

  • bpo-24464: The undocumented built-in function sqlite3.enable_shared_cache is now deprecated, scheduled for removal in Python 3.12. Its use is strongly discouraged by the SQLite3 documentation. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42384: Make pdb populate sys.path[0] exactly the same as regular python execution.

  • bpo-42383: Fix pdb: previously pdb would fail to restart the debugging target if it was specified using a relative path and the current directory changed.

  • bpo-42005: Fix CLI of cProfile and profile to catch BrokenPipeError.

  • bpo-41604: Don’t decrement the reference count of the previous user_ptr when set_panel_userptr fails.

  • bpo-41149: Allow executing callables that have a boolean value of False when passed to Threading.thread as the target. Patch contributed by Barney Stratford.

  • bpo-38307: Add an ‘end_lineno’ attribute to the Class and Function objects that appear in the tree returned by pyclbr functions. This and the existing ‘lineno’ attribute define the extent of class and def statements. Patch by Aviral Srivastava.

  • bpo-39273: The BUTTON5_* constants are now exposed in the curses module if available.

  • bpo-33289: Correct call to tkinter.colorchooser to return RGB triplet of ints instead of floats. Patch by Cheryl Sabella.

Documentation

  • bpo-40304: Fix doc for type(name, bases, dict). Patch by Boris Verkhovskiy and Éric Araujo.

  • bpo-42811: Updated importlib.utils.resolve_name() doc to use __spec__.parent instead of __package__. (Thanks Yair Frid.)

Tests

  • bpo-40823: Use unittest.TestLoader().loadTestsFromTestCase() instead of unittest.makeSuite() in sqlite3 tests. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40810: In sqlite3, fix CheckTraceCallbackContent for SQLite pre 3.7.15.

Build

  • bpo-43031: Pass --timeout=$(TESTTIMEOUT) option to the default profile task ./python -m test --pgo command.

  • bpo-36143: make regen-all now also runs regen-keyword. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42874: Removed the grep -q and -E flags in the tzpath validation section of the configure script to better accomodate users of some platforms (specifically Solaris 10).

  • bpo-31904: Add library search path by wr-cc in add_cross_compiling_paths() for VxWorks.

  • bpo-42856: Add --with-wheel-pkg-dir=PATH option to the ./configure script. If specified, the ensurepip module looks for setuptools and pip wheel packages in this directory: if both are present, these wheel packages are used instead of ensurepip bundled wheel packages.

    Some Linux distribution packaging policies recommend against bundling dependencies. For example, Fedora installs wheel packages in the /usr/share/python-wheels/ directory and don’t install the ensurepip._bundled package.

Windows

  • bpo-41837: Updated Windows installer to include OpenSSL 1.1.1i

  • bpo-42584: Upgrade Windows installer to use SQLite 3.34.0.

macOS

  • bpo-42504: Ensure that the value of sysconfig.get_config_var(‘MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET’) is always a string, even in when the value is parsable as an integer.

IDLE

  • bpo-43008: Make IDLE invoke sys.excepthook() in normal, 2-process mode. Patch by Ken Hilton.

  • bpo-33065: Fix problem debugging user classes with __repr__ method.

  • bpo-23544: Disable Debug=>Stack Viewer when user code is running or Debugger is active, to prevent hang or crash. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-32631: Finish zzdummy example extension module: make menu entries work; add docstrings and tests with 100% coverage.

C API

  • bpo-42979: When Python is built in debug mode (with C assertions), calling a type slot like sq_length (__len__() in Python) now fails with a fatal error if the slot succeeded with an exception set, or failed with no exception set. The error message contains the slot, the type name, and the current exception (if an exception is set). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-43030: Fixed a compiler warning in Py_UNICODE_ISSPACE() on platforms with signed wchar_t.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 4

Release date: 2021-01-04

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42814: Fix undefined behavior in Objects/genericaliasobject.c.

  • bpo-42806: Fix the column offsets for f-strings ast nodes surrounded by parentheses and for nodes that spawn multiple lines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40631: Fix regression where a single parenthesized starred expression was a valid assignment target.

  • bpo-27794: Improve the error message for failed writes/deletes to property objects. When possible, the attribute name is now shown. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42745: Make the type attribute lookup cache per-interpreter. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42246: Jumps to jumps are not eliminated when it would break PEP 626.

  • bpo-42246: Make sure that the f_lasti and f_lineno attributes of a frame are set correctly when an exception is raised or re-raised. Required for PEP 626.

  • bpo-32381: The coding cookie (ex: # coding: latin1) is now ignored in the command passed to the -c command line option. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-30858: Improve error location in expressions that contain assignments. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Lysandros Nikolaou.

  • bpo-42615: Remove jump commands made redundant by the deletion of unreachable bytecode blocks

  • bpo-42639: Make the atexit module state per-interpreter. It is now safe have more than one atexit module instance. Patch by Dong-hee Na and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-32381: Fix encoding name when running a .pyc file on Windows: PyRun_SimpleFileExFlags() now uses the correct encoding to decode the filename.

  • bpo-42195: The __args__ of the parameterized generics for typing.Callable and collections.abc.Callable are now consistent. The __args__ for collections.abc.Callable are now flattened while typing.Callable’s have not changed. To allow this change, types.GenericAlias can now be subclassed and collections.abc.Callable’s __class_getitem__ will now return a subclass of types.GenericAlias. Tests for typing were also updated to not subclass things like Callable[..., T] as that is not a valid base class. Finally, both Callables no longer validate their argtypes, in Callable[[argtypes], resulttype] to prepare for PEP 612. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-40137: Convert functools module to use PyType_FromModuleAndSpec().

  • bpo-40077: Convert array to use heap types, and establish module state for these.

  • bpo-42008: Fix _random.Random() seeding.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the pyexpat extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40521: Make the Unicode dictionary of interned strings compatible with subinterpreters. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-39465: Make _PyUnicode_FromId() function compatible with subinterpreters. Each interpreter now has an array of identifier objects (interned strings decoded from UTF-8). Patch by Victor Stinner.

Library

  • bpo-42257: Handle empty string in variable executable in platform.libc_ver()

  • bpo-42772: randrange() now raises a TypeError when step is specified without a stop argument. Formerly, it silently ignored the step argument.

  • bpo-42759: Fixed equality comparison of tkinter.Variable and tkinter.font.Font. Objects which belong to different Tcl interpreters are now always different, even if they have the same name.

  • bpo-42756: Configure LMTP Unix-domain socket to use socket global default timeout when a timeout is not explicitly provided.

  • bpo-23328: Allow / character in username, password fields on _PROXY envars.

  • bpo-42740: typing.get_args() and typing.get_origin() now support PEP 604 union types and PEP 612 additions to Callable.

  • bpo-42655: subprocess extra_groups is now correctly passed into setgroups() system call.

  • bpo-42727: EnumMeta.__prepare__ now accepts **kwds to properly support __init_subclass__

  • bpo-38308: Add optional weights to statistics.harmonic_mean().

  • bpo-42721: When simple query dialogs (tkinter.simpledialog), message boxes (tkinter.messagebox) or color choose dialog (tkinter.colorchooser) are created without arguments master and parent, and the default root window is not yet created, and NoDefaultRoot() was not called, a new temporal hidden root window will be created automatically. It will not be set as the default root window and will be destroyed right after closing the dialog window. It will help to use these simple dialog windows in programs which do not need other GUI.

  • bpo-25246: Optimized collections.deque.remove().

  • bpo-35728: Added a root parameter to tkinter.font.nametofont().

  • bpo-15303: tkinter supports now widgets with boolean value False.

  • bpo-42681: Fixed range checks for color and pair numbers in curses.

  • bpo-42685: Improved placing of simple query windows in Tkinter (such as tkinter.simpledialog.askinteger()). They are now centered at the center of the parent window if it is specified and shown, otherwise at the center of the screen.

  • bpo-9694: Argparse help no longer uses the confusing phrase, “optional arguments”. It uses “options” instead.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _thread extension module to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489) and convert its static types to heap types.

  • bpo-37961: Fix crash in tracemalloc.Traceback.__repr__() (regressed in Python 3.9).

  • bpo-42630: tkinter functions and constructors which need a default root window raise now RuntimeError with descriptive message instead of obscure AttributeError or NameError if it is not created yet or cannot be created automatically.

  • bpo-42639: atexit._run_exitfuncs() now logs callback exceptions using sys.unraisablehook, rather than logging them directly into sys.stderr and raise the last exception.

  • bpo-42644: logging.disable will now validate the types and value of its parameter. It also now accepts strings representing the levels (as does loging.setLevel) instead of only the numerical values.

  • bpo-42639: At Python exit, if a callback registered with atexit.register() fails, its exception is now logged. Previously, only some exceptions were logged, and the last exception was always silently ignored.

  • bpo-36541: Fixed lib2to3.pgen2 to be able to parse PEP-570 positional only argument syntax.

  • bpo-42382: In importlib.metadata: - EntryPoint objects now expose a .dist object referencing the Distribution when constructed from a Distribution. - Add support for package discovery under package normalization rules. - The object returned by metadata() now has a formally-defined protocol called PackageMetadata with declared support for the .get_all() method. - Synced with importlib_metadata 3.3.

  • bpo-41877: A check is added against misspellings of autospect, auto_spec and set_spec being passed as arguments to patch, patch.object and create_autospec.

  • bpo-39717: [tarfile] update nested exception raising to use from None or from e

  • bpo-41877: AttributeError for suspected misspellings of assertions on mocks are now pointing out that the cause are misspelled assertions and also what to do if the misspelling is actually an intended attribute name. The unittest.mock document is also updated to reflect the current set of recognised misspellings.

  • bpo-41559: Implemented PEP 612: added ParamSpec and Concatenate to typing. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-42385: StrEnum: fix _generate_next_value_ to return a str

  • bpo-31904: Define THREAD_STACK_SIZE for VxWorks.

  • bpo-34750: [Enum] _EnumDict.update() is now supported

  • bpo-42517: Enum: private names do not become members / do not generate errors – they remain normal attributes

  • bpo-42678: Enum: call __init_subclass__ after members have been added

  • bpo-28964: ast.literal_eval() adds line number information (if available) in error message for malformed nodes.

  • bpo-42470: random.sample() no longer warns on a sequence which is also a set.

  • bpo-31904: posixpath.expanduser() returns the input path unchanged if user home directory is None on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42388: Fix subprocess.check_output(…, input=None) behavior when text=True to be consistent with that of the documentation and universal_newlines=True.

  • bpo-34463: Fixed discrepancy between traceback and the interpreter in formatting of SyntaxError with lineno not set (traceback was changed to match interpreter).

  • bpo-42393: Raise OverflowError instead of silent truncation in socket.ntohs() and socket.htons(). Silent truncation was deprecated in Python 3.7. Patch by Erlend E. Aasland

  • bpo-42222: Harmonized random.randrange() argument handling to match range().

    • The integer test and conversion in randrange() now uses operator.index().

    • Non-integer arguments to randrange() are deprecated.

    • The ValueError is deprecated in favor of a TypeError.

    • It now runs a little faster than before.

    (Contributed by Raymond Hettinger and Serhiy Storchaka.)

  • bpo-42163: Restore compatibility for uname_result around deepcopy and _replace.

  • bpo-42090: zipfile.Path.joinpath now accepts arbitrary arguments, same as pathlib.Path.joinpath.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _csv module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-42059: typing.TypedDict types created using the alternative call-style syntax now correctly respect the total keyword argument when setting their __required_keys__ and __optional_keys__ class attributes.

  • bpo-41960: Add globalns and localns parameters to the inspect.signature() and inspect.Signature.from_callable().

  • bpo-41907: fix format() behavior for IntFlag

  • bpo-41891: Ensure asyncio.wait_for waits for task completion

  • bpo-24792: Fixed bug where zipimporter sometimes reports an incorrect cause of import errors.

  • bpo-31904: Fix site and sysconfig modules for VxWorks RTOS which has no home directories.

  • bpo-41462: Add os.set_blocking() support for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-40219: Lowered tkinter.ttk.LabeledScale dummy widget to prevent hiding part of the content label.

  • bpo-37193: Fixed memory leak in socketserver.ThreadingMixIn introduced in Python 3.7.

  • bpo-39068: Fix initialization race condition in a85encode() and b85encode() in base64. Patch by Brandon Stansbury.

Documentation

Tests

  • bpo-42794: Update test_nntplib to use offical group name of news.aioe.org for testing. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-31904: Skip some asyncio tests on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42641: Enhance test_select.test_select(): it now takes 500 ms rather than 10 seconds. Use Python rather than a shell to make the test more portable.

  • bpo-31904: Skip some tests in _test_all_chown_common() on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42199: Fix bytecode helper assertNotInBytecode.

  • bpo-41443: Add more attribute checking in test_posix.py

  • bpo-31904: Disable os.popen and impacted tests on VxWorks

  • bpo-41439: Port test_ssl and test_uuid to VxWorks RTOS.

Build

  • bpo-42692: Fix __builtin_available check on older compilers. Patch by Joshua Root.

  • bpo-27640: Added --disable-test-modules option to the configure script: don’t build nor install test modules. Patch by Xavier de Gaye, Thomas Petazzoni and Peixing Xin.

  • bpo-42604: Now all platforms use a value for the “EXT_SUFFIX” build variable derived from SOABI (for instance in freeBSD, “EXT_SUFFIX” is now “.cpython-310d.so” instead of “.so”). Previosuly only Linux, Mac and VxWorks were using a value for “EXT_SUFFIX” that included “SOABI”.

  • bpo-42598: Fix implicit function declarations in configure which could have resulted in incorrect configuration checks. Patch contributed by Joshua Root.

  • bpo-31904: Enable libpython3.so for VxWorks.

  • bpo-29076: Add fish shell support to macOS installer.

macOS

  • bpo-42361: Update macOS installer build to use Tcl/Tk 8.6.11 (rc2, expected to be final release).

  • bpo-41837: Update macOS installer build to use OpenSSL 1.1.1i.

  • bpo-42584: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.34.0.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-42726: Fixed Python 3 compatibility issue with gdb/libpython.py handling of attribute dictionaries.

  • bpo-42613: Fix freeze.py tool to use the prope config and library directories. Patch by Victor Stinner.

C API

  • bpo-42591: Export the Py_FrozenMain() function: fix a Python 3.9.0 regression. Python 3.9 uses -fvisibility=hidden and the function was not exported explicitly and so not exported.

  • bpo-32381: Remove the private _Py_fopen() function which is no longer needed. Use _Py_wfopen() or _Py_fopen_obj() instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-1635741: Port resource extension module to module state

  • bpo-42111: Update the xxlimited module to be a better example of how to use the limited C API.

  • bpo-40052: Fix an alignment build warning/error in function PyVectorcall_Function(). Patch by Andreas Schneider, Antoine Pitrou and Petr Viktorin.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 3

Release date: 2020-12-07

Security

  • bpo-40791: Add volatile to the accumulator variable in hmac.compare_digest, making constant-time-defeating optimizations less likely.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42576: types.GenericAlias will now raise a TypeError when attempting to initialize with a keyword argument. Previously, this would cause the interpreter to crash if the interpreter was compiled with debug symbols. This does not affect interpreters compiled for release. Patch by Ken Jin.

  • bpo-42536: Several built-in and standard library types now ensure that their internal result tuples are always tracked by the garbage collector:

    Previously, they could have become untracked by a prior garbage collection. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-42500: Improve handling of exceptions near recursion limit. Converts a number of Fatal Errors in RecursionErrors.

  • bpo-42246: PEP 626: After a return, the f_lineno attribute of a frame is always the last line executed.

  • bpo-42435: Speed up comparison of bytes objects with non-bytes objects when option -b is specified. Speed up comparison of bytarray objects with non-buffer object.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _warnings extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41686: On Windows, the SIGINT event, _PyOS_SigintEvent(), is now created even if Python is configured to not install signal handlers (if PyConfig.install_signal_handlers equals to 0, or Py_InitializeEx(0)).

  • bpo-42381: Allow assignment expressions in set literals and set comprehensions as per PEP 572. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42202: Change function parameters annotations internal representation to tuple of strings. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42374: Fix a regression introduced by the new parser, where an unparenthesized walrus operator was not allowed within generator expressions.

  • bpo-42316: Allow an unparenthesized walrus in subscript indexes.

  • bpo-42349: Make sure that the compiler front-end produces a well-formed control flow graph. Be be more aggressive in the compiler back-end, as it is now safe to do so.

  • bpo-42296: On Windows, fix a regression in signal handling which prevented to interrupt a program using CTRL+C. The signal handler can be run in a thread different than the Python thread, in which case the test deciding if the thread can handle signals is wrong.

  • bpo-42332: types.GenericAlias objects can now be the targets of weakrefs.

  • bpo-42282: Optimise constant subexpressions that appear as part of named expressions (previously the AST optimiser did not descend into named expressions). Patch by Nick Coghlan.

  • bpo-42266: Fixed a bug with the LOAD_ATTR opcode cache that was not respecting monkey-patching a class-level attribute to make it a descriptor. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40077: Convert queue to use heap types.

  • bpo-42246: Improved accuracy of line tracing events and f_lineno attribute of Frame objects. See PEP 626 for details.

  • bpo-40077: Convert mmap to use heap types.

  • bpo-42233: Allow GenericAlias objects to use union type expressions. This allows expressions like list[int] | dict[float, str] where previously a TypeError would have been thrown. This also fixes union type expressions not de-duplicating GenericAlias objects. (Contributed by Ken Jin in bpo-42233.)

  • bpo-26131: The import system triggers a ImportWarning when it falls back to using load_module().

Library

  • bpo-5054: CGIHTTPRequestHandler.run_cgi() HTTP_ACCEPT improperly parsed. Replace the special purpose getallmatchingheaders with generic get_all method and add relevant tests.

    Original Patch by Martin Panter. Modified by Senthil Kumaran.

  • bpo-42562: Fix issue when dis failed to parse function that has no line numbers. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-17735: inspect.findsource() now raises OSError instead of IndexError when co_lineno of a code object is greater than the file length. This can happen, for example, when a file is edited after it was imported. PR by Irit Katriel.

  • bpo-42116: Fix handling of trailing comments by inspect.getsource().

  • bpo-42532: Remove unexpected call of __bool__ when passing a spec_arg argument to a Mock.

  • bpo-38200: Added itertools.pairwise()

  • bpo-41818: Fix test_master_read() so that it succeeds on all platforms that either raise OSError or return b”” upon reading from master.

  • bpo-42487: ChainMap.__iter__ no longer calls __getitem__ on underlying maps

  • bpo-42482: TracebackException no longer holds a reference to the exception’s traceback object. Consequently, instances of TracebackException for equivalent but non-equal exceptions now compare as equal.

  • bpo-41818: Make test_openpty() avoid unexpected success due to number of rows and/or number of columns being == 0.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from asyncio.subprocess and asyncio.tasks functions. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from asyncio.open_connection and asyncio.start_server functions. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-28468: Add platform.freedesktop_os_release() function to parse freedesktop.org os-release files.

  • bpo-42299: Removed the formatter module, which was deprecated in Python 3.4. It is somewhat obsolete, little used, and not tested. It was originally scheduled to be removed in Python 3.6, but such removals were delayed until after Python 2.7 EOL. Existing users should copy whatever classes they use into their code. Patch by Dong-hee Na and and Terry J. Reedy.

  • bpo-26131: Deprecate zipimport.zipimporter.load_module() in favour of exec_module().

  • bpo-41818: Updated tests for the pty library. test_basic() has been changed to test_openpty(); this additionally checks if slave termios and slave winsize are being set properly by pty.openpty(). In order to add support for FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, and Darwin, this also adds test_master_read(), which demonstrates that pty.spawn() should not depend on an OSError to exit from its copy loop.

  • bpo-42392: Remove loop parameter from __init__ in all asyncio.locks and asyncio.Queue classes. Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-15450: Make filecmp.dircmp respect subclassing. Now the filecmp.dircmp.subdirs behaves as expected when subclassing dircmp.

  • bpo-42413: The exception socket.timeout is now an alias of TimeoutError.

  • bpo-31904: Support signal module on VxWorks.

  • bpo-42406: We fixed an issue in pickle.whichmodule in which importing multiprocessing could change the how pickle identifies which module an object belongs to, potentially breaking the unpickling of those objects.

  • bpo-42403: Simplify the importlib external bootstrap code: importlib._bootstrap_external now uses regular imports to import builtin modules. When it is imported, the builtin __import__() function is already fully working and so can be used to import builtin modules like sys. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-1635741: Convert _sre module types to heap types (PEP 384). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-42375: subprocess module update for DragonFlyBSD support.

  • bpo-41713: Port the _signal extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489). Patch by Victor Stinner and Mohamed Koubaa.

  • bpo-37205: time.time(), time.perf_counter() and time.monotonic() functions can no longer fail with a Python fatal error, instead raise a regular Python exception on failure.

  • bpo-42328: Fixed tkinter.ttk.Style.map(). The function accepts now the representation of the default state as empty sequence (as returned by Style.map()). The structure of the result is now the same on all platform and does not depend on the value of wantobjects.

  • bpo-42345: Fix various issues with typing.Literal parameter handling (flatten, deduplicate, use type to cache key). Patch provided by Yurii Karabas.

  • bpo-37205: time.perf_counter() on Windows and time.monotonic() on macOS are now system-wide. Previously, they used an offset computed at startup to reduce the precision loss caused by the float type. Use time.perf_counter_ns() and time.monotonic_ns() added in Python 3.7 to avoid this precision loss.

  • bpo-42318: Fixed support of non-BMP characters in tkinter on macOS.

  • bpo-42350: Fix the threading.Thread class at fork: do nothing if the thread is already stopped (ex: fork called at Python exit). Previously, an error was logged in the child process.

  • bpo-42333: Port _ssl extension module to heap types.

  • bpo-42014: The onerror callback from shutil.rmtree now receives correct function when os.open fails.

  • bpo-42237: Fix os.sendfile() on illumos.

  • bpo-42308: Add threading.__excepthook__ to allow retrieving the original value of threading.excepthook() in case it is set to a broken or a different value. Patch by Mario Corchero.

  • bpo-42131: Implement PEP 451/spec methods on zipimport.zipimporter: find_spec(), create_module(), and exec_module().

    This also allows for the documented deprecation of find_loader(), find_module(), and load_module().

  • bpo-41877: Mock objects which are not unsafe will now raise an AttributeError if an attribute with the prefix asert, aseert, or assrt is accessed, in addition to this already happening for the prefixes assert or assret.

  • bpo-42264: sqlite3.OptimizedUnicode has been undocumented and obsolete since Python 3.3, when it was made an alias to str. It is now deprecated, scheduled for removal in Python 3.12.

  • bpo-42251: Added threading.gettrace() and threading.getprofile() to retrieve the functions set by threading.settrace() and threading.setprofile() respectively. Patch by Mario Corchero.

  • bpo-42249: Fixed writing binary Plist files larger than 4 GiB.

  • bpo-42236: On Unix, the os.device_encoding() function now returns 'UTF-8' rather than the device encoding if the Python UTF-8 Mode is enabled.

  • bpo-41754: webbrowser: Ignore NotADirectoryError when calling xdg-settings.

  • bpo-42183: Fix a stack overflow error for asyncio Task or Future repr().

    The overflow occurs under some circumstances when a Task or Future recursively returns itself.

  • bpo-42140: Improve asyncio.wait function to create the futures set just one time.

  • bpo-42133: Update various modules in the stdlib to fall back on __spec__.loader when __loader__ isn’t defined on a module.

  • bpo-26131: The load_module() methods found in importlib now trigger a DeprecationWarning.

  • bpo-39825: Windows: Change sysconfig.get_config_var('EXT_SUFFIX') to the expected full platform_tag.extension format. Previously it was hard-coded to .pyd, now it is compatible with distutils.sysconfig and will result in something like .cp38-win_amd64.pyd. This brings windows into conformance with the other platforms.

  • bpo-26389: The traceback.format_exception(), traceback.format_exception_only(), and traceback.print_exception() functions can now take an exception object as a positional-only argument.

  • bpo-41889: Enum: fix regression involving inheriting a multiply-inherited enum

  • bpo-41861: Convert sqlite3 to use heap types (PEP 384). Patch by Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40624: Added support for the XPath != operator in xml.etree

  • bpo-28850: Fix pprint.PrettyPrinter.format() overrides being ignored for contents of small containers. The pprint._safe_repr() function was removed.

  • bpo-41625: Expose the splice() as os.splice() in the os module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-34215: Clarify the error message for asyncio.IncompleteReadError when expected is None.

  • bpo-41543: Add async context manager support for contextlib.nullcontext.

  • bpo-21041: pathlib.PurePath.parents now supports negative indexing. Patch contributed by Yaroslav Pankovych.

  • bpo-41332: Added missing connect_accepted_socket() method to asyncio.AbstractEventLoop.

  • bpo-12800: Extracting a symlink from a tarball should succeed and overwrite the symlink if it already exists. The fix is to remove the existing file or symlink before extraction. Based on patch by Chris AtLee, Jeffrey Kintscher, and Senthil Kumaran.

  • bpo-40968: urllib.request and http.client now send http/1.1 ALPN extension during TLS handshake when no custom context is supplied.

  • bpo-41001: Add func:os.eventfd to provide a low level interface for Linux’s event notification file descriptor.

  • bpo-40816: Add AsyncContextDecorator to contextlib to support async context manager as a decorator.

  • bpo-40550: Fix time-of-check/time-of-action issue in subprocess.Popen.send_signal.

  • bpo-39411: Add an is_async identifier to pyclbr’s Function objects. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya

  • bpo-35498: Add slice support to pathlib.PurePath.parents.

Documentation

  • bpo-42238: Tentative to deprecate make suspicious by first removing it from the CI and documentation builds, but keeping it around for manual uses.

  • bpo-42153: Fix the URL for the IMAP protocol documents.

  • bpo-41028: Language and version switchers, previously maintained in every cpython branches, are now handled by docsbuild-script.

Tests

  • bpo-41473: Reenable test_gdb on gdb 9.2 and newer: https://bugzilla.redhat.com/show_bug.cgi?id=1866884 bug is fixed in gdb 10.1.

  • bpo-42553: Fix test_asyncio.test_call_later() race condition: don’t measure asyncio performance in the call_later() unit test. The test failed randomly on the CI.

  • bpo-31904: Fix test_netrc on VxWorks: create temporary directories using temp_cwd().

  • bpo-31904: skip test_getaddrinfo_ipv6_scopeid_symbolic and test_getnameinfo_ipv6_scopeid_symbolic on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: skip test_test of test_mailcap on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: add shell requirement for test_pipes

  • bpo-31904: skip some tests related to fifo on VxWorks

  • bpo-31904: Fix test_doctest.py failures for VxWorks.

  • bpo-40754: Include _testinternalcapi module in Windows installer for test suite

  • bpo-41561: test_ssl: skip test_min_max_version_mismatch when TLS 1.0 is not available

  • bpo-31904: Fix os module failures for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-31904: Fix fifo test cases for VxWorks RTOS.

Build

  • bpo-31904: remove libnet dependency from detect_socket() for VxWorks

  • bpo-42398: Fix a race condition in “make regen-all” when make -jN option is used to run jobs in parallel. The clinic.py script now only use atomic write to write files. Moveover, generated files are now left unchanged if the content does not change, to not change the file modification time.

  • bpo-41617: Fix building pycore_bitutils.h internal header on old clang version without __builtin_bswap16() (ex: Xcode 4.6.3 on Mac OS X 10.7). Patch by Joshua Root and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-38823: It is no longer possible to build the _ctypes extension module without wchar_t type: remove CTYPES_UNICODE macro. Anyway, the wchar_t type is required to build Python. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42087: Support was removed for AIX 5.3 and below. See bpo-40680.

  • bpo-40998: Addressed three compiler warnings found by undefined behavior sanitizer (ubsan).

Windows

  • bpo-42120: Remove macro definition of copysign (to _copysign) in headers.

  • bpo-38506: The Windows launcher now properly handles Python 3.10 when listing installed Python versions.

macOS

  • bpo-42504: Fix build on macOS Big Sur when MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=11

  • bpo-41116: Ensure distutils.unixxcompiler.find_library_file can find system provided libraries on macOS 11.

  • bpo-41100: Add support for macOS 11 and Apple Silicon systems.

    It is now possible to build “Universal 2” binaries using “–enable-universalsdk –with-universal-archs=universal2”.

    Binaries build on later macOS versions can be deployed back to older versions (tested up to macOS 10.9), when using the correct deployment target. This is tested using Xcode 11 and later.

  • bpo-42232: Added Darwin specific madvise options to mmap module.

  • bpo-38443: The --enable-universalsdk and --with-universal-archs options for the configure script now check that the specified architectures can be used.

IDLE

  • bpo-42508: Keep IDLE running on macOS. Remove obsolete workaround that prevented running files with shortcuts when using new universal2 installers built on macOS 11.

  • bpo-42426: Fix reporting offset of the RE error in searchengine.

  • bpo-42415: Get docstrings for IDLE calltips more often by using inspect.getdoc.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-42212: The smelly.py script now also checks the Python dynamic library and extension modules, not only the Python static library. Make also the script more verbose: explain what it does.

  • bpo-36310: Allow Tools/i18n/pygettext.py to detect calls to gettext in f-strings.

C API

Python 3.10.0 alpha 2

Release date: 2020-11-03

Security

  • bpo-42103: Prevented potential DoS attack via CPU and RAM exhaustion when processing malformed Apple Property List files in binary format.

  • bpo-42051: The plistlib module no longer accepts entity declarations in XML plist files to avoid XML vulnerabilities. This should not affect users as entity declarations are not used in regular plist files.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-42236: If the nl_langinfo(CODESET) function returns an empty string, Python now uses UTF-8 as the filesystem encoding. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42218: Fixed a bug in the PEG parser that was causing crashes in debug mode. Now errors are checked in left-recursive rules to avoid cases where such errors do not get handled in time and appear as long-distance crashes in other places.

  • bpo-42214: Fixed a possible crash in the PEG parser when checking for the ‘!=’ token in the barry_as_flufl rule. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42206: Propagate and raise the errors caused by PyAST_Validate() in the parser.

  • bpo-41796: The ast module internal state is now per interpreter. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42143: Fix handling of errors during creation of PyFunctionObject, which resulted in operations on uninitialized memory. Patch by Yonatan Goldschmidt.

  • bpo-41659: Fix a bug in the parser, where a curly brace following a primary didn’t fail immediately. This led to invalid expressions like a {b} to throw a SyntaxError with a wrong offset, or invalid expressions ending with a curly brace like a { to not fail immediately in the REPL.

  • bpo-42150: Fix possible buffer overflow in the new parser when checking for continuation lines. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-42123: Run the parser two times. On the first run, disable all the rules that only generate better error messages to gain performance. If there’s a parse failure, run the parser a second time with those enabled.

  • bpo-42093: The LOAD_ATTR instruction now uses new “per opcode cache” mechanism and it is about 36% faster now. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Yury Selivanov.

  • bpo-42030: Support for the legacy AIX-specific shared library loading support has been removed. All versions of AIX since 4.3 have supported and defaulted to using the common Unix mechanism instead.

  • bpo-41984: The garbage collector now tracks all user-defined classes. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-41993: Fixed potential issues with removing not completely initialized module from sys.modules when import fails.

  • bpo-41979: Star-unpacking is now allowed for with item’s targets in the PEG parser.

  • bpo-41974: Removed special methods __int__, __float__, __floordiv__, __mod__, __divmod__, __rfloordiv__, __rmod__ and __rdivmod__ of the complex class. They always raised a TypeError.

  • bpo-41902: Micro optimization when compute sq_item and mp_subscript of range. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41894: When loading a native module and a load failure occurs, prevent a possible UnicodeDecodeError when not running in a UTF-8 locale by decoding the load error message using the current locale’s encoding.

  • bpo-41902: Micro optimization for range.index if step is 1. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41435: Add sys._current_exceptions() function to retrieve a dictionary mapping each thread’s identifier to the topmost exception currently active in that thread at the time the function is called.

  • bpo-38605: Enable from __future__ import annotations (PEP 563) by default. The values found in __annotations__ dicts are now strings, e.g. {"x": "int"} instead of {"x": int}.

Library

  • bpo-35455: On Solaris, thread_time() is now implemented with gethrvtime() because clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID) is not always available. Patch by Jakub Kulik.

  • bpo-42233: The repr() of typing types containing Generic Alias Types previously did not show the parameterized types in the GenericAlias. They have now been changed to do so.

  • bpo-29566: binhex.binhex() consisently writes macOS 9 line endings.

  • bpo-26789: The logging.FileHandler class now keeps a reference to the builtin open() function to be able to open or reopen the file during Python finalization. Fix errors like: NameError: name 'open' is not defined. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42157: Removed the unicodedata.ucnhash_CAPI attribute which was an internal PyCapsule object. The related private _PyUnicode_Name_CAPI structure was moved to the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42157: Convert the unicodedata extension module to the multiphase initialization API (PEP 489) and convert the unicodedata.UCD static type to a heap type. Patch by Mohamed Koubaa and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42146: Fix memory leak in subprocess.Popen() in case an uid (gid) specified in user (group, extra_groups) overflows uid_t (gid_t).

  • bpo-42103: InvalidFileException and RecursionError are now the only errors caused by loading malformed binary Plist file (previously ValueError and TypeError could be raised in some specific cases).

  • bpo-41490: In importlib.resources, .path method is more aggressive about releasing handles to zipfile objects early, enabling use-cases like certifi to leave the context open but delete the underlying zip file.

  • bpo-41052: Pickling heap types implemented in C with protocols 0 and 1 raises now an error instead of producing incorrect data.

  • bpo-42089: In importlib.metadata.PackageNotFoundError, make reference to the package metadata being missing to improve the user experience.

  • bpo-41491: plistlib: fix parsing XML plists with hexadecimal integer values

  • bpo-42065: Fix an incorrectly formatted error from _codecs.charmap_decode() when called with a mapped value outside the range of valid Unicode code points. PR by Max Bernstein.

  • bpo-41966: Fix pickling pure Python datetime.time subclasses. Patch by Dean Inwood.

  • bpo-19270: sched.scheduler.cancel() will now cancel the correct event, if two events with same priority are scheduled for the same time. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-28660: textwrap.wrap() now attempts to break long words after hyphens when break_long_words=True and break_on_hyphens=True.

  • bpo-35823: Use vfork() instead of fork() for subprocess.Popen() on Linux to improve performance in cases where it is deemed safe.

  • bpo-42043: Add support for zipfile.Path inheritance. zipfile.Path.is_file() now returns False for non-existent names. zipfile.Path objects now expose a .filename attribute and rely on that to resolve .name and .parent when the Path object is at the root of the zipfile.

  • bpo-42021: Fix possible ref leaks in sqlite3 module init.

  • bpo-39101: Fixed tests using IsolatedAsyncioTestCase from hanging on BaseExceptions.

  • bpo-41976: Fixed a bug that was causing ctypes.util.find_library() to return None when triying to locate a library in an environment when gcc>=9 is available and ldconfig is not. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-41943: Fix bug where TestCase.assertLogs doesn’t correctly filter messages by level.

  • bpo-41923: Implement PEP 613, introducing typing.TypeAlias annotation.

  • bpo-41905: A new function in abc: update_abstractmethods to re-calculate an abstract class’s abstract status. In addition, dataclass has been changed to call this function.

  • bpo-23706: Added newline parameter to pathlib.Path.write_text().

  • bpo-41876: Tkinter font class repr uses font name

  • bpo-41831: str() for the type attribute of the tkinter.Event object always returns now the numeric code returned by Tk instead of the name of the event type.

  • bpo-39337: encodings.normalize_encoding() now ignores non-ASCII characters.

  • bpo-41747: Ensure all methods that generated from dataclasses.dataclass() objects now have the proper __qualname__ attribute referring to the class they belong to. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-30681: Handle exceptions caused by unparseable date headers when using email “default” policy. Patch by Tim Bell, Georges Toth

  • bpo-41586: Add F_SETPIPE_SZ and F_GETPIPE_SZ to fcntl module. Allow setting pipesize on subprocess.Popen.

  • bpo-41229: Add contextlib.aclosing for deterministic cleanup of async generators which is analogous to contextlib.closing for non-async generators. Patch by Joongi Kim and John Belmonte.

  • bpo-16396: Allow ctypes.wintypes to be imported on non-Windows systems.

  • bpo-4356: Add a key function to the bisect module.

  • bpo-40592: shutil.which() now ignores empty entries in PATHEXT instead of treating them as a match.

  • bpo-40492: Fix --outfile for cProfile / profile not writing the output file in the original directory when the program being profiled changes the working directory. PR by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-34204: The shelve module now uses pickle.DEFAULT_PROTOCOL by default instead of pickle protocol 3.

  • bpo-27321: Fixed KeyError exception when flattening an email to a string attempts to replace a non-existent Content-Transfer-Encoding header.

  • bpo-38976: The http.cookiejar module now supports the parsing of cookies in CURL-style cookiejar files through MozillaCookieJar on all platforms. Previously, such cookie entries would be silently ignored when loading a cookiejar with such entries.

    Additionally, the HTTP Only attribute is persisted in the object, and will be correctly written to file if the MozillaCookieJar object is subsequently dumped.

Documentation

Tests

  • bpo-41739: Fix test_logging.test_race_between_set_target_and_flush(): the test now waits until all threads complete to avoid leaking running threads.

  • bpo-41970: Avoid a test failure in test_lib2to3 if the module has already imported at the time the test executes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41944: Tests for CJK codecs no longer call eval() on content received via HTTP.

  • bpo-41306: Fixed a failure in test_tk.test_widgets.ScaleTest happening when executing the test with Tk 8.6.10.

Build

  • bpo-38980: Add -fno-semantic-interposition to both the compile and link line when building with --enable-optimizations. Patch by Victor Stinner and Pablo Galindo.

Windows

  • bpo-38439: Updates the icons for IDLE in the Windows Store package.

  • bpo-38252: Use 8-byte step to detect ASCII sequence in 64-bit Windows build.

  • bpo-39107: Update Tcl and Tk to 8.6.10 in Windows installer.

  • bpo-41557: Update Windows installer to use SQLite 3.33.0.

  • bpo-38324: Avoid Unicode errors when accessing certain locale data on Windows.

macOS

  • bpo-41471: Ignore invalid prefix lengths in system proxy excludes.

IDLE

  • bpo-33987: Mostly finish using ttk widgets, mainly for editor, settings, and searches. Some patches by Mark Roseman.

  • bpo-40511: Typing opening and closing parentheses inside the parentheses of a function call will no longer cause unnecessary “flashing” off and on of an existing open call-tip, e.g. when typed in a string literal.

  • bpo-38439: Add a 256×256 pixel IDLE icon to the Windows .ico file. Created by Andrew Clover. Remove the low-color gif variations from the .ico file.

C API

  • bpo-42157: The private _PyUnicode_Name_CAPI structure of the PyCapsule API unicodedata.ucnhash_CAPI has been moved to the internal C API. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-42015: Fix potential crash in deallocating method objects when dynamically allocated PyMethodDef’s lifetime is managed through the self argument of a PyCFunction.

  • bpo-40423: The subprocess module and os.closerange will now use the close_range(low, high, flags) syscall when it is available for more efficient closing of ranges of descriptors.

  • bpo-41845: PyObject_GenericGetDict() is available again in the limited API when targeting 3.10 or later.

  • bpo-40422: Add _Py_closerange function to provide performant closing of a range of file descriptors.

  • bpo-41986: Py_FileSystemDefaultEncodeErrors and Py_UTF8Mode are available again in limited API.

  • bpo-41756: Add PyIter_Send function to allow sending value into generator/coroutine/iterator without raising StopIteration exception to signal return.

  • bpo-41784: Added PyUnicode_AsUTF8AndSize to the limited C API.

Python 3.10.0 alpha 1

Release date: 2020-10-05

Security

  • bpo-41304: Fixes python3x._pth being ignored on Windows, caused by the fix for bpo-29778 (CVE-2020-15801).

  • bpo-41162: Audit hooks are now cleared later during finalization to avoid missing events.

  • bpo-29778: Ensure python3.dll is loaded from correct locations when Python is embedded (CVE-2020-15523).

  • bpo-41004: The __hash__() methods of ipaddress.IPv4Interface and ipaddress.IPv6Interface incorrectly generated constant hash values of 32 and 128 respectively. This resulted in always causing hash collisions. The fix uses hash() to generate hash values for the tuple of (address, mask length, network address).

  • bpo-39603: Prevent http header injection by rejecting control characters in http.client.putrequest(…).

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-41909: Fixed stack overflow in issubclass() and isinstance() when getting the __bases__ attribute leads to infinite recursion.

  • bpo-41922: Speed up calls to reversed() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41873: Calls to float() are now faster due to the vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-41870: Speed up calls to bool() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _bisect module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39934: Correctly count control blocks in ‘except’ in compiler. Ensures that a syntax error, rather a fatal error, occurs for deeply nested, named exception handlers.

  • bpo-41780: Fix __dir__() of types.GenericAlias. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _lsprof extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the cmath extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _scproxy extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the termios extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Convert the _sha256 extension module types to heap types.

  • bpo-41690: Fix a possible stack overflow in the parser when parsing functions and classes with a huge ammount of arguments. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _overlapped extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _curses_panel extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _opcode extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41681: Fixes the wrong error description in the error raised by using 2 , in format string in f-string and str.format().

  • bpo-41675: The implementation of signal.siginterrupt() now uses sigaction() (if it is available in the system) instead of the deprecated siginterrupt(). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41670: Prevent line trace being skipped on platforms not compiled with USE_COMPUTED_GOTOS. Fixes issue where some lines nested within a try-except block were not being traced on Windows.

  • bpo-41654: Fix a crash that occurred when destroying subclasses of MemoryError. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the zlib extension module to multi-phase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41631: The _ast module uses again a global state. Using a module state per module instance is causing subtle practical problems. For example, the Mercurial project replaces the __import__() function to implement lazy import, whereas Python expected that import _ast always return a fully initialized _ast module.

  • bpo-40077: Convert _operator to use PyType_FromSpec().

  • bpo-1653741: Port _sha3 to multi-phase init. Convert static types to heap types.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _blake2 extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41533: Free the stack allocated in va_build_stack if do_mkstack fails and the stack is not a small_stack.

  • bpo-41531: Fix a bug that was dropping keys when compiling dict literals with more than 0xFFFF elements. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41525: The output of python --help contains now only ASCII characters.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _sha1, _sha512, and _md5 extension modules to multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41431: Optimize dict_merge() for copying dict (e.g. dict(d) and {}.update(d)).

  • bpo-41428: Implement PEP 604. This supports (int | str) etc. in place of Union[str, int].

  • bpo-41340: Removed fallback implementation for strdup.

  • bpo-38156: Handle interrupts that come after EOF correctly in PyOS_StdioReadline.

  • bpo-41342: round() with integer argument is now faster (9–60%).

  • bpo-41334: Constructors str(), bytes() and bytearray() are now faster (around 30–40% for small objects).

  • bpo-41295: Resolve a regression in CPython 3.8.4 where defining “__setattr__” in a multi-inheritance setup and calling up the hierarchy chain could fail if builtins/extension types were involved in the base types.

  • bpo-41323: Bytecode optimizations are performed directly on the control flow graph. This will result in slightly more compact code objects in some circumstances.

  • bpo-41247: Always cache the running loop holder when running asyncio.set_running_loop.

  • bpo-41252: Fix incorrect refcounting in _ssl.c’s _servername_callback().

  • bpo-1635741: Port multiprocessing to multi-phase initialization

  • bpo-1635741: Port winapi to multiphase initialization

  • bpo-41215: Use non-NULL default values in the PEG parser keyword list to overcome a bug that was preventing Python from being properly compiled when using the XLC compiler. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41218: Python 3.8.3 had a regression where compiling with ast.PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT would aggressively mark list comprehension with CO_COROUTINE. Now only list comprehension making use of async/await will tagged as so.

  • bpo-1635741: Port faulthandler to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-1635741: Port sha256 to multiphase initialization

  • bpo-41175: Guard against a NULL pointer dereference within bytearrayobject triggered by the bytearray() + bytearray() operation.

  • bpo-41100: add arm64 to the allowable Mac OS arches in mpdecimal.h

  • bpo-41094: Fix decoding errors with audit when open files with non-ASCII names on non-UTF-8 locale.

  • bpo-39960: The “hackcheck” that prevents sneaking around a type’s __setattr__() by calling the superclass method was rewritten to allow C implemented heap types.

  • bpo-41084: Prefix the error message with ‘f-string: ‘, when parsing an f-string expression which throws a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40521: Empty frozensets are no longer singletons.

  • bpo-41076: Pre-feed the parser with the location of the f-string expression, not the f-string itself, which allows us to skip the shifting of the AST node locations after the parsing is completed.

  • bpo-41056: Fixes a reference to deallocated stack space during startup when constructing sys.path involving a relative symlink when code was supplied via -c. (discovered via Coverity)

  • bpo-41061: Fix incorrect expressions and asserts in hashtable code and tests.

  • bpo-41052: Opt out serialization/deserialization for _random.Random

  • bpo-40939: Rename PyPegen* functions to PyParser*, so that we can remove the old set of PyParser* functions that were using the old parser, but keep everything backwards-compatible.

  • bpo-35975: Stefan Behnel reported that cf_feature_version is used even when PyCF_ONLY_AST is not set. This is against the intention and against the documented behavior, so it’s been fixed.

  • bpo-40939: Remove the remaining files from the old parser and the symbol module.

  • bpo-40077: Convert _bz2 to use PyType_FromSpec().

  • bpo-41006: The encodings.latin_1 module is no longer imported at startup. Now it is only imported when it is the filesystem encoding or the stdio encoding.

  • bpo-40636: zip() now supports PEP 618’s strict parameter, which raises a ValueError if the arguments are exhausted at different lengths. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _gdbm to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-40985: Fix a bug that caused the SyntaxError text to be empty when a file ends with a line ending in a line continuation character (i.e. backslash). The error text should contain the text of the last line.

  • bpo-40958: Fix a possible buffer overflow in the PEG parser when gathering information for emitting syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _dbm to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-40957: Fix refleak in _Py_fopen_obj() when PySys_Audit() fails

  • bpo-40950: Add a state to the nis module (PEP 3121) and apply the multiphase initialization. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40947: The Python Path Configuration now takes PyConfig.platlibdir in account.

  • bpo-40939: Remove the old parser, the parser module and all associated support code, command-line options and environment variables. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40847: Fix a bug where a line with only a line continuation character is not considered a blank line at tokenizer level. In such cases, more than a single NEWLINE token was emitted. The old parser was working around the issue, but the new parser threw a SyntaxError for valid input due to this. For example, an empty line following a line continuation character was interpreted as a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40890: Each dictionary view now has a mapping attribute that provides a types.MappingProxyType wrapping the original dictionary. Patch contributed by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-40889: Improved the performance of symmetric difference operations on dictionary item views. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-40904: Fix possible segfault in the new PEG parser when parsing f-string containing yield statements with no value (f"{yield}"). Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40903: Fixed a possible segfault in the new PEG parser when producing error messages for invalid assignments of the form p=p=. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40880: Fix invalid memory read in the new parser when checking newlines in string literals. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40883: Fix memory leak in when parsing f-strings in the new parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40870: Raise ValueError when validating custom AST’s where the constants True, False and None are used within a ast.Name node.

  • bpo-40854: Allow overriding sys.platlibdir via a new PYTHONPLATLIBDIR environment variable.

  • bpo-40826: Fix GIL usage in PyOS_Readline(): lock the GIL to set an exception and pass the Python thread state when checking if there is a pending signal.

  • bpo-1635741: Port fcntl to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-19468: Delete unnecessary instance check in importlib.reload(). Patch by Furkan Önder.

  • bpo-40824: Unexpected errors in calling the __iter__ method are no longer masked by TypeError in the in operator and functions contains(), indexOf() and countOf() of the operator module.

  • bpo-40792: Attributes start, stop and step of the range object now always has exact type int. Previously, they could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-40780: Fix a corner case where g-style string formatting of a float failed to remove trailing zeros.

  • bpo-38964: When there’s a SyntaxError in the expression part of an fstring, the filename attribute of the SyntaxError gets correctly set to the name of the file the fstring resides in.

  • bpo-40750: Support the “-d” debug flag in the new PEG parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40217: Instances of types created with PyType_FromSpecWithBases() will no longer automatically visit their class object when traversing references in the garbage collector. The user is expected to manually visit the object’s class. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39573: Py_TYPE() is changed to the inline static function. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40696: Fix a hang that can arise after generator.throw() due to a cycle in the exception context chain.

  • bpo-40521: Each interpreter now its has own free lists, singletons and caches:

    • Free lists: float, tuple, list, dict, frame, context, asynchronous generator, MemoryError.

    • Singletons: empty tuple, empty bytes string, empty Unicode string, single byte character, single Unicode (latin1) character.

    • Slice cache.

    They are no longer shared by all interpreters.

  • bpo-40679: Certain TypeError messages about missing or extra arguments now include the function’s qualified name. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-29590: Make the stack trace correct after calling generator.throw() on a generator that has yielded from a yield from.

  • bpo-4022: Improve performance of generators by not raising internal StopIteration.

  • bpo-1635741: Port mmap to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _lzma to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-37999: Builtin and extension functions that take integer arguments no longer accept Decimals, Fractions and other objects that can be converted to integers only with a loss (e.g. that have the __int__() method but do not have the __index__() method).

  • bpo-29882: Add int.bit_count(), counting the number of ones in the binary representation of an integer. Patch by Niklas Fiekas.

  • bpo-36982: Use ncurses extended color functions when available to support terminals with 256 colors, and add the new function curses.has_extended_color_support() to indicate whether extended color support is provided by the underlying ncurses library.

  • bpo-19569: Add the private macros _Py_COMP_DIAG_PUSH, _Py_COMP_DIAG_IGNORE_DEPR_DECLS, and _Py_COMP_DIAG_POP.

  • bpo-26680: The int type now supports the x.is_integer() method for compatibility with float.

Library

  • bpo-41900: C14N 2.0 serialisation in xml.etree.ElementTree failed for unprefixed attributes when a default namespace was defined.

  • bpo-41887: Strip leading spaces and tabs on ast.literal_eval(). Also document stripping of spaces and tabs for eval().

  • bpo-41773: Note in documentation that random.choices() doesn’t support non-finite weights, raise ValueError when given non-finite weights.

  • bpo-41840: Fix a bug in the symtable module that was causing module-scope global variables to not be reported as both local and global. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-41842: Add codecs.unregister() function to unregister a codec search function.

  • bpo-40564: In zipfile.Path, mutate the passed ZipFile object type instead of making a copy. Prevents issues when both the local copy and the caller’s copy attempt to close the same file handle.

  • bpo-40670: More reliable validation of statements in timeit.Timer. It now accepts “empty” statements (only whitespaces and comments) and rejects misindentent statements.

  • bpo-41833: The threading.Thread constructor now uses the target name if the target argument is specified but the name argument is omitted.

  • bpo-41817: fix tkinter.EventType Enum so all members are strings, and none are tuples

  • bpo-41810: types.EllipsisType, types.NotImplementedType and types.NoneType have been reintroduced, providing a new set of types readily interpretable by static type checkers.

  • bpo-41815: Fix SQLite3 segfault when backing up closed database. Patch contributed by Peter David McCormick.

  • bpo-41816: StrEnum added: it ensures that all members are already strings or string candidates

  • bpo-41517: fix bug allowing Enums to be extended via multiple inheritance

  • bpo-39587: use the correct mix-in data type when constructing Enums

  • bpo-41792: Add is_typeddict function to typing.py to check if a type is a TypedDict class

    Previously there was no way to check that without using private API. See the relevant issue in python/typing

  • bpo-41789: Honor object overrides in Enum class creation (specifically, __str__, __repr__, __format__, and __reduce_ex__).

  • bpo-32218: enum.Flag and enum.IntFlag members are now iterable

  • bpo-39651: Fix a race condition in the call_soon_threadsafe() method of asyncio.ProactorEventLoop: do nothing if the self-pipe socket has been closed.

  • bpo-1635741: Port the mashal extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port the _string extension module to the multi-phase initialization API (PEP 489).

  • bpo-41732: Added an iterator to memoryview.

  • bpo-41720: Fixed turtle.Vec2D.__rmul__() for arguments which are not int or float.

  • bpo-41696: Fix handling of debug mode in asyncio.run(). This allows setting PYTHONASYNCIODEBUG or -X dev to enable asyncio debug mode when using asyncio.run().

  • bpo-41687: Fix implementation of sendfile to be compatible with Solaris.

  • bpo-41662: No longer override exceptions raised in __len__() of a sequence of parameters in sqlite3 with ProgrammingError.

  • bpo-39010: Restarting a ProactorEventLoop on Windows no longer logs spurious ConnectionResetErrors.

  • bpo-41638: ProgrammingError message for absent parameter in sqlite3 contains now the name of the parameter instead of its index when parameters are supplied as a dict.

  • bpo-41662: Fixed crash when mutate list of parameters during iteration in sqlite3.

  • bpo-41513: Improved the accuracy of math.hypot(). Internally, each step is computed with extra precision so that the result is now almost always correctly rounded.

  • bpo-41609: The pdb whatis command correctly reports instance methods as ‘Method’ rather than ‘Function’.

  • bpo-39994: Fixed pprint’s handling of dict subclasses that override __repr__.

  • bpo-32751: When cancelling the task due to a timeout, asyncio.wait_for() will now wait until the cancellation is complete also in the case when timeout is <= 0, like it does with positive timeouts.

  • bpo-37658: asyncio.wait_for() now properly handles races between cancellation of itself and the completion of the wrapped awaitable.

  • bpo-40782: Change the method asyncio.AbstractEventLoop.run_in_executor to not be a coroutine.

  • bpo-41520: Fix codeop regression that prevented turning compile warnings into errors.

  • bpo-41528: turtle uses math module functions to convert degrees to radians and vice versa and to calculate vector norm

  • bpo-41513: Minor algorithmic improvement to math.hypot() and math.dist() giving small gains in speed and accuracy.

  • bpo-41503: Fixed a race between setTarget and flush in logging.handlers.MemoryHandler.

  • bpo-41497: Fix potential UnicodeDecodeError in dis module.

  • bpo-41467: On Windows, fix asyncio recv_into() return value when the socket/pipe is closed (BrokenPipeError): return 0 rather than an empty byte string (b'').

  • bpo-41425: Make tkinter doc example runnable.

  • bpo-41421: Make an algebraic simplification to random.paretovariate(). It now is slightly less subject to round-off error and is slightly faster. Inputs that used to cause ZeroDivisionError now cause an OverflowError instead.

  • bpo-41440: Add os.cpu_count() support for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-41316: Fix the tarfile module to write only basename of TAR file to GZIP compression header.

  • bpo-41384: Raise TclError instead of TypeError when an unknown option is passed to tkinter.OptionMenu.

  • bpo-41317: Use add_done_callback() in asyncio.loop.sock_accept() to unsubscribe reader early on cancellation.

  • bpo-41364: Reduce import overhead of uuid.

  • bpo-35328: Set the environment variable VIRTUAL_ENV_PROMPT at venv activation.

  • bpo-41341: Recursive evaluation of typing.ForwardRef in get_type_hints.

  • bpo-41344: Prevent creating shared_memory.SharedMemory objects with size=0.

  • bpo-41333: collections.OrderedDict.pop() is now 2 times faster.

  • bpo-41288: Unpickling invalid NEWOBJ_EX opcode with the C implementation raises now UnpicklingError instead of crashing.

  • bpo-39017: Avoid infinite loop when reading specially crafted TAR files using the tarfile module (CVE-2019-20907).

  • bpo-41273: Speed up any transport using _ProactorReadPipeTransport by calling recv_into instead of recv, thus not creating a new buffer for each recv call in the transport’s read loop.

  • bpo-41235: Fix the error handling in ssl.SSLContext.load_dh_params().

  • bpo-41207: In distutils.spawn, restore expectation that DistutilsExecError is raised when the command is not found.

  • bpo-29727: Register array.array as a MutableSequence. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39168: Remove the __new__ method of typing.Generic.

  • bpo-41194: Fix a crash in the _ast module: it can no longer be loaded more than once. It now uses a global state rather than a module state.

  • bpo-41195: Add read-only ssl.SSLContext.security_level attribute to retrieve the context’s security level.

  • bpo-41193: The write_history() atexit function of the readline completer now ignores any OSError to ignore error if the filesystem is read-only, instead of only ignoring FileNotFoundError and PermissionError.

  • bpo-41182: selector: use DefaultSelector based upon implementation

  • bpo-41161: The decimal module now requires libmpdec-2.5.0. Users of –with-system-libmpdec should update their system library.

  • bpo-40874: The decimal module now requires libmpdec-2.5.0.

  • bpo-41138: Fixed the trace module CLI for Python source files with non-UTF-8 encoding.

  • bpo-31082: Use the term “iterable” in the docstring for functools.reduce().

  • bpo-40521: Remove freelist from collections.deque().

  • bpo-31938: Fix default-value signatures of several functions in the select module - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-41068: Fixed reading files with non-ASCII names from ZIP archive directly after writing them.

  • bpo-41058: pdb.find_function() now correctly determines the source file encoding.

  • bpo-41056: Invalid file descriptor values are now prevented from being passed to os.fpathconf. (discovered by Coverity)

  • bpo-41056: Fix a NULL pointer dereference within the ssl module during a MemoryError in the keylog callback. (discovered by Coverity)

  • bpo-41056: Fixed an instance where a MemoryError within the zoneinfo module might not be reported or not reported at its source. (found by Coverity)

  • bpo-41048: mimetypes.read_mime_types() function reads the rule file using UTF-8 encoding, not the locale encoding. Patch by Srinivas Reddy Thatiparthy.

  • bpo-41043: Fixed the use of glob() in the stdlib: literal part of the path is now always correctly escaped.

  • bpo-41025: Fixed an issue preventing the C implementation of zoneinfo.ZoneInfo from being subclassed.

  • bpo-35018: Add the xml.sax.handler.LexicalHandler class that is present in other SAX XML implementations.

  • bpo-41002: Improve performance of HTTPResponse.read with a given amount. Patch by Bruce Merry.

  • bpo-40448: ensurepip now disables the use of pip cache when installing the bundled versions of pip and setuptools. Patch by Krzysztof Konopko.

  • bpo-40967: Removed asyncio.Task.current_task() and asyncio.Task.all_tasks(). Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-40924: Ensure importlib.resources.path returns an extant path for the SourceFileLoader’s resource reader. Avoids the regression identified in master while a long-term solution is devised.

  • bpo-40955: Fix a minor memory leak in subprocess module when extra_groups was specified.

  • bpo-40855: The standard deviation and variance functions in the statistics module were ignoring their mu and xbar arguments.

  • bpo-40939: Use the new PEG parser when generating the stdlib keyword module.

  • bpo-23427: Add sys.orig_argv attribute: the list of the original command line arguments passed to the Python executable.

  • bpo-33689: Ignore empty or whitespace-only lines in .pth files. This matches the documentated behavior. Before, empty lines caused the site-packages dir to appear multiple times in sys.path. By Ido Michael, contributors Malcolm Smith and Tal Einat.

  • bpo-40884: Added a defaults parameter to logging.Formatter, to allow specifying default values for custom fields. Patch by Asaf Alon and Bar Harel.

  • bpo-40876: Clarify error message in the csv module.

  • bpo-39791: Refresh importlib.metadata from importlib_metadata 1.6.1.

  • bpo-40807: Stop codeop._maybe_compile, used by code.InteractiveInterpreter (and IDLE). from emitting each warning three times.

  • bpo-32604: Fix reference leak in the select module when the module is imported in a subinterpreter.

  • bpo-39791: Built-in loaders (SourceFileLoader and ZipImporter) now supply TraversableResources implementations for ResourceReader, and the fallback function has been removed.

  • bpo-39314: rlcompleter.Completer and the standard Python shell now close the parenthesis for functions that take no arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-17005: The topological sort functionality that was introduced initially in the functools module has been moved to a new graphlib module to better accommodate the new tools and keep the original scope of the functools module. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40834: Fix truncate when sending str object with_xxsubinterpreters.channel_send.

  • bpo-40755: Add rich comparisons to collections.Counter().

  • bpo-26407: Unexpected errors in calling the __iter__ method are no longer masked by TypeError in csv.reader(), csv.writer.writerow() and csv.writer.writerows().

  • bpo-39384: Fixed email.contentmanager to allow set_content() to set a null string.

  • bpo-40744: The sqlite3 module uses SQLite API functions that require SQLite v3.7.3 or higher. This patch removes support for older SQLite versions, and explicitly requires SQLite 3.7.3 both at build, compile and runtime. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev and Erlend E. Aasland.

  • bpo-40777: Initialize PyDateTime_IsoCalendarDateType.tp_base at run-time to avoid errors on some compilers.

  • bpo-38488: Update ensurepip to install pip 20.1.1 and setuptools 47.1.0.

  • bpo-40792: The result of operator.index() now always has exact type int. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-40767: webbrowser now properly finds the default browser in pure Wayland systems by checking the WAYLAND_DISPLAY environment variable. Patch contributed by Jérémy Attali.

  • bpo-40791: hashlib.compare_digest() uses OpenSSL’s CRYPTO_memcmp() function when OpenSSL is available.

  • bpo-40795: ctypes module: If ctypes fails to convert the result of a callback or if a ctypes callback function raises an exception, sys.unraisablehook is now called with an exception set. Previously, the error was logged into stderr by PyErr_Print().

  • bpo-16995: Add base64.b32hexencode() and base64.b32hexdecode() to support the Base32 Encoding with Extended Hex Alphabet.

  • bpo-30008: Fix ssl code to be compatible with OpenSSL 1.1.x builds that use no-deprecated and --api=1.1.0.

  • bpo-30064: Fix asyncio loop.sock_* race condition issue

  • bpo-40759: Deprecate the symbol module.

  • bpo-40756: The second argument (extra) of LoggerAdapter.__init__ now defaults to None.

  • bpo-37129: Add a new os.RWF_APPEND flag for os.pwritev().

  • bpo-40737: Fix possible reference leak for sqlite3 initialization.

  • bpo-40726: Handle cases where the end_lineno is None on ast.increment_lineno().

  • bpo-40698: distutils upload creates SHA2-256 and Blake2b-256 digests. MD5 digests is skipped if platform blocks MD5.

  • bpo-40695: hashlib no longer falls back to builtin hash implementations when OpenSSL provides a hash digest and the algorithm is blocked by security policy.

  • bpo-9216: func:hashlib.new passed usedforsecurity to OpenSSL EVP constructor _hashlib.new(). test_hashlib and test_smtplib handle strict security policy better.

  • bpo-40614: ast.parse() will not parse self documenting expressions in f-strings when passed feature_version is less than (3, 8).

  • bpo-40626: Add h5 file extension as MIME Type application/x-hdf5, as per HDF Group recommendation for HDF5 formatted data files. Patch contributed by Mark Schwab.

  • bpo-25920: On macOS, when building Python for macOS 10.4 and older, which wasn’t the case for python.org macOS installer, socket.getaddrinfo() no longer uses an internal lock to prevent race conditions when calling getaddrinfo() which is thread-safe since macOS 10.5. Python 3.9 requires macOS 10.6 or newer. The internal lock caused random hang on fork when another thread was calling socket.getaddrinfo(). The lock was also used on FreeBSD older than 5.3, OpenBSD older than 201311 and NetBSD older than 4.

  • bpo-40671: Prepare _hashlib for PEP 489 and use PyModule_AddType().

  • bpo-32309: Added a new coroutine asyncio.to_thread(). It is mainly used for running IO-bound functions in a separate thread to avoid blocking the event loop, and essentially works as a high-level version of run_in_executor() that can directly take keyword arguments.

  • bpo-36543: Restored the deprecated xml.etree.cElementTree module.

  • bpo-40611: MAP_POPULATE constant has now been added to the list of exported mmap module flags.

  • bpo-39881: PEP 554 for use in the test suite. (Patch By Joannah Nanjekye)

  • bpo-13097: ctypes now raises an ArgumentError when a callback is invoked with more than 1024 arguments.

  • bpo-39385: A new test assertion context-manager, unittest.assertNoLogs() will ensure a given block of code emits no log messages using the logging module. Contributed by Kit Yan Choi.

  • bpo-23082: Updated the error message and docs of PurePath.relative_to() to better reflect the function behaviour.

  • bpo-40318: Use SQLite3 trace v2 API, if it is available.

  • bpo-40105: ZipFile truncates files to avoid corruption when a shorter comment is provided in append (“a”) mode. Patch by Jan Mazur.

  • bpo-40084: Fix Enum.__dir__: dir(Enum.member) now includes attributes as well as methods.

  • bpo-31122: ssl.wrap_socket() now raises ssl.SSLEOFError rather than OSError when peer closes connection during TLS negotiation

  • bpo-39728: fix default _missing_ so a duplicate ValueError is not set as the __context__ of the original ValueError

  • bpo-39244: Fixed multiprocessing.context.get_all_start_methods to properly return the default method first on macOS.

  • bpo-39040: Fix parsing of invalid mime headers parameters by collapsing whitespace between encoded words in a bare-quote-string.

  • bpo-38731: Add --quiet option to command-line interface of py_compile. Patch by Gregory Schevchenko.

  • bpo-35714: struct.error is now raised if there is a null character in a struct format string.

  • bpo-38144: Added the root_dir and dir_fd parameters in glob.glob().

  • bpo-26543: Fix IMAP4.noop() when debug mode is enabled (ex: imaplib.Debug = 3).

  • bpo-12178: csv.writer() now correctly escapes escapechar when input contains escapechar. Patch by Catalin Iacob, Berker Peksag, and Itay Elbirt.

  • bpo-36290: AST nodes are now raising TypeError on conflicting keyword arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-33944: Added site.py site-packages tracing in verbose mode.

  • bpo-35078: Refactor formatweekday, formatmonthname methods in LocaleHTMLCalendar and LocaleTextCalendar classes in calendar module to call the base class methods.This enables customizable CSS classes for LocaleHTMLCalendar. Patch by Srinivas Reddy Thatiparthy

  • bpo-29620: assertWarns() no longer raises a RuntimeException when accessing a module’s __warningregistry__ causes importation of a new module, or when a new module is imported in another thread. Patch by Kernc.

  • bpo-31844: Remove ParserBase.error() method from the private and undocumented _markupbase module. html.parser.HTMLParser is the only subclass of ParserBase and its error() implementation was deprecated in Python 3.4 and removed in Python 3.5.

  • bpo-34226: Fix cgi.parse_multipart without content_length. Patch by Roger Duran

  • bpo-33660: Fix pathlib.PosixPath to resolve a relative path located on the root directory properly.

  • bpo-28557: Improve the error message for a misbehaving rawio.readinto

  • bpo-26680: The d.is_integer() method is added to the Decimal type, for compatibility with other number types.

  • bpo-26680: The x.is_integer() method is incorporated into the abstract types of the numeric tower, Real, Rational and Integral, with appropriate default implementations.

Documentation

  • bpo-41428: Add documentation for PEP 604 (Allow writing union types as X | Y).

  • bpo-41774: In Programming FAQ “Sequences (Tuples/Lists)” section, add “How do you remove multiple items from a list”.

  • bpo-35293: Fix RemovedInSphinx40Warning when building the documentation. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37149: Change Shipman tkinter doc link from archive.org to TkDocs. (The doc has been removed from the NMT server.) The new link responds much faster and includes a short explanatory note.

  • bpo-41726: Update the refcounts info of PyType_FromModuleAndSpec.

  • bpo-41624: Fix the signature of typing.Coroutine.

  • bpo-40204: Enable Sphinx 3.2 c_allow_pre_v3 option and disable c_warn_on_allowed_pre_v3 option to make the documentation compatible with Sphinx 2 and Sphinx 3.

  • bpo-41045: Add documentation for debug feature of f-strings.

  • bpo-41314: Changed the release when from __future__ import annotations becomes the default from 4.0 to 3.10 (following a change in PEP 563).

  • bpo-40979: Refactored typing.rst, arranging more than 70 classes, functions, and decorators into new sub-sections.

  • bpo-40552: Fix in tutorial section 4.2. Code snippet is now correct.

  • bpo-39883: Make code, examples, and recipes in the Python documentation be licensed under the more permissive BSD0 license in addition to the existing Python 2.0 license.

  • bpo-37703: Updated Documentation to comprehensively elaborate on the behaviour of gather.cancel()

Tests

  • bpo-41939: Fix test_site.test_license_exists_at_url(): call urllib.request.urlcleanup() to reset the global urllib.request._opener. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41731: Make test_cmd_line_script pass with option ‘-vv’.

  • bpo-41602: Add tests for SIGINT handling in the runpy module.

  • bpo-41521: test.support: Rename blacklist parameter of check__all__() to not_exported.

  • bpo-41477: Make ctypes optional in test_genericalias.

  • bpo-41085: Fix integer overflow in the array.array.index() method on 64-bit Windows for index larger than 2**31.

  • bpo-41069: test.support.TESTFN and the current directory for tests when run via test.regrtest contain now non-ascii characters if possible.

  • bpo-38377: On Linux, skip tests using multiprocessing if the current user cannot create a file in /dev/shm/ directory. Add the skip_if_broken_multiprocessing_synchronize() function to the test.support module.

  • bpo-41009: Fix use of support.require_{linux|mac|freebsd}_version() decorators as class decorator.

  • bpo-41003: Fix test_copyreg when numpy is installed: test.pickletester now saves/restores warnings filters when importing numpy, to ignore filters installed by numpy.

  • bpo-40964: Disable remote imaplib tests, host cyrus.andrew.cmu.edu is blocking incoming connections.

  • bpo-40927: Fix test_binhex when run twice: it now uses import_fresh_module() to ensure that it raises DeprecationWarning each time.

  • bpo-17258: Skip some multiprocessing tests when MD5 hash digest is blocked.

  • bpo-31904: Increase LOOPBACK_TIMEOUT to 10 for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-38169: Increase code coverage for SharedMemory and ShareableList

  • bpo-34401: Make test_gdb properly run on HP-UX. Patch by Michael Osipov.

Build

  • bpo-38249: Update Py_UNREACHABLE to use __builtin_unreachable() if only the compiler is able to use it. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-41617: Fix pycore_bitutils.h header file to support old clang versions: __builtin_bswap16() is not available in LLVM clang 3.0.

  • bpo-40204: Pin Sphinx version to 2.3.1 in Doc/Makefile.

  • bpo-36020: The C99 functions snprintf() and vsnprintf() are now required to build Python.

  • bpo-40684: make install now uses the PLATLIBDIR variable for the destination lib-dynload/ directory when ./configure --with-platlibdir is used.

  • bpo-40683: Fixed an issue where the zoneinfo module and its tests were not included when Python is installed with make.

Windows

  • bpo-41744: Fixes automatic import of props file when using the Nuget package.

  • bpo-41627: The user site directory for 32-bit now includes a -32 suffix to distinguish it from the 64-bit interpreter’s directory.

  • bpo-41526: Fixed layout of final page of the installer by removing the special thanks to Mark Hammond (with his permission).

  • bpo-41492: Fixes the description that appears in UAC prompts.

  • bpo-40948: Improve post-install message to direct people to the “py” command.

  • bpo-41412: The installer will now fail to install on Windows 7 and Windows 8. Further, the UCRT dependency is now always downloaded on demand.

  • bpo-40741: Update Windows release to include SQLite 3.32.3.

  • bpo-41142: msilib now supports creating CAB files with non-ASCII file path and adding files with non-ASCII file path to them.

  • bpo-41074: Fixed support of non-ASCII names in functions msilib.OpenDatabase() and msilib.init_database() and non-ASCII SQL in method msilib.Database.OpenView().

  • bpo-41039: Stable ABI redirection DLL (python3.dll) now uses #pragma comment(linker) for re-exporting.

  • bpo-40164: Updates Windows OpenSSL to 1.1.1g

  • bpo-39631: Changes the registered MIME type for .py files on Windows to text/x-python instead of text/plain.

  • bpo-40677: Manually define IO_REPARSE_TAG_APPEXECLINK in case some old Windows SDK doesn’t have it.

  • bpo-37556: Extend py.exe help to mention overrides via venv, shebang, environmental variables & ini files.

macOS

  • bpo-41557: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.33.0.

  • bpo-39580: Avoid opening Finder window if running installer from the command line. Patch contributed by Rick Heil.

  • bpo-41100: Fix configure error when building on macOS 11. Note that the current Python release was released shortly after the first developer preview of macOS 11 (Big Sur); there are other known issues with building and running on the developer preview. Big Sur is expected to be fully supported in a future bugfix release of Python 3.8.x and with 3.9.0.

  • bpo-40741: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.32.3.

  • bpo-41005: fixed an XDG settings issue not allowing macos to open browser in webbrowser.py

  • bpo-40741: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.32.2.

IDLE

  • bpo-41775: Use ‘IDLE Shell’ as shell title

  • bpo-35764: Rewrite the Calltips doc section.

  • bpo-40181: In calltips, stop reminding that ‘/’ marks the end of positional-only arguments.

  • bpo-41468: Improve IDLE run crash error message (which users should never see).

  • bpo-41373: Save files loaded with no line ending, as when blank, or different line endings, by setting its line ending to the system default. Fix regression in 3.8.4 and 3.9.0b4.

  • bpo-41300: Save files with non-ascii chars. Fix regression released in 3.9.0b4 and 3.8.4.

  • bpo-37765: Add keywords to module name completion list. Rewrite Completions section of IDLE doc.

  • bpo-41152: The encoding of stdin, stdout and stderr in IDLE is now always UTF-8.

  • bpo-41144: Make Open Module open a special module such as os.path.

  • bpo-39885: Make context menu Cut and Copy work again when right-clicking within a selection.

  • bpo-40723: Make test_idle pass when run after import.

C API

  • bpo-41936: Removed undocumented macros Py_ALLOW_RECURSION and Py_END_ALLOW_RECURSION and the recursion_critical field of the PyInterpreterState structure.

  • bpo-41692: The PyUnicode_InternImmortal() function is now deprecated and will be removed in Python 3.12: use PyUnicode_InternInPlace() instead. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41842: Add PyCodec_Unregister() function to unregister a codec search function.

  • bpo-41834: Remove the _Py_CheckRecursionLimit variable: it has been replaced by ceval.recursion_limit of the PyInterpreterState structure. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-41689: Types created with PyType_FromSpec() now make any signature in their tp_doc slot accessible from __text_signature__.

  • bpo-41524: Fix bug in PyOS_mystrnicmp and PyOS_mystricmp that incremented pointers beyond the end of a string.

  • bpo-41324: Add a minimal decimal capsule API. The API supports fast conversions between Decimals up to 38 digits and their triple representation as a C struct.

  • bpo-30155: Add PyDateTime_DATE_GET_TZINFO() and PyDateTime_TIME_GET_TZINFO() macros for accessing the tzinfo attributes of datetime.datetime and datetime.time objects.

  • bpo-40170: Revert PyType_HasFeature() change: it reads again directly the PyTypeObject.tp_flags member when the limited C API is not used, rather than always calling PyType_GetFlags() which hides implementation details.

  • bpo-41123: Remove PyUnicode_AsUnicodeCopy.

  • bpo-41123: Removed PyLong_FromUnicode().

  • bpo-41123: Removed PyUnicode_GetMax().

  • bpo-41123: Removed Py_UNICODE_str* functions manipulating Py_UNICODE* strings.

  • bpo-41103: PyObject_AsCharBuffer(), PyObject_AsReadBuffer(), PyObject_CheckReadBuffer(), and PyObject_AsWriteBuffer() are removed. Please migrate to new buffer protocol; PyObject_GetBuffer() and PyBuffer_Release().

  • bpo-36346: Raises DeprecationWarning for PyUnicode_FromUnicode(NULL, size) and PyUnicode_FromStringAndSize(NULL, size) with size > 0.

  • bpo-36346: Mark Py_UNICODE_COPY, Py_UNICODE_FILL, PyUnicode_WSTR_LENGTH, PyUnicode_FromUnicode, PyUnicode_AsUnicode, and PyUnicode_AsUnicodeAndSize as deprecated in C. Remove Py_UNICODE_MATCH which was deprecated and broken since Python 3.3.

  • bpo-40989: The PyObject_INIT() and PyObject_INIT_VAR() macros become aliases to, respectively, PyObject_Init() and PyObject_InitVar() functions.

  • bpo-36020: On Windows, #include "pyerrors.h" no longer defines snprintf and vsnprintf macros.

  • bpo-40943: The PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN macro must now be defined to use PyArg_ParseTuple() and Py_BuildValue() formats which use #: es#, et#, s#, u#, y#, z#, U# and Z#. See Parsing arguments and building values and the PEP 353.

  • bpo-40910: Export explicitly the Py_GetArgcArgv() function to the C API and document the function. Previously, it was exported implicitly which no longer works since Python is built with -fvisibility=hidden.

  • bpo-40724: Allow defining buffer slots in type specs.

  • bpo-40679: Fix a _PyEval_EvalCode() crash if qualname argument is NULL.

  • bpo-40839: Calling PyDict_GetItem() without GIL held had been allowed for historical reason. It is no longer allowed.

  • bpo-40826: PyOS_InterruptOccurred() now fails with a fatal error if it is called with the GIL released.

  • bpo-40792: The result of PyNumber_Index() now always has exact type int. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

  • bpo-39573: Convert Py_REFCNT() and Py_SIZE() macros to static inline functions. They cannot be used as l-value anymore: use Py_SET_REFCNT() and Py_SET_SIZE() to set an object reference count and size. This change is backward incompatible on purpose, to prepare the C API for an opaque PyObject structure.

  • bpo-40703: The PyType_FromSpec*() functions no longer overwrite the type’s “__module__” attribute if it is set via “Py_tp_members” or “Py_tp_getset”.

  • bpo-39583: Remove superfluous “extern C” declarations from Include/cpython/*.h.

Python 3.9.0 beta 1

Release date: 2020-05-19

Security

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-40663: Correctly generate annotations where parentheses are omitted but required (e.g: Type[(str, int, *other))].

  • bpo-40596: Fixed str.isidentifier() for non-canonicalized strings containing non-BMP characters on Windows.

  • bpo-40593: Improved syntax errors for invalid characters in source code.

  • bpo-40585: Fixed a bug when using codeop.compile_command() that was causing exceptions to be swallowed with the new parser. Patch by Pablo Galindo

  • bpo-40566: Apply PEP 573 to abc.

  • bpo-40502: Initialize n->n_col_offset. (Patch by Joannah Nanjekye)

  • bpo-40527: Fix command line argument parsing: no longer write errors multiple times into stderr.

  • bpo-1635741: Port errno to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40523: Add pass-throughs for hash() and reversed() to weakref.proxy objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port syslog to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40246: Reporting a specialised error message for invalid string prefixes, which was introduced in bpo-40246, is being reverted due to backwards compatibility concerns for strings that immediately follow a reserved keyword without whitespace between them. Constructs like bg="#d00" if clear else"#fca" were failing to parse, which is not an acceptable breakage on such short notice.

  • bpo-40417: Fix imp module deprecation warning when PyImport_ReloadModule is called. Patch by Robert Rouhani.

  • bpo-40408: Fixed support of nested type variables in GenericAlias (e.g. list[list[T]]).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _stat module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-29587: Enable implicit exception chaining when calling generator.throw().

  • bpo-40328: Add tools for generating mappings headers for CJKCodecs.

  • bpo-40228: Setting frame.f_lineno is now robust w.r.t. changes in the source-to-bytecode compiler

  • bpo-38880: Added the ability to list interpreters associated with channel ends in the internal subinterpreters module.

  • bpo-37986: Improve performance of PyLong_FromDouble() for values that fit into long.

Library

  • bpo-40662: Fixed ast.get_source_segment() for ast nodes that have incomplete location information. Patch by Irit Katriel.

  • bpo-40665: Convert bisect to use Argument Clinic.

  • bpo-40536: Added the available_timezones() function to the zoneinfo module. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-40645: The hmac.HMAC exposes internal implementation details. The attributes digest_cons, inner, and outer are deprecated and will be removed in the future.

  • bpo-40645: The internal module _hashlib wraps and exposes OpenSSL’s HMAC API. The new code will be used in Python 3.10 after the internal implementation details of the pure Python HMAC module are no longer part of the public API.

  • bpo-40637: Builtin hash modules can now be disabled or selectively enabled with configure --with-builtin-hashlib-hashes=sha3,blake1 or --without-builtin-hashlib-hashes.

  • bpo-37630: The hashlib module can now use SHA3 hashes and SHAKE XOF from OpenSSL when available.

  • bpo-40479: The hashlib now compiles with OpenSSL 3.0.0-alpha2.

  • bpo-40257: Revert changes to inspect.getdoc().

  • bpo-40607: When cancelling a task due to timeout, asyncio.wait_for() will now propagate the exception if an error happens during cancellation. Patch by Roman Skurikhin.

  • bpo-40612: Fix edge cases in SyntaxError formatting. If the offset is <= 0, no caret is printed. If the offset is > line length, the caret is printed pointing just after the last character.

  • bpo-40597: If text content lines are longer than policy.max_line_length, always use a content-encoding to make sure they are wrapped.

  • bpo-40571: Added functools.cache() as a simpler, more discoverable way to access the unbounded cache variant of lru_cache(maxsize=None).

  • bpo-40503: PEP 615, the zoneinfo module. Adds support for the IANA time zone database.

  • bpo-40397: Removed attributes __args__ and __parameters__ from special generic aliases like typing.List (not subscripted).

  • bpo-40549: Convert posixmodule.c (“posix” or “nt” module) to the multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-31033: Add a msg argument to Future.cancel() and Task.cancel().

  • bpo-40541: Added an optional counts parameter to random.sample().

  • bpo-40515: The ssl and hashlib modules now actively check that OpenSSL is build with thread support. Python 3.7.0 made thread support mandatory and no longer works safely with a no-thread builds.

  • bpo-31033: When a asyncio.Task is cancelled, the exception traceback now chains all the way back to where the task was first interrupted.

  • bpo-40504: functools.lru_cache() objects can now be the targets of weakrefs.

  • bpo-40559: Fix possible memory leak in the C implementation of asyncio.Task.

  • bpo-40480: fnmatch.fnmatch() could take exponential time in the presence of multiple * pattern characters. This was repaired by generating more elaborate regular expressions to avoid futile backtracking.

  • bpo-40495: compileall is now able to use hardlinks to prevent duplicates in a case when .pyc files for different optimization levels have the same content.

  • bpo-40457: The ssl module now support OpenSSL builds without TLS 1.0 and 1.1 methods.

  • bpo-40355: Improve error reporting in ast.literal_eval() in the presence of malformed ast.Dict nodes instead of silently ignoring any non-conforming elements. Patch by Curtis Bucher.

  • bpo-40465: Deprecated the optional random argument to random.shuffle().

  • bpo-40459: platform.win32_ver() now produces correct ptype strings instead of empty strings.

  • bpo-39435: The first argument of pickle.loads() is now positional-only.

  • bpo-39305: Update nntplib to merge nntplib.NNTP and nntplib._NNTPBase. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-32494: Update dbm.gnu to use gdbm_count if possible when calling len(). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40453: Add isolated=True keyword-only parameter to _xxsubinterpreters.create(). An isolated subinterpreter cannot spawn threads, spawn a child process or call os.fork().

  • bpo-40286: Remove _random.Random.randbytes(): the C implementation of randbytes(). Implement the method in Python to ease subclassing: randbytes() now directly reuses getrandbits().

  • bpo-40394: Added default arguments to difflib.SequenceMatcher.find_longest_match().

  • bpo-39995: Fix a race condition in concurrent.futures._ThreadWakeup: access to _ThreadWakeup is now protected with the shutdown lock.

  • bpo-30966: Process.shutdown(wait=True) of concurrent.futures now closes explicitly the result queue.

  • bpo-30966: Add a new close() method to the SimpleQueue class to explicitly close the queue.

  • bpo-39966: Revert bpo-25597. unittest.mock.MagicMock with wraps’ set uses default return values for magic methods.

  • bpo-39791: Added files() function to importlib.resources with support for subdirectories in package data, matching backport in importlib_resources 1.5.

  • bpo-40375: imaplib.IMAP4.unselect() is added. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-40389: repr() now returns typing.Optional[T] when called for typing.Union of two types, one of which is NoneType.

  • bpo-40291: Add support for CAN_J1939 sockets (available on Linux 5.4+)

  • bpo-40273: types.MappingProxyType is now reversible.

  • bpo-39075: The repr for types.SimpleNamespace is now insertion ordered rather than alphabetical.

  • bpo-40192: On AIX, thread_time() is now implemented with thread_cputime() which has nanosecond resolution, rather than clock_gettime(CLOCK_THREAD_CPUTIME_ID) which has a resolution of 10 ms. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-40025: Raise TypeError when _generate_next_value_ is defined after members. Patch by Ethan Onstott.

  • bpo-39058: In the argparse module, the repr for Namespace() and other argument holders now displayed in the order attributes were added. Formerly, it displayed in alphabetical order even though argument order is preserved the user visible parts of the module.

  • bpo-24416: The isocalendar() methods of datetime.date and datetime.datetime now return a named tuple instead of a tuple.

Documentation

  • bpo-34790: Add version of removal for explicit passing of coros to asyncio.wait()’s documentation

  • bpo-40561: Provide docstrings for webbrowser open functions.

  • bpo-40499: Mention that asyncio.wait() requires a non-empty set of awaitables.

  • bpo-39705: Tutorial example for sorted() in the Loop Techniques section is given a better explanation. Also a new example is included to explain sorted()’s basic behavior.

  • bpo-39435: Fix an incorrect signature for pickle.loads() in the docs

Tests

  • bpo-40055: distutils.tests now saves/restores warnings filters to leave them unchanged. Importing tests imports docutils which imports pkg_resources which adds a warnings filter.

  • bpo-40436: test_gdb and test.pythoninfo now check gdb command exit code.

Build

  • bpo-40653: Move _dirnameW out of HAVE_SYMLINK to fix a potential compiling issue.

  • bpo-40514: Add --with-experimental-isolated-subinterpreters build option to configure: better isolate subinterpreters, experimental build mode.

Windows

  • bpo-40650: Include winsock2.h in pytime.c for timeval.

  • bpo-40458: Increase reserved stack space to prevent overflow crash on Windows.

  • bpo-39148: Add IPv6 support to asyncio datagram endpoints in ProactorEventLoop. Change the raised exception for unknown address families to ValueError as it’s not coming from Windows API.

macOS

  • bpo-34956: When building Python on macOS from source, _tkinter now links with non-system Tcl and Tk frameworks if they are installed in /Library/Frameworks, as had been the case on older releases of macOS. If a macOS SDK is explicitly configured, by using --enable-universalsdk= or -isysroot, only the SDK itself is searched. The default behavior can still be overridden with --with-tcltk-includes and --with-tcltk-libs.

  • bpo-35569: Expose RFC 3542 IPv6 socket options.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-40479: Update multissltest helper to test with latest OpenSSL 1.0.2, 1.1.0, 1.1.1, and 3.0.0-alpha.

  • bpo-40431: Fix a syntax typo in turtledemo that now raises a SyntaxError.

  • bpo-40163: Fix multissltest tool. OpenSSL has changed download URL for old releases. The multissltest tool now tries to download from current and old download URLs.

C API

  • bpo-39465: Remove the _PyUnicode_ClearStaticStrings() function from the C API.

  • bpo-38787: Add PyCFunction_CheckExact() macro for exact type checks now that we allow subtypes of PyCFunction, as well as PyCMethod_CheckExact() and PyCMethod_Check() for the new PyCMethod subtype.

  • bpo-40545: Declare _PyErr_GetTopmostException() with PyAPI_FUNC() to properly export the function in the C API. The function remains private (_Py) prefix.

  • bpo-40412: Nullify inittab_copy during finalization, preventing future interpreter initializations in an embedded situation from crashing. Patch by Gregory Szorc.

  • bpo-40429: The PyThreadState_GetFrame() function now returns a strong reference to the frame.

  • bpo-40428: Remove the following functions from the C API. Call PyGC_Collect() explicitly to free all free lists.

    • PyAsyncGen_ClearFreeLists()

    • PyContext_ClearFreeList()

    • PyDict_ClearFreeList()

    • PyFloat_ClearFreeList()

    • PyFrame_ClearFreeList()

    • PyList_ClearFreeList()

    • PySet_ClearFreeList()

    • PyTuple_ClearFreeList()

  • bpo-40421: New PyFrame_GetBack() function: get the frame next outer frame.

  • bpo-40421: New PyFrame_GetCode() function: return a borrowed reference to the frame code.

  • bpo-40217: Ensure that instances of types created with PyType_FromSpecWithBases() will visit its class object when traversing references in the garbage collector (implemented as an extension of the provided tp_traverse). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38787: Module C state is now accessible from C-defined heap type methods (PEP 573). Patch by Marcel Plch and Petr Viktorin.

Python 3.9.0 alpha 6

Release date: 2020-04-27

Security

  • bpo-40121: Fixes audit events raised on creating a new socket.

  • bpo-39073: Disallow CR or LF in email.headerregistry.Address arguments to guard against header injection attacks.

  • bpo-39503: CVE-2020-8492: The AbstractBasicAuthHandler class of the urllib.request module uses an inefficient regular expression which can be exploited by an attacker to cause a denial of service. Fix the regex to prevent the catastrophic backtracking. Vulnerability reported by Ben Caller and Matt Schwager.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-40313: Improve the performance of bytes.hex().

  • bpo-40334: Switch to a new parser, based on PEG. For more details see PEP 617. To temporarily switch back to the old parser, use -X oldparser or PYTHONOLDPARSER=1. In Python 3.10 we will remove the old parser completely, including the parser module (already deprecated) and anything that depends on it.

  • bpo-40267: Fix the tokenizer to display the correct error message, when there is a SyntaxError on the last input character and no newline follows. It used to be unexpected EOF while parsing, while it should be invalid syntax.

  • bpo-39522: Correctly unparse explicit u prefix for strings when postponed evaluation for annotations activated. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-40246: Report a specialized error message, invalid string prefix, when the tokenizer encounters a string with an invalid prefix.

  • bpo-40082: Fix the signal handler: it now always uses the main interpreter, rather than trying to get the current Python thread state.

  • bpo-37388: str.encode() and str.decode() no longer check the encoding and errors in development mode or in debug mode during Python finalization. The codecs machinery can no longer work on very late calls to str.encode() and str.decode().

  • bpo-40077: Fix possible refleaks in _json, memo of PyScannerObject should be traversed.

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to dict() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention.

  • bpo-40141: Add column and line information to ast.keyword nodes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port resource to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port math to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _uuid module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40077: Convert json module to use PyType_FromSpec().

  • bpo-40067: Improve the error message for multiple star expressions in an assignment. Patch by Furkan Onder

  • bpo-1635741: Port _functools module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489). Patch by Paulo Henrique Silva.

  • bpo-1635741: Port operator module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489). Patch by Paulo Henrique Silva.

  • bpo-20526: Fix PyThreadState_Clear(). PyThreadState.frame is a borrowed reference, not a strong reference: PyThreadState_Clear() must not call Py_CLEAR(tstate->frame).

  • bpo-1635741: Port time module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489). Patch by Paulo Henrique Silva.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _weakref extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40020: Fix a leak and subsequent crash in parsetok.c caused by realloc misuse on a rare codepath.

  • bpo-39939: Added str.removeprefix and str.removesuffix methods and corresponding bytes, bytearray, and collections.UserString methods to remove affixes from a string if present. See PEP 616 for a full description. Patch by Dennis Sweeney.

  • bpo-39481: Implement PEP 585. This supports list[int], tuple[str, …] etc.

  • bpo-32894: Support unparsing of infinity numbers in postponed annotations. Patch by Batuhan Taşkaya.

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to list() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Mark Shannon.

Library

  • bpo-40398: typing.get_args() now always returns an empty tuple for special generic aliases.

  • bpo-40396: Functions typing.get_origin(), typing.get_args() and typing.get_type_hints() support now generic aliases like list[int].

  • bpo-38061: Optimize the subprocess module on FreeBSD using closefrom(). A single close(fd) syscall is cheap, but when sysconf(_SC_OPEN_MAX) is high, the loop calling close(fd) on each file descriptor can take several milliseconds.

    The workaround on FreeBSD to improve performance was to load and mount the fdescfs kernel module, but this is not enabled by default.

    Initial patch by Ed Maste (emaste), Conrad Meyer (cem), Kyle Evans (kevans) and Kubilay Kocak (koobs): https://bugs.freebsd.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=242274

  • bpo-38061: On FreeBSD, os.closerange(fd_low, fd_high) now calls closefrom(fd_low) if fd_high is greater than or equal to sysconf(_SC_OPEN_MAX).

    Initial patch by Ed Maste (emaste), Conrad Meyer (cem), Kyle Evans (kevans) and Kubilay Kocak (koobs): https://bugs.freebsd.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=242274

  • bpo-40360: The lib2to3 module is pending deprecation due to PEP 617.

  • bpo-40138: Fix the Windows implementation of os.waitpid() for exit code larger than INT_MAX >> 8. The exit status is now interpreted as an unsigned number.

  • bpo-39942: Set “__main__” as the default module name when “__name__” is missing in typing.TypeVar. Patch by Weipeng Hong.

  • bpo-40275: The logging package is now imported lazily in unittest only when the assertLogs() assertion is used.

  • bpo-40275: The asyncio package is now imported lazily in unittest only when the IsolatedAsyncioTestCase class is used.

  • bpo-40330: In ShareableList.__setitem__(), check the size of a new string item after encoding it to utf-8, not before.

  • bpo-40148: Added pathlib.Path.with_stem() to create a new Path with the stem replaced.

  • bpo-40325: Deprecated support for set objects in random.sample().

  • bpo-40257: Improved help for the typing module. Docstrings are now shown for all special forms and special generic aliases (like Union and List). Using help() with generic alias like List[int] will show the help for the correspondent concrete type (list in this case).

  • bpo-40257: func:inspect.getdoc no longer returns docstring inherited from the type of the object or from parent class if it is a class if it is not defined in the object itself. In pydoc the documentation string is now shown not only for class, function, method etc, but for any object that has its own __doc__ attribute.

  • bpo-40287: Fixed SpooledTemporaryFile.seek() to return the position.

  • bpo-40290: Added zscore() to statistics.NormalDist().

  • bpo-40282: Allow random.getrandbits(0) to succeed and to return 0.

  • bpo-40286: Add random.randbytes() function and random.Random.randbytes() method to generate random bytes.

  • bpo-40277: collections.namedtuple() now provides a human-readable repr for its field accessors.

  • bpo-40270: The included copy of sqlite3 on Windows is now compiled with the json extension. This allows the use of functions such as json_object.

  • bpo-29255: Wait in KqueueSelector.select when no fds are registered

  • bpo-40260: Ensure modulefinder uses io.open_code() and respects coding comments.

  • bpo-40234: Allow again to spawn daemon threads in subinterpreters (revert change which denied them).

  • bpo-39207: Workers in ProcessPoolExecutor are now spawned on demand, only when there are no available idle workers to reuse. This optimizes startup overhead and reduces the amount of lost CPU time to idle workers. Patch by Kyle Stanley.

  • bpo-40091: Fix a hang at fork in the logging module: the new private _at_fork_reinit() method is now used to reinitialize locks at fork in the child process.

  • bpo-40149: Implement traverse and clear slots in _abc._abc_data type.

  • bpo-40208: Remove deprecated symtable.SymbolTable.has_exec().

  • bpo-40196: Fix a bug in the symtable module that was causing incorrectly report global variables as local. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40190: Add support for _SC_AIX_REALMEM to posix.sysconf().

  • bpo-40182: Removed the _field_types attribute of the typing.NamedTuple class.

  • bpo-36517: Multiple inheritance with typing.NamedTuple now raises an error instead of silently ignoring other types.

  • bpo-40126: Fixed reverting multiple patches in unittest.mock. Patcher’s __exit__() is now never called if its __enter__() is failed. Returning true from __exit__() silences now the exception.

  • bpo-40094: CGIHTTPRequestHandler of http.server now logs the CGI script exit code, rather than the CGI script exit status of os.waitpid(). For example, if the script is killed by signal 11, it now logs: “CGI script exit code -11.”

  • bpo-40108: Improve the error message when triying to import a module using runpy and incorrently use the “.py” extension at the end of the module name. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-40094: Add os.waitstatus_to_exitcode() function: convert a wait status to an exit code.

  • bpo-40089: Fix threading._after_fork(): if fork was not called by a thread spawned by threading.Thread, threading._after_fork() now creates a _MainThread instance for _main_thread, instead of a _DummyThread instance.

  • bpo-40089: Add a private _at_fork_reinit() method to _thread.Lock, _thread.RLock, threading.RLock and threading.Condition classes: reinitialize the lock at fork in the child process, reset the lock to the unlocked state. Rename also the private _reset_internal_locks() method of threading.Event to _at_fork_reinit().

  • bpo-25780: Expose CAN_RAW_JOIN_FILTERS in the socket module.

  • bpo-39503: AbstractBasicAuthHandler of urllib.request now parses all WWW-Authenticate HTTP headers and accepts multiple challenges per header: use the realm of the first Basic challenge.

  • bpo-39812: Removed daemon threads from concurrent.futures by adding an internal threading._register_atexit(), which calls registered functions prior to joining all non-daemon threads. This allows for compatibility with subinterpreters, which don’t support daemon threads.

  • bpo-40050: Fix importlib._bootstrap_external: avoid creating a new winreg builtin module if it’s already available in sys.modules, and remove redundant imports.

  • bpo-40014: Fix os.getgrouplist(): if getgrouplist() function fails because the group list is too small, retry with a larger group list. On failure, the glibc implementation of getgrouplist() sets ngroups to the total number of groups. For other implementations, double the group list size.

  • bpo-40017: Add time.CLOCK_TAI constant if the operating system support it.

  • bpo-40016: In re docstring, clarify the relationship between inline and argument compile flags.

  • bpo-39953: Update internal table of OpenSSL error codes in the ssl module.

  • bpo-36144: Added PEP 584 operators to weakref.WeakValueDictionary.

  • bpo-36144: Added PEP 584 operators to weakref.WeakKeyDictionary.

  • bpo-38891: Fix linear runtime behaviour of the __getitem__ and __setitem__ methods in multiprocessing.shared_memory.ShareableList. This avoids quadratic performance when iterating a ShareableList. Patch by Thomas Krennwallner.

  • bpo-39682: Remove undocumented support for closing a pathlib.Path object via its context manager. The context manager magic methods remain, but they are now a no-op, making Path objects immutable.

  • bpo-36144: Added PEP 584 operators (| and |=) to collections.ChainMap.

  • bpo-39011: Normalization of line endings in ElementTree attributes was removed, as line endings which were replaced by entity numbers should be preserved in original form.

  • bpo-38410: Properly handle sys.audit() failures in sys.set_asyncgen_hooks().

  • bpo-36541: lib2to3 now recognizes named assignment expressions (the walrus operator, :=)

  • bpo-35967: In platform, delay the invocation of ‘uname -p’ until the processor attribute is requested.

  • bpo-35113: inspect.getsource() now returns correct source code for inner class with same name as module level class. Decorators are also returned as part of source of the class. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-33262: Deprecate passing None as an argument for shlex.split()’s s parameter. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-31758: Prevent crashes when using an uninitialized _elementtree.XMLParser object. Patch by Oren Milman.

Documentation

  • bpo-27635: The pickle documentation incorrectly claimed that __new__ isn’t called by default when unpickling.

  • bpo-39879: Updated Data model docs to include dict() insertion order preservation. Patch by Furkan Onder and Samy Lahfa.

  • bpo-38387: Document PyDoc_STRVAR macro in the C-API reference.

  • bpo-13743: Some methods within xml.dom.minidom.Element class are now better documented.

Tests

  • bpo-31904: Set expected default encoding in test_c_locale_coercion.py for VxWorks RTOS.

  • bpo-40162: Update Travis CI configuration to OpenSSL 1.1.1f.

  • bpo-40146: Update OpenSSL to 1.1.1f in Azure Pipelines.

  • bpo-40094: Add test.support.wait_process() function.

  • bpo-40003: test.bisect_cmd now copies Python command line options like -O or -W. Moreover, emit a warning if test.bisect_cmd is used with -w/--verbose2 option.

  • bpo-39380: Add the encoding in ftplib.FTP and ftplib.FTP_TLS to the constructor as keyword-only and change the default from latin-1 to utf-8 to follow RFC 2640.

  • bpo-39793: Use the same domain when testing make_msgid. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-1812: Fix newline handling in doctest.testfile when loading from a package whose loader has a get_data method. Patch by Peter Donis.

Build

  • bpo-38360: Support single-argument form of macOS -isysroot flag.

  • bpo-40158: Fix CPython MSBuild Properties in NuGet Package (build/native/python.props)

  • bpo-38527: Fix configure check on Solaris for “float word ordering”: sometimes, the correct “grep” command was not being used. Patch by Arnon Yaari.

Windows

  • bpo-40164: Updates Windows to OpenSSL 1.1.1f

  • bpo-8901: Ignore the Windows registry when the -E option is used.

macOS

  • bpo-38329: python.org macOS installers now update the Current version symlink of /Library/Frameworks/Python.framework/Versions for 3.9 installs. Previously, Current was only updated for Python 2.x installs. This should make it easier to embed Python 3 into other macOS applications.

  • bpo-40164: Update macOS installer builds to use OpenSSL 1.1.1g.

IDLE

  • bpo-38439: Add a 256×256 pixel IDLE icon to support more modern environments. Created by Andrew Clover. Delete the unused macOS idle.icns icon file.

  • bpo-38689: IDLE will no longer freeze when inspect.signature fails when fetching a calltip.

Tools/Demos

C API

Python 3.9.0 alpha 5

Release date: 2020-03-23

Security

  • bpo-38576: Disallow control characters in hostnames in http.client, addressing CVE-2019-18348. Such potentially malicious header injection URLs now cause a InvalidURL to be raised.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-40010: Optimize pending calls in multithreaded applications. If a thread different than the main thread schedules a pending call (Py_AddPendingCall()), the bytecode evaluation loop is no longer interrupted at each bytecode instruction to check for pending calls which cannot be executed. Only the main thread can execute pending calls.

    Previously, the bytecode evaluation loop was interrupted at each instruction until the main thread executes pending calls.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _weakref extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _collections module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-40010: Optimize signal handling in multithreaded applications. If a thread different than the main thread gets a signal, the bytecode evaluation loop is no longer interrupted at each bytecode instruction to check for pending signals which cannot be handled. Only the main thread of the main interpreter can handle signals.

    Previously, the bytecode evaluation loop was interrupted at each instruction until the main thread handles signals.

  • bpo-39984: If Py_AddPendingCall() is called in a subinterpreter, the function is now scheduled to be called from the subinterpreter, rather than being called from the main interpreter. Each subinterpreter now has its own list of scheduled calls.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _heapq module to multiphase initialization.

  • bpo-1635741: Port itertools module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to frozenset() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39984: subinterpreters: Move _PyRuntimeState.ceval.tracing_possible to PyInterpreterState.ceval.tracing_possible: each interpreter now has its own variable.

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to set() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _statistics module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39968: Use inline function to replace extension modules’ get_module_state macros.

  • bpo-39965: Correctly raise SyntaxError if await is used inside non-async functions and PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT is set (like in the asyncio REPL). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39562: Allow executing asynchronous comprehensions on the top level when the PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT flag is given. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to tuple() by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-38373: Chaged list overallocation strategy. It no longer overallocates if the new size is closer to overallocated size than to the old size and adds padding.

  • bpo-39926: Update Unicode database to Unicode version 13.0.0.

  • bpo-19466: Clear the frames of daemon threads earlier during the Python shutdown to call objects destructors. So “unclosed file” resource warnings are now emitted for daemon threads in a more reliable way.

  • bpo-38894: Fix a bug that was causing incomplete results when calling pathlib.Path.glob in the presence of symlinks that point to files where the user does not have read access. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Matt Wozniski.

  • bpo-39877: Fix PyEval_RestoreThread() random crash at exit with daemon threads. It now accesses the _PyRuntime variable directly instead of using tstate->interp->runtime, since tstate can be a dangling pointer after Py_Finalize() has been called. Moreover, the daemon thread now exits before trying to take the GIL.

  • bpo-39871: Fix a possible SystemError in math.{atan2,copysign,remainder}() when the first argument cannot be converted to a float. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-39776: Fix race condition where threads created by PyGILState_Ensure() could get a duplicate id.

    This affects consumers of tstate->id like the contextvar caching machinery, which could return invalid cached objects under heavy thread load (observed in embedded scenarios).

  • bpo-39778: Fixed a crash due to incorrect handling of weak references in collections.OrderedDict classes. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port audioop extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39702: Relax decorator grammar restrictions to allow any valid expression (PEP 614).

  • bpo-38091: Tweak import deadlock detection code to not deadlock itself.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _locale extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39087: Optimize PyUnicode_AsUTF8() and PyUnicode_AsUTF8AndSize() slightly when they need to create internal UTF-8 cache.

  • bpo-39520: Fix unparsing of ext slices with no items (foo[:,]). Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-39220: Do not optimize annotations if ‘from __future__ import annotations’ is used. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-35712: Using NotImplemented in a boolean context has been deprecated. Patch contributed by Josh Rosenberg.

  • bpo-22490: Don’t leak environment variable __PYVENV_LAUNCHER__ into the interpreter session on macOS.

Library

  • bpo-39830: Add zipfile.Path to __all__ in the zipfile module.

  • bpo-40000: Improved error messages for validation of ast.Constant nodes. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-39999: __module__ of the AST node classes is now set to “ast” instead of “_ast”. Added docstrings for dummy AST node classes and deprecated attributes.

  • bpo-39991: uuid.getnode() now skips IPv6 addresses with the same string length than a MAC address (17 characters): only use MAC addresses.

  • bpo-39988: Deprecated ast.AugLoad and ast.AugStore node classes because they are no longer used.

  • bpo-39656: Ensure bin/python3.# is always present in virtual environments on POSIX platforms - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-39969: Deprecated ast.Param node class because it’s no longer used. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-39360: Ensure all workers exit when finalizing a multiprocessing.Pool implicitly via the module finalization handlers of multiprocessing. This fixes a deadlock situation that can be experienced when the Pool is not properly finalized via the context manager or a call to multiprocessing.Pool.terminate. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya and Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-35370: sys.settrace(), sys.setprofile() and _lsprof.Profiler.enable() now properly report PySys_Audit() error if “sys.setprofile” or “sys.settrace” audit event is denied.

  • bpo-39936: AIX: Fix _aix_support module when the subprocess is not available, when building Python from scratch. It now uses new private _bootsubprocess module, rather than having two implementations depending if subprocess is available or not. So _aix_support.aix_platform() result is now the same if subprocess is available or not.

  • bpo-36144: collections.OrderedDict now implements | and |= (PEP 584).

  • bpo-39652: The column name found in sqlite3.Cursor.description is now truncated on the first ‘[‘ only if the PARSE_COLNAMES option is set.

  • bpo-39915: Ensure unittest.mock.AsyncMock.await_args_list has call objects in the order of awaited arguments instead of using unittest.mock.Mock.call_args which has the last value of the call. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-36144: Updated os.environ and os.environb to support PEP 584’s merge (|) and update (|=) operators.

  • bpo-38662: The ensurepip module now invokes pip via the runpy module. Hence it is no longer tightly coupled with the internal API of the bundled pip version, allowing easier updates to a newer pip version both internally and for distributors.

  • bpo-38075: Fix the random.Random.seed() method when a bool is passed as the seed.

  • bpo-39916: More reliable use of os.scandir() in Path.glob(). It no longer emits a ResourceWarning when interrupted.

  • bpo-39850: multiprocessing now supports abstract socket addresses (if abstract sockets are supported in the running platform). When creating arbitrary addresses (like when default-constructing multiprocessing.connection.Listener objects) abstract sockets are preferred to avoid the case when the temporary-file-generated address is too large for an AF_UNIX socket address. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-36287: ast.dump() no longer outputs optional fields and attributes with default values. The default values for optional fields and attributes of AST nodes are now set as class attributes (e.g. Constant.kind is set to None).

  • bpo-39889: Fixed ast.unparse() for extended slices containing a single element (e.g. a[i:j,]). Remove redundant tuples when index with a tuple (e.g. a[i, j]).

  • bpo-39828: Fix json.tool to catch BrokenPipeError. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-13487: Avoid a possible “RuntimeError: dictionary changed size during iteration” from inspect.getmodule() when it tried to loop through sys.modules.

  • bpo-39674: Revert “bpo-37330: open() no longer accept ‘U’ in file mode”. The “U” mode of open() is kept in Python 3.9 to ease transition from Python 2.7, but will be removed in Python 3.10.

  • bpo-28577: The hosts method on 32-bit prefix length IPv4Networks and 128-bit prefix IPv6Networks now returns a list containing the single Address instead of an empty list.

  • bpo-39826: Add getConnection method to logging HTTPHandler to enable custom connections.

  • bpo-39763: Reimplement distutils.spawn.spawn() function with the subprocess module.

  • bpo-39794: Add –without-decimal-contextvar build option. This enables a thread-local rather than a coroutine local context.

  • bpo-36144: collections.defaultdict now implements | (PEP 584).

  • bpo-39517: Fix runpy.run_path() when using pathlike objects

  • bpo-39775: Change inspect.Signature.parameters back to collections.OrderedDict. This was changed to dict in Python 3.9.0a4.

  • bpo-39678: Refactor queue_manager in concurrent.futures.ProcessPoolExecutor to make it easier to maintain.

  • bpo-39764: Fix AttributeError when calling get_stack on a PyAsyncGenObject Task

  • bpo-39769: The compileall.compile_dir() function’s ddir parameter and the compileall command line flag -d no longer write the wrong pathname to the generated pyc file for submodules beneath the root of the directory tree being compiled. This fixes a regression introduced with Python 3.5.

  • bpo-36144: types.MappingProxyType objects now support the merge (|) operator from PEP 584.

  • bpo-38691: The importlib module now ignores the PYTHONCASEOK environment variable when the -E or -I command line options are being used.

  • bpo-39719: Remove tempfile.SpooledTemporaryFile.softspace() as files no longer have the softspace attribute in Python 3. Patch by Shantanu.

  • bpo-39667: Improve pathlib.Path compatibility on zipfile.Path and correct performance degradation as found in zipp 3.0.

  • bpo-39638: Keep ASDL signatures in the docstrings for AST nodes. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya

  • bpo-39639: Deprecated ast.Suite node class because it’s no longer used. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-39609: Add thread_name_prefix to default asyncio executor

  • bpo-39548: Fix handling of header in urllib.request.AbstractDigestAuthHandler when the optional qop parameter is not present.

  • bpo-39509: HTTP status codes 103 EARLY_HINTS and 425 TOO_EARLY are added to http.HTTPStatus. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39507: Adding HTTP status 418 “I’m a Teapot” to HTTPStatus in http library. Patch by Ross Rhodes.

  • bpo-39495: Remove default value from attrs parameter of xml.etree.ElementTree.TreeBuilder.start() for consistency between Python and C implementations.

  • bpo-38971: Open issue in the BPO indicated a desire to make the implementation of codecs.open() at parity with io.open(), which implements a try/except to assure file stream gets closed before an exception is raised.

  • bpo-38641: Added starred expressions support to return and yield statements for lib2to3. Patch by Vlad Emelianov.

  • bpo-37534: When using minidom module to generate XML documents the ability to add Standalone Document Declaration is added. All the changes are made to generate a document in compliance with Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0 (Fifth Edition) W3C Recommendation (available here: https://www.w3.org/TR/xml/#sec-prolog-dtd).

  • bpo-34788: Add support for scoped IPv6 addresses to ipaddress. Patch by Oleksandr Pavliuk.

  • bpo-34822: Simplified AST for subscription. Simple indices are now represented by their value, extended slices are represented as tuples. ast classes Index and ExtSlice are considered deprecated and will be removed in future Python versions. In the meantime, Index(value) now returns a value itself, ExtSlice(slices) returns Tuple(slices, Load()).

Documentation

  • bpo-39868: Updated the Language Reference for PEP 572.

  • bpo-13790: Change ‘string’ to ‘specification’ in format doc.

  • bpo-17422: The language reference no longer restricts default class namespaces to dicts only.

  • bpo-39530: Fix misleading documentation about mixed-type numeric comparisons.

  • bpo-39718: Update token documentation to reflect additions in Python 3.8

  • bpo-39677: Changed operand name of MAKE_FUNCTION from argc to flags for module dis

Tests

  • bpo-40019: test_gdb now skips tests if it detects that gdb failed to read debug information because the Python binary is optimized.

  • bpo-27807: test_site.test_startup_imports() is now skipped if a path of sys.path contains a .pth file.

  • bpo-26067: Do not fail test_shutil test_chown test when uid or gid of user cannot be resolved to a name.

  • bpo-39855: test_subprocess.test_user() now skips the test on an user name if the user name doesn’t exist. For example, skip the test if the user “nobody” doesn’t exist on Linux.

Build

  • bpo-39761: Fix build with DTrace but without additional DFLAGS.

  • bpo-39763: setup.py now uses a basic implementation of the subprocess module if the subprocess module is not available: before required C extension modules are built.

  • bpo-1294959: Add --with-platlibdir option to the configure script: name of the platform-specific library directory, stored in the new sys.platlibdir attribute. It is used to build the path of platform-specific extension modules and the path of the standard library. It is equal to "lib" on most platforms. On Fedora and SuSE, it is equal to "lib64" on 64-bit platforms. Patch by Jan Matějek, Matěj Cepl, Charalampos Stratakis and Victor Stinner.

Windows

  • bpo-39930: Ensures the required vcruntime140.dll is included in install packages.

  • bpo-39847: Avoid hang when computer is hibernated whilst waiting for a mutex (for lock-related objects from threading) around 49-day uptime.

  • bpo-38597: distutils will no longer statically link vcruntime140.dll when a redistributable version is unavailable. All future releases of CPython will include a copy of this DLL to ensure distributed extensions can continue to load.

  • bpo-38380: Update Windows builds to use SQLite 3.31.1

  • bpo-39789: Update Windows release build machines to Visual Studio 2019 (MSVC 14.2).

  • bpo-34803: Package for nuget.org now includes repository reference and bundled icon image.

macOS

  • bpo-38380: Update macOS builds to use SQLite 3.31.1

IDLE

  • bpo-27115: For ‘Go to Line’, use a Query box subclass with IDLE standard behavior and improved error checking.

  • bpo-39885: Since clicking to get an IDLE context menu moves the cursor, any text selection should be and now is cleared.

  • bpo-39852: Edit “Go to line” now clears any selection, preventing accidental deletion. It also updates Ln and Col on the status bar.

  • bpo-39781: Selecting code context lines no longer causes a jump.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-36184: Port python-gdb.py to FreeBSD. python-gdb.py now checks for “take_gil” function name to check if a frame tries to acquire the GIL, instead of checking for “pthread_cond_timedwait” which is specific to Linux and can be a different condition than the GIL.

  • bpo-38080: Added support to fix getproxies in the lib2to3.fixes.fix_urllib module. Patch by José Roberto Meza Cabrera.

C API

Python 3.9.0 alpha 4

Release date: 2020-02-25

Security

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-39382: Fix a use-after-free in the single inheritance path of issubclass(), when the __bases__ of an object has a single reference, and so does its first item. Patch by Yonatan Goldschmidt.

  • bpo-39573: Update clinic tool to use Py_IS_TYPE(). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39619: Enable use of os.chroot() on HP-UX systems.

  • bpo-39573: Add Py_IS_TYPE() static inline function to check whether the object o type is type.

  • bpo-39606: Fix regression caused by fix for bpo-39386, that prevented calling aclose on an async generator that had already been closed or exhausted.

  • bpo-39579: Change the ending column offset of Attribute nodes constructed in ast_for_dotted_name to point at the end of the current node and not at the end of the last NAME node.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _crypt extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _contextvars extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39510: Fix segfault in readinto() method on closed BufferedReader.

  • bpo-39502: Fix time.localtime() on 64-bit AIX to support years before 1902 and after 2038. Patch by M Felt.

  • bpo-39492: Fix a reference cycle in the C Pickler that was preventing the garbage collection of deleted, pickled objects.

  • bpo-39453: Fixed a possible crash in list.__contains__() when a list is changed during comparing items. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39434: floor division of float operation now has a better performance. Also the message of ZeroDivisionError for this operation is updated. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _codecs extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _bz2 extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-1635741: Port _abc extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39320: Replace two complex bytecodes for building dicts with two simpler ones. The new bytecodes DICT_MERGE and DICT_UPDATE have been added The old bytecodes BUILD_MAP_UNPACK and BUILD_MAP_UNPACK_WITH_CALL have been removed.

  • bpo-39219: Syntax errors raised in the tokenizer now always set correct “text” and “offset” attributes.

  • bpo-36051: Drop the GIL during large bytes.join operations. Patch by Bruce Merry.

  • bpo-38960: Fix DTrace build issues on FreeBSD. Patch by David Carlier.

  • bpo-37207: Speed up calls to range() by about 30%, by using the PEP 590 vectorcall calling convention. Patch by Mark Shannon.

  • bpo-36144: dict (and collections.UserDict) objects now support PEP 584’s merge (|) and update (|=) operators. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-32856: Optimized the idiom for assignment a temporary variable in comprehensions. Now for y in [expr] in comprehensions is as fast as a simple assignment y = expr.

Library

  • bpo-30566: Fix IndexError when trying to decode an invalid string with punycode codec.

  • bpo-39649: Remove obsolete check for __args__ in bdb.Bdb.format_stack_entry.

  • bpo-39648: Expanded math.gcd() and math.lcm() to handle multiple arguments.

  • bpo-39681: Fix a regression where the C pickle module wouldn’t allow unpickling from a file-like object that doesn’t expose a readinto() method.

  • bpo-35950: Raise io.UnsupportedOperation in io.BufferedReader.truncate() when it is called on a read-only io.BufferedReader instance.

  • bpo-39479: Add math.lcm() function: least common multiple.

  • bpo-39674: Revert “Do not expose abstract collection classes in the collections module” change (bpo-25988). Aliases to ABC like collections.Mapping are kept in Python 3.9 to ease transition from Python 2.7, but will be removed in Python 3.10.

  • bpo-39104: Fix hanging ProcessPoolExcutor on shutdown(wait=False) when a task has failed pickling.

  • bpo-39627: Fixed TypedDict totality check for inherited keys.

  • bpo-39474: Fixed starting position of AST for expressions like (a)(b), (a)[b] and (a).b.

  • bpo-21016: The pydoc and trace modules now use the sysconfig module to get the path to the Python standard library, to support uncommon installation path like /usr/lib64/python3.9/ on Fedora. Patch by Jan Matějek.

  • bpo-39590: Collections.deque now holds strong references during deque.__contains__ and deque.count, fixing crashes.

  • bpo-39586: The distutils bdist_msi command is deprecated in Python 3.9, use bdist_wheel (wheel packages) instead.

  • bpo-39595: Improved performance of zipfile.Path for files with a large number of entries. Also improved performance and fixed minor issue as published with importlib_metadata 1.5.

  • bpo-39350: Fix regression in fractions.Fraction if the numerator and/or the denominator is an int subclass. The math.gcd() function is now used to normalize the numerator and denominator. math.gcd() always return a int type. Previously, the GCD type depended on numerator and denominator.

  • bpo-39567: Added audit for os.walk(), os.fwalk(), pathlib.Path.glob() and pathlib.Path.rglob().

  • bpo-39559: Remove unused, undocumented argument getters from uuid.getnode()

  • bpo-38149: sys.audit() is now called only once per call of glob.glob() and glob.iglob().

  • bpo-39546: Fix a regression in ArgumentParser where allow_abbrev=False was ignored for long options that used a prefix character other than “-“.

  • bpo-39450: Striped whitespace from docstring before returning it from unittest.case.shortDescription().

  • bpo-12915: A new function resolve_name has been added to the pkgutil module. This resolves a string of the form 'a.b.c.d' or 'a.b:c.d' to an object. In the example, a.b is a package/module and c.d is an object within that package/module reached via recursive attribute access.

  • bpo-39353: The binascii.crc_hqx() function is no longer deprecated.

  • bpo-39493: Mark typing.IO.closed as a property

  • bpo-39491: Add typing.Annotated and include_extras parameter to typing.get_type_hints() as part of PEP 593. Patch by Till Varoquaux, documentation by Till Varoquaux and Konstantin Kashin.

  • bpo-39485: Fix a bug in unittest.mock.create_autospec() that would complain about the wrong number of arguments for custom descriptors defined in an extension module returning functions.

  • bpo-38932: Mock fully resets child objects on reset_mock(). Patch by Vegard Stikbakke

  • bpo-39082: Allow AsyncMock to correctly patch static/class methods

  • bpo-39432: Implement PEP-489 algorithm for non-ascii “PyInit_…” symbol names in distutils to make it export the correct init symbol also on Windows.

  • bpo-18819: Omit devmajor and devminor fields for non-device files in tarfile archives, enabling bit-for-bit compatibility with GNU tar(1).

  • bpo-39349: Added a new cancel_futures parameter to concurrent.futures.Executor.shutdown() that cancels all pending futures which have not started running, instead of waiting for them to complete before shutting down the executor.

  • bpo-39274: bool(fraction.Fraction) now returns a boolean even if (numerator != 0) does not return a boolean (ex: numpy number).

  • bpo-34793: Remove support for with (await asyncio.lock): and with (yield from asyncio.lock):. The same is correct for asyncio.Condition and asyncio.Semaphore.

  • bpo-25597: Ensure, if wraps is supplied to unittest.mock.MagicMock, it is used to calculate return values for the magic methods instead of using the default return values. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-36350: inspect.Signature.parameters and inspect.BoundArguments.arguments are now dicts instead of OrderedDicts. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-35727: Fix sys.exit() and sys.exit(None) exit code propagation when used in multiprocessing.Process.

  • bpo-32173: * Add lazycache function to __all__. * Use dict.clear to clear the cache. * Refactoring getline function and checkcache function.

Documentation

  • bpo-17422: The language reference now specifies restrictions on class namespaces. Adapted from a patch by Ethan Furman.

  • bpo-39572: Updated documentation of total flag of TypeDict.

  • bpo-39654: In pyclbr doc, update ‘class’ to ‘module’ where appropriate and add readmodule comment. Patch by Hakan Çelik.

  • bpo-39153: Clarify refcounting semantics for the following functions: - PyObject_SetItem - PyMapping_SetItemString - PyDict_SetItem - PyDict_SetItemString

  • bpo-39392: Explain that when filling with turtle, overlap regions may be left unfilled.

  • bpo-39369: Update mmap readline method description. The fact that the readline method does update the file position should not be ignored since this might give the impression for the programmer that it doesn’t update it.

  • bpo-9056: Include subsection in TOC for PDF version of docs.

Tests

Build

  • bpo-39489: Remove COUNT_ALLOCS special build.

Windows

  • bpo-39553: Delete unused code related to SxS manifests.

  • bpo-39439: Honor the Python path when a virtualenv is active on Windows.

  • bpo-39393: Improve the error message when attempting to load a DLL with unresolved dependencies.

  • bpo-38883: home() and expanduser() on Windows now prefer USERPROFILE and no longer use HOME, which is not normally set for regular user accounts. This makes them again behave like os.path.expanduser(), which was changed to ignore HOME in 3.8, see bpo-36264.

  • bpo-39185: The build.bat script has additional options for very-quiet output (-q) and very-verbose output (-vv)

IDLE

  • bpo-39663: Add tests for pyparse find_good_parse_start().

  • bpo-39600: In the font configuration window, remove duplicated font names.

  • bpo-30780: Add remaining configdialog tests for buttons and highlights and keys tabs.

  • bpo-39388: IDLE Settings Cancel button now cancels pending changes

  • bpo-38792: Close an IDLE shell calltip if a KeyboardInterrupt or shell restart occurs. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

C API

  • bpo-35081: Move the bytes_methods.h header file to the internal C API as pycore_bytes_methods.h: it only contains private symbols (prefixed by _Py), except of the PyDoc_STRVAR_shared() macro.

  • bpo-35081: Move the dtoa.h header file to the internal C API as pycore_dtoa.h: it only contains private functions (prefixed by _Py). The math and cmath modules must now be compiled with the Py_BUILD_CORE macro defined.

  • bpo-39573: Add Py_SET_SIZE() function to set the size of an object.

  • bpo-39500: PyUnicode_IsIdentifier() does not call Py_FatalError() anymore if the string is not ready.

  • bpo-39573: Add Py_SET_TYPE() function to set the type of an object.

  • bpo-39573: Add a Py_SET_REFCNT() function to set the reference counter of an object.

  • bpo-39542: Convert PyType_HasFeature(), PyType_Check() and PyType_CheckExact() macros to static inline functions.

  • bpo-39542: In the limited C API, PyObject_INIT() and PyObject_INIT_VAR() are now defined as aliases to PyObject_Init() and PyObject_InitVar() to make their implementation opaque. It avoids to leak implementation details in the limited C API. Exclude the following functions from the limited C API: _Py_NewReference(), _Py_ForgetReference(), _PyTraceMalloc_NewReference() and _Py_GetRefTotal().

  • bpo-39542: Exclude trashcan mechanism from the limited C API: it requires access to PyTypeObject and PyThreadState structure fields, whereas these structures are opaque in the limited C API.

  • bpo-39511: The PyThreadState_Clear() function now calls the PyThreadState.on_delete callback. Previously, that happened in PyThreadState_Delete().

  • bpo-38076: Fix to clear the interpreter state only after clearing module globals to guarantee module state access from C Extensions during runtime destruction

  • bpo-39245: The Vectorcall API (PEP 590) was made public, adding the functions PyObject_Vectorcall, PyObject_VectorcallMethod, PyVectorcall_Function, PyObject_CallOneArg, PyObject_CallMethodNoArgs, PyObject_CallMethodOneArg, PyObject_FastCallDict, and the flag Py_TPFLAGS_HAVE_VECTORCALL.

Python 3.9.0 alpha 3

Release date: 2020-01-24

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-39427: Document all possibilities for the -X options in the command line help section. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39421: Fix possible crashes when operating with the functions in the heapq module and custom comparison operators.

  • bpo-39386: Prevent double awaiting of async iterator.

  • bpo-17005: Add functools.TopologicalSorter to the functools module to offers functionality to perform topological sorting of graphs. Patch by Pablo Galindo, Tim Peters and Larry Hastings.

  • bpo-39320: Replace four complex bytecodes for building sequences with three simpler ones.

    The following four bytecodes have been removed:

    • BUILD_LIST_UNPACK

    • BUILD_TUPLE_UNPACK

    • BUILD_SET_UNPACK

    • BUILD_TUPLE_UNPACK_WITH_CALL

    The following three bytecodes have been added:

    • LIST_TO_TUPLE

    • LIST_EXTEND

    • SET_UPDATE

  • bpo-39336: Import loaders which publish immutable module objects can now publish immutable packages in addition to individual modules.

  • bpo-39322: Added a new function gc.is_finalized() to check if an object has been finalized by the garbage collector. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39048: Improve the displayed error message when incorrect types are passed to async with statements by looking up the __aenter__() special method before the __aexit__() special method when entering an asynchronous context manager. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-39235: Fix AST end location for lone generator expression in function call, e.g. f(i for i in a).

  • bpo-39209: Correctly handle multi-line tokens in interactive mode. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-1635741: Port _json extension module to multiphase initialization (PEP 489).

  • bpo-39216: Fix constant folding optimization for positional only arguments - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-39215: Fix SystemError when nested function has annotation on positional-only argument - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-39200: Correct the error message when calling the min() or max() with no arguments. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39200: Correct the error message when trying to construct range objects with no arguments. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39166: Fix incorrect line execution reporting in trace functions when tracing the last iteration of asynchronous for loops. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39114: Fix incorrent line execution reporting in trace functions when tracing exception handlers with name binding. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-39156: Split the COMPARE_OP bytecode instruction into four distinct instructions.

    • COMPARE_OP for rich comparisons

    • IS_OP for ‘is’ and ‘is not’ tests

    • CONTAINS_OP for ‘in’ and ‘is not’ tests

    • JUMP_IF_NOT_EXC_MATCH for checking exceptions in ‘try-except’ statements.

    This improves the clarity of the interpreter and should provide a modest speedup.

  • bpo-38588: Fix possible crashes in dict and list when calling PyObject_RichCompareBool().

  • bpo-13601: By default, sys.stderr is line-buffered now, even if stderr is redirected to a file. You can still make sys.stderr unbuffered by passing the -u command-line option or setting the PYTHONUNBUFFERED environment variable.

    (Contributed by Jendrik Seipp in bpo-13601.)

  • bpo-38610: Fix possible crashes in several list methods by holding strong references to list elements when calling PyObject_RichCompareBool().

  • bpo-32021: Include brotli .br encoding in mimetypes encodings_map

Library

  • bpo-39430: Fixed race condition in lazy imports in tarfile.

  • bpo-39413: The os.unsetenv() function is now also available on Windows.

  • bpo-39390: Fixed a regression with the ignore callback of shutil.copytree(). The argument types are now str and List[str] again.

  • bpo-39395: The os.putenv() and os.unsetenv() functions are now always available.

  • bpo-39406: If setenv() C function is available, os.putenv() is now implemented with setenv() instead of putenv(), so Python doesn’t have to handle the environment variable memory.

  • bpo-39396: Fix math.nextafter(-0.0, +0.0) on AIX 7.1.

  • bpo-29435: Allow tarfile.is_tarfile() to be used with file and file-like objects, like zipfile.is_zipfile(). Patch by William Woodruff.

  • bpo-39377: Removed encoding option from json.loads(). It has been deprecated since Python 3.1.

  • bpo-39389: Write accurate compression level metadata in gzip archives, rather than always signaling maximum compression.

  • bpo-39366: The previously deprecated xpath() and xgtitle() methods of nntplib.NNTP have been removed.

  • bpo-39357: Remove the buffering parameter of bz2.BZ2File. Since Python 3.0, it was ignored and using it was emitting DeprecationWarning. Pass an open file object, to control how the file is opened. The compresslevel parameter becomes keyword-only.

  • bpo-39353: Deprecate binhex4 and hexbin4 standards. Deprecate the binhex module and the following binascii functions: b2a_hqx(), a2b_hqx(), rlecode_hqx(), rledecode_hqx(), crc_hqx().

  • bpo-39351: Remove base64.encodestring() and base64.decodestring(), aliases deprecated since Python 3.1: use base64.encodebytes() and base64.decodebytes() instead.

  • bpo-39350: Remove fractions.gcd() function, deprecated since Python 3.5 (bpo-22486): use math.gcd() instead.

  • bpo-39329: LMTP constructor now has an optional timeout parameter. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39313: Add a new exec_function option (–exec-function in the CLI) to RefactoringTool for making exec a function. Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-39259: FTP_TLS and FTP_TLS now raise a ValueError if the given timeout for their constructor is zero to prevent the creation of a non-blocking socket. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39259: SMTP and SMTP_SSL now raise a ValueError if the given timeout for their constructor is zero to prevent the creation of a non-blocking socket. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39310: Add math.ulp(): return the value of the least significant bit of a float.

  • bpo-39297: Improved performance of importlib.metadata distribution discovery and resilients to inaccessible sys.path entries (importlib_metadata v1.4.0).

  • bpo-39259: NNTP and NNTP_SSL now raise a ValueError if the given timeout for their constructor is zero to prevent the creation of a non-blocking socket. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-38901: When you specify prompt=’.’ or equivalently python -m venv –prompt . … the basename of the current directory is used to set the created venv’s prompt when it’s activated.

  • bpo-39288: Add math.nextafter(): return the next floating-point value after x towards y.

  • bpo-39259: POP3 and POP3_SSL now raise a ValueError if the given timeout for their constructor is zero to prevent the creation of a non-blocking socket. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39242: Updated the Gmane domain from news.gmane.org to news.gmane.io which is used for examples of NNTP news reader server and nntplib tests.

  • bpo-35292: Proxy the SimpleHTTPRequestHandler.guess_type to mimetypes.guess_type so the mimetypes.init is called lazily to avoid unnecessary costs when http.server module is imported.

  • bpo-39239: The select.epoll.unregister() method no longer ignores the EBADF error.

  • bpo-38907: In http.server script, restore binding to IPv4 on Windows.

  • bpo-39152: Fix ttk.Scale.configure([name]) to return configuration tuple for name or all options. Giovanni Lombardo contributed part of the patch.

  • bpo-39198: If an exception were to be thrown in Logger.isEnabledFor (say, by asyncio timeouts or stopit) , the logging global lock may not be released appropriately, resulting in deadlock. This change wraps that block of code with try...finally to ensure the lock is released.

  • bpo-39191: Perform a check for running loop before starting a new task in loop.run_until_complete() to fail fast; it prevents the side effect of new task spawning before exception raising.

  • bpo-38871: Correctly parenthesize filter-based statements that contain lambda expressions in mod:lib2to3. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-39142: A change was made to logging.config.dictConfig to avoid converting instances of named tuples to ConvertingTuple. It’s assumed that named tuples are too specialised to be treated like ordinary tuples; if a user of named tuples requires ConvertingTuple functionality, they will have to implement that themselves in their named tuple class.

  • bpo-39158: ast.literal_eval() now supports empty sets.

  • bpo-39129: Fix import path for asyncio.TimeoutError

  • bpo-39057: urllib.request.proxy_bypass_environment() now ignores leading dots and no longer ignores a trailing newline.

  • bpo-39056: Fixed handling invalid warning category in the -W option. No longer import the re module if it is not needed.

  • bpo-39055: base64.b64decode() with validate=True raises now a binascii.Error if the input ends with a single \n.

  • bpo-21600: Fix mock.patch.stopall() to stop active patches that were created with mock.patch.dict().

  • bpo-39019: Implement dummy __class_getitem__ for tempfile.SpooledTemporaryFile.

  • bpo-39019: Implement dummy __class_getitem__ for subprocess.Popen, subprocess.CompletedProcess

  • bpo-38914: Adjusted the wording of the warning issued by distutils’ check command when the author and maintainer fields are supplied but no corresponding e-mail field (author_email or maintainer_email) is found. The wording now reflects the fact that these fields are suggested, but not required. Patch by Juergen Gmach.

  • bpo-38878: Fixed __subclasshook__ of os.PathLike to return a correct result upon inheritence. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-38615: IMAP4 and IMAP4_SSL now have an optional timeout parameter for their constructors. Also, the open() method now has an optional timeout parameter with this change. The overridden methods of IMAP4_SSL and IMAP4_stream were applied to this change. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-35182: Fixed Popen.communicate() subsequent call crash when the child process has already closed any piped standard stream, but still continues to be running. Patch by Andriy Maletsky.

  • bpo-38630: On Unix, subprocess.Popen.send_signal() now polls the process status. Polling reduces the risk of sending a signal to the wrong process if the process completed, the subprocess.Popen.returncode attribute is still None, and the pid has been reassigned (recycled) to a new different process.

  • bpo-38536: Removes trailing space in formatted currency with international=True and a locale with symbol following value. E.g. locale.currency(12.34, international=True) returned '12,34 EUR ' instead of '12,34 EUR'.

  • bpo-38473: Use signature from inner mock for autospecced methods attached with unittest.mock.attach_mock(). Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-38361: Fixed an issue where ident could include a leading path separator when syslog.openlog() was called without arguments.

  • bpo-38293: Add copy.copy() and copy.deepcopy() support to property() objects.

  • bpo-37958: Added the pstats.Stats.get_profile_dict() method to return the profile data as a StatsProfile instance.

  • bpo-28367: Termios magic constants for the following baud rates: - B500000 - B576000 - B921600 - B1000000 - B1152000 - B1500000 - B2000000 - B2500000 - B3000000 - B3500000 - B4000000 Patch by Andrey Smirnov

Documentation

Build

  • bpo-39395: On non-Windows platforms, the setenv() and unsetenv() functions are now required to build Python.

  • bpo-39160: Updated the documentation in /configure --help to show default values, reference documentation where required and add additional explanation where needed.

  • bpo-39144: The ctags and etags build targets both include Modules/_ctypes and Python standard library source files.

IDLE

  • bpo-39050: Make IDLE Settings dialog Help button work again.

  • bpo-34118: Tag memoryview, range, and tuple as classes, the same as list, etcetera, in the library manual built-in functions list.

  • bpo-32989: Add tests for editor newline_and_indent_event method. Remove dead code from pyparse find_good_parse_start method.

C API

  • bpo-39372: Clean header files of interfaces defined but with no implementation. The public API symbols being removed are: _PyBytes_InsertThousandsGroupingLocale, _PyBytes_InsertThousandsGrouping, _Py_InitializeFromArgs, _Py_InitializeFromWideArgs, _PyFloat_Repr, _PyFloat_Digits, _PyFloat_DigitsInit, PyFrame_ExtendStack, _PyAIterWrapper_Type, PyNullImporter_Type, PyCmpWrapper_Type, PySortWrapper_Type, PyNoArgsFunction.

  • bpo-39164: Add a private _PyErr_GetExcInfo() function to retrieve exception information of the specified Python thread state.

Python 3.9.0 alpha 2

Release date: 2019-12-18

Security

  • bpo-38945: Newline characters have been escaped when performing uu encoding to prevent them from overflowing into to content section of the encoded file. This prevents malicious or accidental modification of data during the decoding process.

  • bpo-37228: Due to significant security concerns, the reuse_address parameter of asyncio.loop.create_datagram_endpoint() is no longer supported. This is because of the behavior of SO_REUSEADDR in UDP. For more details, see the documentation for loop.create_datagram_endpoint(). (Contributed by Kyle Stanley, Antoine Pitrou, and Yury Selivanov in bpo-37228.)

  • bpo-38804: Fixes a ReDoS vulnerability in http.cookiejar. Patch by Ben Caller.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-39028: Slightly improve the speed of keyword argument parsing with many kwargs by strengthening the assumption that kwargs are interned strings.

  • bpo-39080: Fix the value of end_col_offset for Starred Expression AST nodes when they are among the elements in the args attribute of Call AST nodes.

  • bpo-39031: When parsing an “elif” node, lineno and col_offset of the node now point to the “elif” keyword and not to its condition, making it consistent with the “if” node. Patch by Lysandros Nikolaou.

  • bpo-20443: In Python 3.9.0a1, sys.argv[0] was made an absolute path if a filename was specified on the command line. Revert this change, since most users expect sys.argv to be unmodified.

  • bpo-39008: PySys_Audit() now requires Py_ssize_t to be used for size arguments in the format string, regardless of whether PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN was defined at include time.

  • bpo-38673: In REPL mode, don’t switch to PS2 if the line starts with comment or whitespace. Based on work by Batuhan Taşkaya.

  • bpo-38922: Calling replace on a code object now raises the code.__new__ audit event.

  • bpo-38920: Add audit hooks for when sys.excepthook() and sys.unraisablehook() are invoked.

  • bpo-38892: Improve documentation for audit events table and functions.

  • bpo-38852: Set the thread stack size to 8 Mb for debug builds on android platforms.

  • bpo-38858: Each Python subinterpreter now has its own “small integer singletons”: numbers in [-5; 257] range. It is no longer possible to change the number of small integers at build time by overriding NSMALLNEGINTS and NSMALLPOSINTS macros: macros should now be modified manually in pycore_pystate.h header file.

  • bpo-36854: The garbage collector state becomes per interpreter (PyInterpreterState.gc), rather than being global (_PyRuntimeState.gc).

  • bpo-38835: The PyFPE_START_PROTECT() and PyFPE_END_PROTECT() macros are empty: they have been doing nothing for the last year, so stop using them.

  • bpo-38328: Sped up the creation time of constant list and set displays. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-38707: MainThread.native_id is now correctly reset in child processes spawned using multiprocessing.Process, instead of retaining the parent’s value.

  • bpo-38629: Added __floor__ and __ceil__ methods to float object. Patch by Batuhan Taşkaya.

  • bpo-27145: int + int and int - int operators can now return small integer singletons. Patch by hongweipeng.

  • bpo-38021: Provide a platform tag for AIX that is sufficient for PEP425 binary distribution identification. Patch by Michael Felt.

  • bpo-35409: Ignore GeneratorExit exceptions when throwing an exception into the aclose coroutine of an asynchronous generator.

  • bpo-33387: Removed WITH_CLEANUP_START, WITH_CLEANUP_FINISH, BEGIN_FINALLY, END_FINALLY, CALL_FINALLY and POP_FINALLY bytecodes. Replaced with RERAISE and WITH_EXCEPT_START bytecodes. The compiler now generates different code for exceptional and non-exceptional branches for ‘with’ and ‘try-except’ statements. For ‘try-finally’ statements the ‘finally’ block is replicated for each exit from the ‘try’ body.

Library

  • bpo-39033: Fix NameError in zipimport. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-39022: Update importlib.metadata to include improvements from importlib_metadata 1.3 including better serialization of EntryPoints and improved documentation for custom finders.

  • bpo-39006: Fix asyncio when the ssl module is missing: only check for ssl.SSLSocket instance if the ssl module is available.

  • bpo-38708: Fix a potential IndexError in email parser when parsing an empty msg-id.

  • bpo-38698: Add a new InvalidMessageID token to email parser to represent invalid Message-ID headers. Also, add defects when there is remaining value after parsing the header.

  • bpo-38994: Implement __class_getitem__ for os.PathLike, pathlib.Path.

  • bpo-38979: Return class from ContextVar.__class_getitem__ to simplify subclassing.

  • bpo-38978: Implement __class_getitem__ on asyncio objects (Future, Task, Queue). Patch by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-38916: array.array: Remove tostring() and fromstring() methods. They were aliases to tobytes() and frombytes(), deprecated since Python 3.2.

  • bpo-38986: Make repr of C accelerated TaskWakeupMethWrapper the same as of pure Python version.

  • bpo-38982: Fix asyncio PidfdChildWatcher: handle waitpid() error. If waitpid() is called elsewhere, waitpid() call fails with ChildProcessError: use return code 255 in this case, and log a warning. It ensures that the pidfd file descriptor is closed if this error occurs.

  • bpo-38529: Drop too noisy asyncio warning about deletion of a stream without explicit .close() call.

  • bpo-27413: Added ability to pass through ensure_ascii options to json.dumps in the json.tool command-line interface.

  • bpo-38634: The readline module now detects if Python is linked to libedit at runtime on all platforms. Previously, the check was only done on macOS.

  • bpo-33684: Fix json.tool failed to read a JSON file with non-ASCII characters when locale encoding is not UTF-8.

  • bpo-38698: Prevent UnboundLocalError to pop up in parse_message_id.

    parse_message_id() was improperly using a token defined inside an exception handler, which was raising UnboundLocalError on parsing an invalid value. Patch by Claudiu Popa.

  • bpo-38927: Use python -m pip instead of pip to upgrade dependencies in venv.

  • bpo-26730: Fix SpooledTemporaryFile.rollover() might corrupt the file when it is in text mode. Patch by Serhiy Storchaka.

  • bpo-38881: random.choices() now raises a ValueError when all the weights are zero.

  • bpo-38876: Raise pickle.UnpicklingError when loading an item from memo for invalid input.

    The previous code was raising a KeyError for both the Python and C implementation. This was caused by the specified index of an invalid input which did not exist in the memo structure, where the pickle stores what objects it has seen. The malformed input would have caused either a BINGET or LONG_BINGET load from the memo, leading to a KeyError as the determined index was bogus. Patch by Claudiu Popa

  • bpo-38688: Calling func:shutil.copytree to copy a directory tree from one directory to another subdirectory resulted in an endless loop and a RecursionError. A fix was added to consume an iterator and create the list of the entries to be copied, avoiding the recursion for newly created directories. Patch by Bruno P. Kinoshita.

  • bpo-38863: Improve is_cgi() function in http.server, which enables processing the case that cgi directory is a child of another directory other than root.

  • bpo-37838: typing.get_type_hints() properly handles functions decorated with functools.wraps().

  • bpo-38870: Expose ast.unparse() as a function of the ast module that can be used to unparse an ast.AST object and produce a string with code that would produce an equivalent ast.AST object when parsed. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-38859: AsyncMock now returns StopAsyncIteration on the exhaustion of a side_effects iterable. Since PEP-479 its Impossible to raise a StopIteration exception from a coroutine.

  • bpo-38857: AsyncMock fix for return values that are awaitable types. This also covers side_effect iterable values that happened to be awaitable, and wraps callables that return an awaitable type. Before these awaitables were being awaited instead of being returned as is.

  • bpo-38834: typing.TypedDict subclasses now track which keys are optional using the __required_keys__ and __optional_keys__ attributes, to enable runtime validation by downstream projects. Patch by Zac Hatfield-Dodds.

  • bpo-38821: Fix unhandled exceptions in argparse when internationalizing error messages for arguments with nargs set to special (non-integer) values. Patch by Federico Bond.

  • bpo-38820: Make Python compatible with OpenSSL 3.0.0. ssl.SSLSocket.getpeercert() no longer returns IPv6 addresses with a trailing new line.

  • bpo-38811: Fix an unhandled exception in pathlib when os.link() is missing. Patch by Toke Høiland-Jørgensen.

  • bpo-38686: Added support for multiple qop values in urllib.request.AbstractDigestAuthHandler.

  • bpo-38712: Add the Linux-specific signal.pidfd_send_signal() function, which allows sending a signal to a process identified by a file descriptor rather than a pid.

  • bpo-38348: Add -i and --indent (indentation level), and --no-type-comments (type comments) command line options to ast parsing tool.

  • bpo-37523: Change zipfile.ZipExtFile to raise ValueError when trying to access the underlying file object after it has been closed. This new behavior is consistent with how accessing closed files is handled in other parts of Python.

  • bpo-38045: Improve the performance of enum._decompose() in enum. Patch by hongweipeng.

  • bpo-36820: Break cycle generated when saving an exception in socket.py, codeop.py and dyld.py as they keep alive not only the exception but user objects through the __traceback__ attribute. Patch by Mario Corchero.

  • bpo-36406: Handle namespace packages in doctest. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-34776: Fix dataclasses to support forward references in type annotations

  • bpo-20928: ElementTree supports recursive XInclude processing. Patch by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-29636: Add whitespace options for formatting JSON with the json.tool CLI. The following mutually exclusive options are now supported: --indent for setting the indent level in spaces; --tab for indenting with tabs; --no-indent for suppressing newlines; and --compact for suppressing all whitespace. The default behavior remains the same as --indent=4.

Documentation

Tests

  • bpo-38546: Fix test_ressources_gced_in_workers() of test_concurrent_futures: explicitly stop the manager to prevent leaking a child process running in the background after the test completes.

  • bpo-38546: Multiprocessing and concurrent.futures tests now stop the resource tracker process when tests complete.

  • bpo-38614: Replace hardcoded timeout constants in tests with new test.support constants: LOOPBACK_TIMEOUT, INTERNET_TIMEOUT, SHORT_TIMEOUT and LONG_TIMEOUT. It becomes easier to adjust these four timeout constants for all tests at once, rather than having to adjust every single test file.

  • bpo-38547: Fix test_pty: if the process is the session leader, closing the master file descriptor raises a SIGHUP signal: simply ignore SIGHUP when running the tests.

  • bpo-38992: Fix a test for math.fsum() that was failing due to constant folding.

  • bpo-38991: test.support: run_python_until_end(), assert_python_ok() and assert_python_failure() functions no longer strip whitespaces from stderr. Remove test.support.strip_python_stderr() function.

  • bpo-38965: Fix test_faulthandler on GCC 10. Use the “volatile” keyword in faulthandler._stack_overflow() to prevent tail call optimization on any compiler, rather than relying on compiler specific pragma.

  • bpo-38875: test_capi: trashcan tests now require the test “cpu” resource.

  • bpo-38841: Skip asyncio test_create_datagram_endpoint_existing_sock_unix on platforms lacking a functional bind() for named unix domain sockets.

  • bpo-38692: Skip the test_posix.test_pidfd_open() test if os.pidfd_open() fails with a PermissionError. This situation can happen in a Linux sandbox using a syscall whitelist which doesn’t allow the pidfd_open() syscall yet.

  • bpo-38839: Fix some unused functions in tests. Patch by Adam Johnson.

  • bpo-38669: Raise TypeError when passing target as a string with unittest.mock.patch.object().

  • bpo-37957: test.regrtest now can receive a list of test patterns to ignore (using the -i/–ignore argument) or a file with a list of patterns to ignore (using the –ignore-file argument). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

Build

  • bpo-37404: asyncio now raises TyperError when calling incompatible methods with an ssl.SSLSocket socket. Patch by Ido Michael.

  • bpo-36500: Added an optional “regen” project to the Visual Studio solution that will regenerate all grammar, tokens, and opcodes.

Windows

  • bpo-39007: Add auditing events to functions in winreg.

  • bpo-33125: Add support for building and releasing Windows ARM64 packages.

macOS

  • bpo-37931: Fixed a crash on OSX dynamic builds that occurred when re-initializing the posix module after a Py_Finalize if the environment had changed since the previous import posix. Patch by Benoît Hudson.

IDLE

  • bpo-38944: Escape key now closes IDLE completion windows. Patch by Johnny Najera.

  • bpo-38943: Fix IDLE autocomplete windows not always appearing on some systems. Patch by Johnny Najera.

  • bpo-38862: ‘Strip Trailing Whitespace’ on the Format menu removes extra newlines at the end of non-shell files.

  • bpo-38636: Fix IDLE Format menu tab toggle and file indent width. These functions (default shortcuts Alt-T and Alt-U) were mistakenly disabled in 3.7.5 and 3.8.0.

C API

  • bpo-38896: Remove PyUnicode_ClearFreeList() function: the Unicode free list has been removed in Python 3.3.

  • bpo-37340: Remove PyMethod_ClearFreeList() and PyCFunction_ClearFreeList() functions: the free lists of bound method objects have been removed.

  • bpo-38835: Exclude PyFPE_START_PROTECT() and PyFPE_END_PROTECT() macros of pyfpe.h from Py_LIMITED_API (stable API).

Python 3.9.0 alpha 1

Release date: 2019-11-19

Security

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-38631: Replace Py_FatalError() call with a regular RuntimeError exception in float.__getformat__().

  • bpo-38639: Optimized math.floor(), math.ceil() and math.trunc() for floats.

  • bpo-38640: Fixed a bug in the compiler that was causing to raise in the presence of break statements and continue statements inside always false while loops. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38613: Optimized some set operations (e.g. |, ^, and -) of dict_keys. d.keys() | other was slower than set(d) | other but they are almost same performance for now.

  • bpo-28029: "".replace("", s, n) now returns s instead of an empty string for all non-zero n. There are similar changes for bytes and bytearray objects.

  • bpo-38535: Fixed line numbers and column offsets for AST nodes for calls without arguments in decorators.

  • bpo-38525: Fix a segmentation fault when using reverse iterators of empty dict objects. Patch by Dong-hee Na and Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-38465: bytearray, array and mmap objects allow now to export more than 2**31 buffers at a time.

  • bpo-38469: Fixed a bug where the scope of named expressions was not being resolved correctly in the presence of the global keyword. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38437: Activate the GC_DEBUG macro for debug builds of the interpreter (when Py_DEBUG is set). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-38379: When the garbage collector makes a collection in which some objects resurrect (they are reachable from outside the isolated cycles after the finalizers have been executed), do not block the collection of all objects that are still unreachable. Patch by Pablo Galindo and Tim Peters.

  • bpo-38379: When cyclic garbage collection (gc) runs finalizers that resurrect unreachable objects, the current gc run ends, without collecting any cyclic trash. However, the statistics reported by collect() and get_stats() claimed that all cyclic trash found was collected, and that the resurrected objects were collected. Changed the stats to report that none were collected.

  • bpo-38392: In debug mode, PyObject_GC_Track() now calls tp_traverse() of the object type to ensure that the object is valid: test that objects visited by tp_traverse() are valid.

  • bpo-38210: Remove unecessary intersection and update set operation in dictview with empty set. (Contributed by Dong-hee Na in bpo-38210.)

  • bpo-38402: Check the error from the system’s underlying crypt or crypt_r.

  • bpo-37474: On FreeBSD, Python no longer calls fedisableexcept() at startup to control the floating point control mode. The call became useless since FreeBSD 6: it became the default mode.

  • bpo-38006: Fix a bug due to the interaction of weakrefs and the cyclic garbage collector. We must clear any weakrefs in garbage in order to prevent their callbacks from executing and causing a crash.

  • bpo-38317: Fix warnings options priority: PyConfig.warnoptions has the highest priority, as stated in the PEP 587.

  • bpo-38310: Predict BUILD_MAP_UNPACK_WITH_CALL -> CALL_FUNCTION_EX opcode pairs in the main interpreter loop. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-36871: Improve error handling for the assert_has_calls and assert_has_awaits methods of mocks. Fixed a bug where any errors encountered while binding the expected calls to the mock’s spec were silently swallowed, leading to misleading error output.

  • bpo-11410: Better control over symbol visibility is provided through use of the visibility attributes available in gcc >= 4.0, provided in a uniform way across POSIX and Windows. The POSIX build files have been updated to compile with -fvisibility=hidden, minimising exported symbols.

  • bpo-38219: Optimized the dict constructor and the update() method for the case when the argument is a dict.

  • bpo-38236: Python now dumps path configuration if it fails to import the Python codecs of the filesystem and stdio encodings.

  • bpo-38013: Allow to call async_generator_athrow().throw(...) even for non-started async generator helper. It fixes annoying warning at the end of asyncio.run() call.

  • bpo-38124: Fix an off-by-one error in PyState_AddModule that could cause out-of-bounds memory access.

  • bpo-38116: The select module is now PEP-384 compliant and no longer has static state

  • bpo-38113: ast module updated to PEP-384 and all statics removed

  • bpo-38076: The struct module is now PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38075: The random module is now PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38074: zlib module made PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38073: Make pwd extension module PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38072: grp module made PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38069: Make _posixsubprocess PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38071: Make termios extension module PEP-384 compatible

  • bpo-38005: Fixed comparing and creating of InterpreterID and ChannelID.

  • bpo-36946: Fix possible signed integer overflow when handling slices. Patch by hongweipeng.

  • bpo-37994: Fixed silencing arbitrary errors if an attribute lookup fails in several sites. Only AttributeError should be silenced.

  • bpo-8425: Optimize set difference_update for the case when the other set is much larger than the base set. (Suggested by Evgeny Kapun with code contributed by Michele Orrù).

  • bpo-37966: The implementation of is_normalized() has been greatly sped up on strings that aren’t normalized, by implementing the full normalization-quick-check algorithm from the Unicode standard.

  • bpo-37947: Adjust correctly the recursion level in the symtable generation for named expressions. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-37812: The CHECK_SMALL_INT macro used inside Object/longobject.c has been replaced with an explicit return at each call site.

  • bpo-37751: Fix codecs.lookup() to normalize the encoding name the same way than encodings.normalize_encoding(), except that codecs.lookup() also converts the name to lower case.

  • bpo-37830: Fixed compilation of break and continue in the finally block when the corresponding try block contains return with a non-constant value.

  • bpo-20490: Improve import error message for partially initialized module on circular from imports - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-37840: Fix handling of negative indices in sq_item of bytearray. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-37802: Slightly improve performance of PyLong_FromUnsignedLong(), PyLong_FromUnsignedLongLong() and PyLong_FromSize_t(). Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-37409: Ensure explicit relative imports from interactive sessions and scripts (having no parent package) always raise ImportError, rather than treating the current module as the package. Patch by Ben Lewis.

  • bpo-32912: Reverted bpo-32912: emitting SyntaxWarning instead of DeprecationWarning for invalid escape sequences in string and bytes literals.

  • bpo-37757: PEP 572: As described in the PEP, assignment expressions now raise SyntaxError when their interaction with comprehension scoping results in an ambiguous target scope.

    The TargetScopeError subclass originally proposed by the PEP has been removed in favour of just raising regular syntax errors for the disallowed cases.

  • bpo-36279: Fix potential use of uninitialized memory in os.wait3().

  • bpo-36311: Decoding bytes objects larger than 2GiB is faster and no longer fails when a multibyte characters spans a chunk boundary.

  • bpo-34880: The assert statement now works properly if the AssertionError exception is being shadowed. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-37340: Removed object cache (free_list) for bound method objects. Temporary bound method objects are less used than before thanks to the LOAD_METHOD opcode and the _PyObject_VectorcallMethod C API.

  • bpo-37648: Fixed minor inconsistency in list.__contains__(), tuple.__contains__() and a few other places. The collection’s item is now always at the left and the needle is on the right of ==.

  • bpo-37444: Update differing exception between builtins.__import__() and importlib.__import__().

  • bpo-37619: When adding a wrapper descriptor from one class to a different class (for example, setting __add__ = str.__add__ on an int subclass), an exception is correctly raised when the operator is called.

  • bpo-37593: Swap the positions of the posonlyargs and args parameters in the constructor of ast.parameters nodes.

  • bpo-37543: Optimized pymalloc for non PGO build.

  • bpo-37537: Compute allocated pymalloc blocks inside _Py_GetAllocatedBlocks(). This slows down _Py_GetAllocatedBlocks() but gives a small speedup to _PyObject_Malloc() and _PyObject_Free().

  • bpo-37467: Fix sys.excepthook() and PyErr_Display() if a filename is a bytes string. For example, for a SyntaxError exception where the filename attribute is a bytes string.

  • bpo-37433: Fix SyntaxError indicator printing too many spaces for multi-line strings - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-37417: bytearray.extend() now correctly handles errors that arise during iteration. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-37414: The undocumented sys.callstats() function has been removed. Since Python 3.7, it was deprecated and always returned None. It required a special build option CALL_PROFILE which was already removed in Python 3.7.

  • bpo-37392: Remove sys.getcheckinterval() and sys.setcheckinterval() functions. They were deprecated since Python 3.2. Use sys.getswitchinterval() and sys.setswitchinterval() instead. Remove also check_interval field of the PyInterpreterState structure.

  • bpo-37388: In development mode and in debug build, encoding and errors arguments are now checked on string encoding and decoding operations. Examples: open(), str.encode() and bytes.decode().

    By default, for best performances, the errors argument is only checked at the first encoding/decoding error, and the encoding argument is sometimes ignored for empty strings.

  • bpo-37348: Optimized decoding short ASCII string with UTF-8 and ascii codecs. b"foo".decode() is about 15% faster. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-24214: Improved support of the surrogatepass error handler in the UTF-8 and UTF-16 incremental decoders.

  • bpo-37330: open(), io.open(), codecs.open() and fileinput.FileInput no longer accept 'U' (“universal newline”) in the file mode. This flag was deprecated since Python 3.3.

  • bpo-35224: Reverse evaluation order of key: value in dict comprehensions as proposed in PEP 572. I.e. in {k: v for ...}, k will be evaluated before v.

  • bpo-37316: Fix the PySys_Audit() call in mmap.mmap.

  • bpo-37300: Remove an unnecssary Py_XINCREF in classobject.c.

  • bpo-37269: Fix a bug in the peephole optimizer that was not treating correctly constant conditions with binary operators. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-20443: Python now gets the absolute path of the script filename specified on the command line (ex: “python3 script.py”): the __file__ attribute of the __main__ module and sys.path[0] become an absolute path, rather than a relative path.

  • bpo-37257: Python’s small object allocator (obmalloc.c) now allows (no more than) one empty arena to remain available for immediate reuse, without returning it to the OS. This prevents thrashing in simple loops where an arena could be created and destroyed anew on each iteration.

  • bpo-37231: The dispatching of type slots to special methods (for example calling __mul__ when doing x * y) has been made faster.

  • bpo-36974: Implemented separate vectorcall functions for every calling convention of builtin functions and methods. This improves performance for calls.

  • bpo-37213: Handle correctly negative line offsets in the peephole optimizer. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-37219: Remove erroneous optimization for empty set differences.

  • bpo-15913: Implement PyBuffer_SizeFromFormat() function (previously documented but not implemented): call struct.calcsize(). Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-36922: Slot functions optimize any callable with Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR instead of only instances of function.

  • bpo-36974: The slot tp_vectorcall_offset is inherited unconditionally to support super().__call__() when the base class uses vectorcall.

  • bpo-37160: threading.get_native_id() now also supports NetBSD.

  • bpo-37077: Add threading.get_native_id() support for AIX. Patch by M. Felt

  • bpo-36781: sum() has been optimized for boolean values.

  • bpo-34556: Add --upgrade-deps to venv module. Patch by Cooper Ry Lees

  • bpo-20523: pdb.Pdb supports ~/.pdbrc in Windows 7. Patch by Tim Hopper and Dan Lidral-Porter.

  • bpo-35551: Updated encodings: - Removed the “tis260” encoding, which was an alias for the nonexistent “tactis” codec. - Added “mac_centeuro” as an alias for the mac_latin2 encoding.

  • bpo-19072: The classmethod decorator can now wrap other descriptors such as property objects. Adapted from a patch written by Graham Dumpleton.

  • bpo-27575: Improve speed of dictview intersection by directly using set intersection logic. Patch by David Su.

  • bpo-30773: Prohibit parallel running of aclose() / asend() / athrow(). Fix ag_running to reflect the actual running status of the AG.

Library

  • bpo-36589: The curses.update_lines_cols() function now returns None instead of 1 on success.

  • bpo-38807: Update TypeError messages for os.path.join() to include os.PathLike objects as acceptable input types.

  • bpo-38724: Add a repr for subprocess.Popen objects. Patch by Andrey Doroschenko.

  • bpo-38786: pydoc now recognizes and parses HTTPS URLs. Patch by python273.

  • bpo-38785: Prevent asyncio from crashing if parent __init__ is not called from a constructor of object derived from asyncio.Future.

  • bpo-38723: pdb now uses io.open_code() to trigger auditing events.

  • bpo-27805: Allow opening pipes and other non-seekable files in append mode with open().

  • bpo-38438: Simplify the argparse usage message for nargs="*".

  • bpo-38761: WeakSet is now registered as a collections.abc.MutableSet.

  • bpo-38716: logging: change RotatingHandler namer and rotator to class-level attributes. This stops __init__ from setting them to None in the case where a subclass defines them with eponymous methods.

  • bpo-38713: Add os.P_PIDFD constant, which may be passed to os.waitid() to wait on a Linux process file descriptor.

  • bpo-38692: Add asyncio.PidfdChildWatcher, a Linux-specific child watcher implementation that polls process file descriptors.

  • bpo-38692: Expose the Linux pidfd_open syscall as os.pidfd_open().

  • bpo-38602: Added constants F_OFD_GETLK, F_OFD_SETLK and F_OFD_SETLKW to the fcntl module. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-38334: Fixed seeking backward on an encrypted zipfile.ZipExtFile.

  • bpo-38312: Add curses.get_escdelay(), curses.set_escdelay(), curses.get_tabsize(), and curses.set_tabsize() functions - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-38586: Now fileConfig() correcty sets the .name of handlers loaded.

  • bpo-38565: Add new cache_parameters() method for functools.lru_cache() to better support pickling.

  • bpo-34679: asynci.ProactorEventLoop.close() now only calls signal.set_wakeup_fd() in the main thread.

  • bpo-31202: The case the result of pathlib.WindowsPath.glob() matches now the case of the pattern for literal parts.

  • bpo-36321: Remove misspelled attribute. The 3.8 changelog noted that this would be removed in 3.9.

  • bpo-38521: Fixed erroneous equality comparison in statistics.NormalDist().

  • bpo-38493: Added CLD_KILLED and CLD_STOPPED for si_code. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-38478: Fixed a bug in inspect.signature.bind() that was causing it to fail when handling a keyword argument with same name as positional-only parameter. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-33604: Fixed hmac.new and hmac.HMAC to raise TypeError instead of ValueError when the digestmod parameter, now required in 3.8, is omitted. Also clarified the hmac module documentation and docstrings.

  • bpo-38378: Parameters out and in of os.sendfile() was renamed to out_fd and in_fd.

  • bpo-38417: Added support for setting the umask in the child process to the subprocess module on POSIX systems.

  • bpo-38449: Revert GH-15522, which introduces a regression in mimetypes.guess_type() due to improper handling of filenames as urls.

  • bpo-38431: Fix __repr__ method for dataclasses.InitVar to support typing objects, patch by Samuel Colvin.

  • bpo-38109: Add missing stat.S_IFDOOR, stat.S_IFPORT, stat.S_IFWHT, stat.S_ISDOOR(), stat.S_ISPORT(), and stat.S_ISWHT() values to the Python implementation of stat.

  • bpo-38422: Clarify docstrings of pathlib suffix(es)

  • bpo-38405: Nested subclasses of typing.NamedTuple are now pickleable.

  • bpo-38332: Prevent KeyError thrown by _encoded_words.decode() when given an encoded-word with invalid content-type encoding from propagating all the way to email.message.get().

  • bpo-38371: Deprecated the split() method in _tkinter.TkappType in favour of the splitlist() method which has more consistent and predicable behavior.

  • bpo-38341: Add smtplib.SMTPNotSupportedError to the smtplib exported names.

  • bpo-38319: sendfile() used in socket and shutil modules was raising OverflowError for files >= 2GiB on 32-bit architectures. (patch by Giampaolo Rodola)

  • bpo-38242: Revert the new asyncio Streams API

  • bpo-13153: OS native encoding is now used for converting between Python strings and Tcl objects. This allows to display, copy and paste to clipboard emoji and other non-BMP characters. Converting strings from Tcl to Python and back now never fails (except MemoryError).

  • bpo-38019: Correctly handle pause/resume reading of closed asyncio unix pipe.

  • bpo-38163: Child mocks will now detect their type as either synchronous or asynchronous, asynchronous child mocks will be AsyncMocks and synchronous child mocks will be either MagicMock or Mock (depending on their parent type).

  • bpo-38161: Removes _AwaitEvent from AsyncMock.

  • bpo-38216: Allow the rare code that wants to send invalid http requests from the http.client library a way to do so. The fixes for bpo-30458 led to breakage for some projects that were relying on this ability to test their own behavior in the face of bad requests.

  • bpo-28286: Deprecate opening GzipFile for writing implicitly. Always specify the mode argument for writing.

  • bpo-38108: Any synchronous magic methods on an AsyncMock now return a MagicMock. Any asynchronous magic methods on a MagicMock now return an AsyncMock.

  • bpo-38265: Update the length parameter of os.pread() to accept Py_ssize_t instead of int.

  • bpo-38112: compileall has a higher default recursion limit and new command-line arguments for path manipulation, symlinks handling, and multiple optimization levels.

  • bpo-38248: asyncio: Fix inconsistent immediate Task cancellation

  • bpo-38237: The arguments for the builtin pow function are more descriptive. They can now also be passed in as keywords.

  • bpo-34002: Improve efficiency in parts of email package by changing while-pop to a for loop, using isdisjoint instead of set intersections.

  • bpo-38191: Constructors of NamedTuple and TypedDict types now accept arbitrary keyword argument names, including “cls”, “self”, “typename”, “_typename”, “fields” and “_fields”.

  • bpo-38155: Add __all__ to datetime. Patch by Tahia Khan.

  • bpo-38185: Fixed case-insensitive string comparison in sqlite3.Row indexing.

  • bpo-38136: Changes AsyncMock call count and await count to be two different counters. Now await count only counts when a coroutine has been awaited, not when it has been called, and vice-versa. Update the documentation around this.

  • bpo-37828: Fix default mock name in unittest.mock.Mock.assert_called() exceptions. Patch by Abraham Toriz Cruz.

  • bpo-38175: Fix a memory leak in comparison of sqlite3.Row objects.

  • bpo-33936: _hashlib no longer calls obsolete OpenSSL initialization function with OpenSSL 1.1.0+.

  • bpo-34706: Preserve subclassing in inspect.Signature.from_callable.

  • bpo-38153: Names of hashing algorithms frome OpenSSL are now normalized to follow Python’s naming conventions. For example OpenSSL uses sha3-512 instead of sha3_512 or blake2b512 instead of blake2b.

  • bpo-38115: Fix a bug in dis.findlinestarts() where it would return invalid bytecode offsets. Document that a code object’s co_lnotab can contain invalid bytecode offsets.

  • bpo-38148: Add slots to asyncio transport classes, which can reduce memory usage.

  • bpo-38142: The _hashlib OpenSSL wrapper extension module is now PEP-384 compliant.

  • bpo-9216: hashlib constructors now support usedforsecurity flag to signal that a hashing algorithm is not used in a security context.

  • bpo-36991: Fixes a potential incorrect AttributeError exception escaping ZipFile.extract() in some unsupported input error situations.

  • bpo-38134: Remove obsolete copy of PBKDF2_HMAC_fast. All supported OpenSSL versions contain a fast implementation.

  • bpo-38132: The OpenSSL hashlib wrapper uses a simpler implementation. Several Macros and pointless caches are gone. The hash name now comes from OpenSSL’s EVP. The algorithm name stays the same, except it is now always lower case.

  • bpo-38008: Fix parent class check in protocols to correctly identify the module that provides a builtin protocol, instead of assuming they all come from the collections.abc module

  • bpo-34037: For asyncio, add a new coroutine loop.shutdown_default_executor(). The new coroutine provides an API to schedule an executor shutdown that waits on the threadpool to finish closing. Also, asyncio.run() has been updated to utilize the new coroutine. Patch by Kyle Stanley.

  • bpo-37405: Fixed regression bug for socket.getsockname() for non-CAN_ISOTP AF_CAN address family sockets by returning a 1-tuple instead of string.

  • bpo-38121: Update parameter names on functions in importlib.metadata matching the changes in the 0.22 release of importlib_metadata.

  • bpo-38110: The os.closewalk() implementation now uses the libc fdwalk() API on platforms where it is available.

  • bpo-38093: Fixes AsyncMock so it doesn’t crash when used with AsyncContextManagers or AsyncIterators.

  • bpo-37488: Add warning to datetime.utctimetuple(), datetime.utcnow() and datetime.utcfromtimestamp() .

  • bpo-35640: Allow passing a path-like object as directory argument to the http.server.SimpleHTTPRequestHandler class. Patch by Géry Ogam.

  • bpo-38086: Update importlib.metadata with changes from importlib_metadata 0.21.

  • bpo-37251: Remove __code__ check in AsyncMock that incorrectly evaluated function specs as async objects but failed to evaluate classes with __await__ but no __code__ attribute defined as async objects.

  • bpo-38037: Fix reference counters in the signal module.

  • bpo-38066: Hide internal asyncio.Stream methods: feed_eof(), feed_data(), set_exception() and set_transport().

  • bpo-38059: inspect.py now uses sys.exit() instead of exit()

  • bpo-38049: Added command-line interface for the ast module.

  • bpo-37953: In typing, improved the __hash__ and __eq__ methods for ForwardReferences.

  • bpo-38026: Fixed inspect.getattr_static() used isinstance while it should avoid dynamic lookup.

  • bpo-35923: Update importlib.machinery.BuiltinImporter to use loader._ORIGIN instead of a hardcoded value. Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-38010: In importlib.metadata sync with importlib_metadata 0.20, clarifying behavior of files() and fixing issue where only one requirement was returned for requires() on dist-info packages.

  • bpo-38006: weakref.WeakValueDictionary defines a local remove() function used as callback for weak references. This function was created with a closure. Modify the implementation to avoid the closure.

  • bpo-37995: Added the indent option to ast.dump() which allows it to produce a multiline indented output.

  • bpo-34410: Fixed a crash in the tee() iterator when re-enter it. RuntimeError is now raised in this case.

  • bpo-37140: Fix a ctypes regression of Python 3.8. When a ctypes.Structure is passed by copy to a function, ctypes internals created a temporary object which had the side effect of calling the structure finalizer (__del__) twice. The Python semantics requires a finalizer to be called exactly once. Fix ctypes internals to no longer call the finalizer twice.

  • bpo-37587: _json.scanstring is now up to 3x faster when there are many backslash escaped characters in the JSON string.

  • bpo-37834: Prevent shutil.rmtree exception when built on non-Windows system without fd system call support, like older versions of macOS.

  • bpo-10978: Semaphores and BoundedSemaphores can now release more than one waiting thread at a time.

  • bpo-37972: Subscripts to the unittest.mock.call objects now receive the same chaining mechanism as any other custom attributes, so that the following usage no longer raises a TypeError:

    call().foo().__getitem__(‘bar’)

    Patch by blhsing

  • bpo-37965: Fix C compiler warning caused by distutils.ccompiler.CCompiler.has_function.

  • bpo-37964: Add F_GETPATH command to fcntl.

  • bpo-37960: repr() of buffered and text streams now silences only expected exceptions when get the value of “name” and “mode” attributes.

  • bpo-37961: Add a total_nframe field to the traces collected by the tracemalloc module. This field indicates the original number of frames before it was truncated.

  • bpo-37951: Most features of the subprocess module now work again in subinterpreters. Only preexec_fn is restricted in subinterpreters.

  • bpo-36205: Fix the rusage implementation of time.process_time() to correctly report the sum of the system and user CPU time.

  • bpo-37950: Fix ast.dump() when call with incompletely initialized node.

  • bpo-34679: Restores instantiation of Windows IOCP event loops from the non-main thread.

  • bpo-36917: Add default implementation of the ast.NodeVisitor.visit_Constant() method which emits a deprecation warning and calls corresponding methody visit_Num(), visit_Str(), etc.

  • bpo-37798: Update test_statistics.py to verify that the statistics module works well for both C and Python implementations. Patch by Dong-hee Na

  • bpo-26589: Added a new status code to the http module: 451 UNAVAILABLE_FOR_LEGAL_REASONS

  • bpo-37915: Fix a segmentation fault that appeared when comparing instances of datetime.timezone and datetime.tzinfo objects. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-32554: Deprecate having random.seed() call hash on arbitrary types.

  • bpo-9938: Add optional keyword argument exit_on_error for ArgumentParser.

  • bpo-37851: The faulthandler module no longer allocates its alternative stack at Python startup. Now the stack is only allocated at the first faulthandler usage.

  • bpo-32793: Fix a duplicated debug message when smtplib.SMTP.connect() is called.

  • bpo-37885: venv: Don’t generate unset variable warning on deactivate.

  • bpo-37868: Fix dataclasses.is_dataclass when given an instance that never raises AttributeError in __getattr__. That is, an object that returns something for __dataclass_fields__ even if it’s not a dataclass.

  • bpo-37811: Fix socket module’s socket.connect(address) function being unable to establish connection in case of interrupted system call. The problem was observed on all OSes which poll(2) system call can take only non-negative integers and -1 as a timeout value.

  • bpo-37863: Optimizations for Fraction.__hash__ suggested by Tim Peters.

  • bpo-21131: Fix faulthandler.register(chain=True) stack. faulthandler now allocates a dedicated stack of SIGSTKSZ*2 bytes, instead of just SIGSTKSZ bytes. Calling the previous signal handler in faulthandler signal handler uses more than SIGSTKSZ bytes of stack memory on some platforms.

  • bpo-37798: Add C fastpath for statistics.NormalDist.inv_cdf() Patch by Dong-hee Na

  • bpo-37804: Remove the deprecated method threading.Thread.isAlive(). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37819: Add Fraction.as_integer_ratio() to match the corresponding methods in bool, int, float, and decimal.

  • bpo-14465: Add an xml.etree.ElementTree.indent() function for pretty-printing XML trees. Contributed by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-37810: Fix difflib ? hint in diff output when dealing with tabs. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-37772: In zipfile.Path, when adding implicit dirs, ensure that ancestral directories are added and that duplicates are excluded.

  • bpo-18578: Renamed and documented test.bytecode_helper as test.support.bytecode_helper. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-37785: Fix xgettext warnings in argparse.

  • bpo-34488: writelines() method of io.BytesIO is now slightly faster when many small lines are passed. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-37449: ensurepip now uses importlib.resources.read_binary() to read data instead of pkgutil.get_data(). Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-28292: Mark calendar.py helper functions as being private. The follows PEP 8 guidance to maintain the style conventions in the module and it addresses a known case of user confusion.

  • bpo-18049: Add definition of THREAD_STACK_SIZE for AIX in Python/thread_pthread.h The default thread stacksize caused crashes with the default recursion limit Patch by M Felt

  • bpo-37742: The logging.getLogger() API now returns the root logger when passed the name ‘root’, whereas previously it returned a non-root logger named ‘root’. This could affect cases where user code explicitly wants a non-root logger named ‘root’, or instantiates a logger using logging.getLogger(__name__) in some top-level module called ‘root.py’.

  • bpo-37738: Fix the implementation of curses addch(str, color_pair): pass the color pair to setcchar(), instead of always passing 0 as the color pair.

  • bpo-37723: Fix performance regression on regular expression parsing with huge character sets. Patch by Yann Vaginay.

  • bpo-35943: The function PyImport_GetModule() now ensures any module it returns is fully initialized. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-32178: Fix IndexError in email package when trying to parse invalid address fields starting with :.

  • bpo-37268: The parser module is deprecated and will be removed in future versions of Python.

  • bpo-11953: Completing WSA* error codes in socket.

  • bpo-37685: Fixed comparisons of datetime.timedelta and datetime.timezone.

  • bpo-37697: Syncronize importlib.metadata with importlib_metadata 0.19, improving handling of EGG-INFO files and fixing a crash when entry point names contained colons.

  • bpo-37695: Correct curses.unget_wch() error message. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-37689: Add is_relative_to() in PurePath to determine whether or not one path is relative to another.

  • bpo-29553: Fixed argparse.ArgumentParser.format_usage() for mutually exclusive groups. Patch by Andrew Nester.

  • bpo-37691: Let math.dist() accept coordinates as sequences (or iterables) rather than just tuples.

  • bpo-37685: Fixed __eq__, __lt__ etc implementations in some classes. They now return NotImplemented for unsupported type of the other operand. This allows the other operand to play role (for example the equality comparison with ANY will return True).

  • bpo-37354: Make Activate.ps1 Powershell script static to allow for signing it.

  • bpo-37664: Update wheels bundled with ensurepip (pip 19.2.3 and setuptools 41.2.0)

  • bpo-37663: Bring consistency to venv shell activation scripts by always using __VENV_PROMPT__.

  • bpo-37642: Allowed the pure Python implementation of datetime.timezone to represent sub-minute offsets close to minimum and maximum boundaries, specifically in the ranges (23:59, 24:00) and (-23:59, 24:00). Patch by Ngalim Siregar

  • bpo-36161: In posix, use ttyname_r instead of ttyname for thread safety.

  • bpo-36324: Make internal attributes for statistics.NormalDist() private.

  • bpo-37555: Fix NonCallableMock._call_matcher returning tuple instead of _Call object when self._spec_signature exists. Patch by Elizabeth Uselton

  • bpo-29446: Make from tkinter import * import only the expected objects.

  • bpo-16970: Adding a value error when an invalid value in passed to nargs Patch by Robert Leenders

  • bpo-34443: Exceptions from enum now use the __qualname of the enum class in the exception message instead of the __name__.

  • bpo-37491: Fix IndexError when parsing email headers with unexpectedly ending bare-quoted string value. Patch by Abhilash Raj.

  • bpo-37587: Make json.loads faster for long strings. (Patch by Marco Paolini)

  • bpo-18378: Recognize “UTF-8” as a valid value for LC_CTYPE in locale._parse_localename.

  • bpo-37579: Return NotImplemented in Python implementation of __eq__ for timedelta and time when the other object being compared is not of the same type to match C implementation. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-21478: Record calls to parent when autospecced object is attached to a mock using unittest.mock.attach_mock(). Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-37531: “python3 -m test -jN –timeout=TIMEOUT” now kills a worker process if it runs longer than TIMEOUT seconds.

  • bpo-37482: Fix serialization of display name in originator or destination address fields with both encoded words and special chars.

  • bpo-36993: Improve error reporting for corrupt zip files with bad zip64 extra data. Patch by Daniel Hillier.

  • bpo-37502: pickle.loads() no longer raises TypeError when the buffers argument is set to None

  • bpo-37520: Correct behavior for zipfile.Path.parent when the path object identifies a subdirectory.

  • bpo-18374: Fix the .col_offset attribute of nested ast.BinOp instances which had a too large value in some situations.

  • bpo-37424: Fixes a possible hang when using a timeout on subprocess.run() while capturing output. If the child process spawned its own children or otherwise connected its stdout or stderr handles with another process, we could hang after the timeout was reached and our child was killed when attempting to read final output from the pipes.

  • bpo-37421: Fix multiprocessing.util.get_temp_dir() finalizer: clear also the ‘tempdir’ configuration of the current process, so next call to get_temp_dir() will create a new temporary directory, rather than reusing the removed temporary directory.

  • bpo-37481: The distutils bdist_wininst command is deprecated in Python 3.8, use bdist_wheel (wheel packages) instead.

  • bpo-37479: When Enum.__str__ is overridden in a derived class, the override will be used by Enum.__format__ regardless of whether mixin classes are present.

  • bpo-37440: http.client now enables TLS 1.3 post-handshake authentication for default context or if a cert_file is passed to HTTPSConnection.

  • bpo-37437: Update vendorized expat version to 2.2.7.

  • bpo-37428: SSLContext.post_handshake_auth = True no longer sets SSL_VERIFY_POST_HANDSHAKE verify flag for client connections. Although the option is documented as ignored for clients, OpenSSL implicitly enables cert chain validation when the flag is set.

  • bpo-37420: os.sched_setaffinity() now correctly handles errors that arise during iteration over its mask argument. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-37412: The os.getcwdb() function now uses the UTF-8 encoding on Windows, rather than the ANSI code page: see PEP 529 for the rationale. The function is no longer deprecated on Windows.

  • bpo-37406: The sqlite3 module now raises TypeError, rather than ValueError, if operation argument type is not str: execute(), executemany() and calling a connection.

  • bpo-29412: Fix IndexError in parsing a header value ending unexpectedly. Patch by Abhilash Raj.

  • bpo-36546: The dist argument for statistics.quantiles() is now positional only. The current name doesn’t reflect that the argument can be either a dataset or a distribution. Marking the parameter as positional avoids confusion and makes it possible to change the name later.

  • bpo-37394: Fix a bug that was causing the queue module to fail if the accelerator module was not available. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-37376: pprint now has support for types.SimpleNamespace. Patch by Carl Bordum Hansen.

  • bpo-26967: An ArgumentParser with allow_abbrev=False no longer disables grouping of short flags, such as -vv, but only disables abbreviation of long flags as documented. Patch by Zac Hatfield-Dodds.

  • bpo-37212: unittest.mock.call() now preserves the order of keyword arguments in repr output. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-37372: Fix error unpickling datetime.time objects from Python 2 with seconds>=24. Patch by Justin Blanchard.

  • bpo-37345: Add formal support for UDPLITE sockets. Support was present before, but it is now easier to detect support with hasattr(socket, 'IPPROTO_UDPLITE') and there are constants defined for each of the values needed: socket.IPPROTO_UDPLITE, UDPLITE_SEND_CSCOV, and UDPLITE_RECV_CSCOV. Patch by Gabe Appleton.

  • bpo-37358: Optimized functools.partial by using vectorcall.

  • bpo-37347: sqlite3.Connection.create_aggregate(), sqlite3.Connection.create_function(), sqlite3.Connection.set_authorizer(), sqlite3.Connection.set_progress_handler() sqlite3.Connection.set_trace_callback() methods lead to segfaults if some of these methods are called twice with an equal object but not the same. Now callbacks are stored more carefully. Patch by Aleksandr Balezin.

  • bpo-37163: The obj argument of dataclasses.replace() is positional-only now.

  • bpo-37085: Add the optional Linux SocketCAN Broadcast Manager constants, used as flags to configure the BCM behaviour, in the socket module. Patch by Karl Ding.

  • bpo-37328: HTMLParser.unescape is removed. It was undocumented and deprecated since Python 3.4.

  • bpo-37305: Add .webmanifest -> application/manifest+json to list of recognized file types and content type headers

  • bpo-37320: aifc.openfp() alias to aifc.open(), sunau.openfp() alias to sunau.open(), and wave.openfp() alias to wave.open() have been removed. They were deprecated since Python 3.7.

  • bpo-37315: Deprecated accepting floats with integral value (like 5.0) in math.factorial().

  • bpo-37312: _dummy_thread and dummy_threading modules have been removed. These modules were deprecated since Python 3.7 which requires threading support.

  • bpo-33972: Email with single part but content-type set to multipart/* doesn’t raise AttributeError anymore.

  • bpo-37280: Use threadpool for reading from file for sendfile fallback mode.

  • bpo-37279: Fix asyncio sendfile support when sendfile sends extra data in fallback mode.

  • bpo-19865: ctypes.create_unicode_buffer() now also supports non-BMP characters on platforms with 16-bit wchar_t (for example, Windows and AIX).

  • bpo-37266: In a subinterpreter, spawning a daemon thread now raises an exception. Daemon threads were never supported in subinterpreters. Previously, the subinterpreter finalization crashed with a Pyton fatal error if a daemon thread was still running.

  • bpo-37210: Allow pure Python implementation of pickle to work even when the C _pickle module is unavailable.

  • bpo-21872: Fix lzma: module decompresses data incompletely. When decompressing a FORMAT_ALONE format file, and it doesn’t have the end marker, sometimes the last one to dozens bytes can’t be output. Patch by Ma Lin.

  • bpo-35922: Fix RobotFileParser.crawl_delay() and RobotFileParser.request_rate() to return None rather than raise AttributeError when no relevant rule is defined in the robots.txt file. Patch by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-35766: Change the format of feature_version to be a (major, minor) tuple.

  • bpo-36607: Eliminate RuntimeError raised by asyncio.all_tasks() if internal tasks weak set is changed by another thread during iteration.

  • bpo-18748: _pyio.IOBase destructor now does nothing if getting the closed attribute fails to better mimick _io.IOBase finalizer.

  • bpo-36402: Fix a race condition at Python shutdown when waiting for threads. Wait until the Python thread state of all non-daemon threads get deleted (join all non-daemon threads), rather than just wait until non-daemon Python threads complete.

  • bpo-37206: Default values which cannot be represented as Python objects no longer improperly represented as None in function signatures.

  • bpo-37111: Added encoding and errors keyword parameters to logging.basicConfig.

  • bpo-12144: Ensure cookies with expires attribute are handled in CookieJar.make_cookies().

  • bpo-34886: Fix an unintended ValueError from subprocess.run() when checking for conflicting input and stdin or capture_output and stdout or stderr args when they were explicitly provided but with None values within a passed in **kwargs dict rather than as passed directly by name. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-37173: The exception message for inspect.getfile() now correctly reports the passed class rather than the builtins module.

  • bpo-37178: Give math.perm() a one argument form that means the same as math.factorial().

  • bpo-37178: For math.perm(n, k), let k default to n, giving the same result as factorial.

  • bpo-37165: Converted _collections._count_elements to use the Argument Clinic.

  • bpo-34767: Do not always create a collections.deque in asyncio.Lock.

  • bpo-37158: Speed-up statistics.fmean() by switching from a function to a generator.

  • bpo-34282: Remove Enum._convert method, deprecated in 3.8.

  • bpo-37150: argparse._ActionsContainer.add_argument now throws error, if someone accidentally pass FileType class object instead of instance of FileType as type argument

  • bpo-28724: The socket module now has the socket.send_fds() and socket.recv.fds() methods. Contributed by Joannah Nanjekye, Shinya Okano and Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-35621: Support running asyncio subprocesses when execution event loop in a thread on UNIX.

  • bpo-36520: Lengthy email headers with UTF-8 characters are now properly encoded when they are folded. Patch by Jeffrey Kintscher.

  • bpo-30835: Fixed a bug in email parsing where a message with invalid bytes in content-transfer-encoding of a multipart message can cause an AttributeError. Patch by Andrew Donnellan.

  • bpo-31163: pathlib.Path instance’s rename and replace methods now return the new Path instance.

  • bpo-25068: urllib.request.ProxyHandler now lowercases the keys of the passed dictionary.

  • bpo-26185: Fix repr() on empty ZipInfo object. Patch by Mickaël Schoentgen.

  • bpo-21315: Email headers containing RFC2047 encoded words are parsed despite the missing whitespace, and a defect registered. Also missing trailing whitespace after encoded words is now registered as a defect.

  • bpo-31904: Port test_datetime to VxWorks: skip zoneinfo tests on VxWorks

  • bpo-35805: Add parser for Message-ID header and add it to default HeaderRegistry. This should prevent folding of Message-ID using RFC 2048 encoded words.

  • bpo-36871: Ensure method signature is used instead of constructor signature of a class while asserting mock object against method calls. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-35070: posix.getgrouplist() now works correctly when the user belongs to NGROUPS_MAX supplemental groups. Patch by Jeffrey Kintscher.

  • bpo-31783: Fix race condition in ThreadPoolExecutor when worker threads are created during interpreter shutdown.

  • bpo-36582: Fix UserString.encode() to correctly return bytes rather than a UserString instance.

  • bpo-32424: Deprecate xml.etree.ElementTree.Element.copy() in favor of copy.copy().

    Patch by Gordon P. Hemsley

  • bpo-36564: Fix infinite loop in email header folding logic that would be triggered when an email policy’s max_line_length is not long enough to include the required markup and any values in the message. Patch by Paul Ganssle

  • bpo-36543: Removed methods Element.getchildren(), Element.getiterator() and ElementTree.getiterator() and the xml.etree.cElementTree module.

  • bpo-36409: Remove the old plistlib API deprecated in Python 3.4

  • bpo-36302: distutils sorts source file lists so that Extension .so files build more reproducibly by default

  • bpo-36250: Ignore ValueError from signal with interaction in non-main thread.

  • bpo-36046: Added user, group and extra_groups parameters to the subprocess.Popen constructor. Patch by Patrick McLean.

  • bpo-32627: Fix compile error when _uuid headers conflicting included.

  • bpo-35800: Deprecate smtpd.MailmanProxy ready for future removal.

  • bpo-35168: shlex.shlex.punctuation_chars is now a read-only property.

  • bpo-8538: Add support for boolean actions like --foo and --no-foo to argparse. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-20504: Fixes a bug in cgi module when a multipart/form-data request has no Content-Length header.

  • bpo-25988: The abstract base classes in collections.abc no longer are exposed in the regular collections module.

  • bpo-11122: Distutils won’t check for rpmbuild in specified paths only.

  • bpo-34775: Division handling of PurePath now returns NotImplemented instead of raising a TypeError when passed something other than an instance of str or PurePath. Patch by Roger Aiudi.

  • bpo-34749: binascii.a2b_base64() is now up to 2 times faster. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-34519: Add additional aliases for HP Roman 8. Patch by Michael Osipov.

  • bpo-28009: Fix uuid.getnode() on platforms with ‘.’ as MAC Addr delimiter as well fix for MAC Addr format that omits a leading 0 in MAC Addr values. Currently, AIX is the only know platform with these settings. Patch by Michael Felt.

  • bpo-30618: Add readlink(). Patch by Girts Folkmanis.

  • bpo-32498: Made urllib.parse.unquote() accept bytes in addition to strings. Patch by Stein Karlsen.

  • bpo-33348: lib2to3 now recognizes expressions after * and ** like in f(*[] or []).

  • bpo-32689: Update shutil.move() function to allow for Path objects to be used as source argument. Patch by Emily Morehouse and Maxwell “5.13b” McKinnon.

  • bpo-32820: Added __format__ to IPv4 and IPv6 classes. Always outputs a fully zero- padded string. Supports b/x/n modifiers (bin/hex/native format). Native format for IPv4 is bin, native format for IPv6 is hex. Also supports ‘#’ and ‘_’ modifiers.

  • bpo-27657: Fix urllib.parse.urlparse() with numeric paths. A string like “path:80” is no longer parsed as a path but as a scheme (“path”) and a path (“80”).

  • bpo-4963: Fixed non-deterministic behavior related to mimetypes extension mapping and module reinitialization.

Documentation

  • bpo-21767: Explicitly mention abc support in functools.singledispatch

  • bpo-38816: Provides more details about the interaction between fork() and CPython’s runtime, focusing just on the C-API. This includes cautions about where fork() should and shouldn’t be called.

  • bpo-38351: Modernize email examples from %-formatting to f-strings.

  • bpo-38778: Document the fact that RuntimeError is raised if os.fork() is called in a subinterpreter.

  • bpo-38592: Add Brazilian Portuguese to the language switcher at Python Documentation website.

  • bpo-38294: Add list of no-longer-escaped chars to re.escape documentation

  • bpo-38053: Modernized the plistlib documentation

  • bpo-26868: Fix example usage of PyModule_AddObject() to properly handle errors.

  • bpo-36797: Fix a dead link in the distutils API Reference.

  • bpo-37977: Warn more strongly and clearly about pickle insecurity

  • bpo-37979: Added a link to dateutil.parser.isoparse in the datetime.fromisoformat documentation. Patch by Paul Ganssle

  • bpo-12707: Deprecate info(), geturl(), getcode() methods in favor of the headers, url, and status properties, respectively, for HTTPResponse and addinfourl. Also deprecate the code attribute of addinfourl in favor of the status attribute. Patch by Ashwin Ramaswami

  • bpo-37937: Mention frame.f_trace in sys.settrace() docs.

  • bpo-37878: Make PyThreadState_DeleteCurrent() Internal.

  • bpo-37759: Beginning edits to Whatsnew 3.8

  • bpo-37726: Stop recommending getopt in the tutorial for command line argument parsing and promote argparse.

  • bpo-32910: Remove implementation-specific behaviour of how venv’s Deactivate works.

  • bpo-37256: Fix wording of arguments for Request in urllib.request

  • bpo-37284: Add a brief note to indicate that any new sys.implementation required attributes must go through the PEP process.

  • bpo-30088: Documented that mailbox.Maildir constructor doesn’t attempt to verify the maildir folder layout correctness. Patch by Sviatoslav Sydorenko.

  • bpo-37521: Fix importlib examples to insert any newly created modules via importlib.util.module_from_spec() immediately into sys.modules instead of after calling loader.exec_module().

    Thanks to Benjamin Mintz for finding the bug.

  • bpo-37456: Slash (‘/’) is now part of syntax.

  • bpo-37487: Fix PyList_GetItem index description to include 0.

  • bpo-37149: Replace the dead link to the Tkinter 8.5 reference by John Shipman, New Mexico Tech, with a link to the archive.org copy.

  • bpo-37478: Added possible exceptions to the description of os.chdir().

  • bpo-34903: Documented that in datetime.datetime.strptime(), the leading zero in some two-digit formats is optional. Patch by Mike Gleen.

  • bpo-36260: Add decompression pitfalls to zipfile module documentation.

  • bpo-37004: In the documentation for difflib, a note was added explicitly warning that the results of SequenceMatcher’s ratio method may depend on the order of the input strings.

  • bpo-36960: Restructured the datetime docs in the interest of making them more user-friendly and improving readability. Patch by Brad Solomon.

  • bpo-36487: Make C-API docs clear about what the “main” interpreter is.

  • bpo-23460: The documentation for decimal string formatting using the :g specifier has been updated to reflect the correct exponential notation cutoff point. Original patch contributed by Tuomas Suutari.

  • bpo-35803: Document and test that tempfile functions may accept a path-like object for the dir argument. Patch by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-33944: Added a note about the intended use of code in .pth files.

  • bpo-34293: Fix the Doc/Makefile regarding PAPER environment variable and PDF builds

  • bpo-25237: Add documentation for tkinter modules

Tests

  • bpo-38614: Fix test_communicate() of test_asyncio.test_subprocess: use support.LONG_TIMEOUT (5 minutes), instead of just 1 minute.

  • bpo-38614: Add timeout constants to test.support: LOOPBACK_TIMEOUT, INTERNET_TIMEOUT, SHORT_TIMEOUT and LONG_TIMEOUT.

  • bpo-38502: test.regrtest now uses process groups in the multiprocessing mode (-jN command line option) if process groups are available: if os.setsid() and os.killpg() functions are available.

  • bpo-35998: Fix a race condition in test_asyncio.test_start_tls_server_1(). Previously, there was a race condition between the test main() function which replaces the protocol and the test ServerProto protocol which sends ANSWER once it gets HELLO. Now, only the test main() function is responsible to send data, ServerProto no longer sends data.

  • bpo-38470: Fix test_compileall.test_compile_dir_maxlevels() on Windows without long path support: only create 3 subdirectories instead of between 20 and 100 subdirectories.

  • bpo-37531: On timeout, regrtest no longer attempts to call popen.communicate() again: it can hang until all child processes using stdout and stderr pipes completes. Kill the worker process and ignores its output. Change also the faulthandler timeout of the main process from 1 minute to 5 minutes, for Python slowest buildbots.

  • bpo-38239: Fix test_gdb for Link Time Optimization (LTO) builds.

  • bpo-38275: test_ssl now handles disabled TLS/SSL versions better. OpenSSL’s crypto policy and run-time settings are recognized and tests for disabled versions are skipped. Tests also accept more TLS minimum_versions for platforms that override OpenSSL’s default with strict settings.

  • bpo-38271: The private keys for test_ssl were encrypted with 3DES in traditional PKCS#5 format. 3DES and the digest algorithm of PKCS#5 are blocked by some strict crypto policies. Use PKCS#8 format with AES256 encryption instead.

  • bpo-38270: test.support now has a helper function to check for availibility of a hash digest function. Several tests are refactored avoid MD5 and use SHA256 instead. Other tests are marked to use MD5 and skipped when MD5 is disabled.

  • bpo-37123: Multiprocessing test test_mymanager() now also expects -SIGTERM, not only exitcode 0. BaseManager._finalize_manager() sends SIGTERM to the manager process if it takes longer than 1 second to stop, which happens on slow buildbots.

  • bpo-38212: Multiprocessing tests: increase test_queue_feeder_donot_stop_onexc() timeout from 1 to 60 seconds.

  • bpo-38117: Test with OpenSSL 1.1.1d

  • bpo-38018: Increase code coverage for multiprocessing.shared_memory.

  • bpo-37805: Add tests for json.dump(…, skipkeys=True). Patch by Dong-hee Na.

  • bpo-37531: Enhance regrtest multiprocess timeout: write a message when killing a worker process, catch popen.kill() and popen.wait() exceptions, put a timeout on the second call to popen.communicate().

  • bpo-37876: Add tests for ROT-13 codec.

  • bpo-36833: Added tests for PyDateTime_xxx_GET_xxx() macros of the C API of the datetime module. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-37558: Fix test_shared_memory_cleaned_after_process_termination name handling

  • bpo-37526: Add test.support.catch_threading_exception(): context manager catching threading.Thread exception using threading.excepthook().

  • bpo-37421: test_concurrent_futures now explicitly stops the ForkServer instance if it’s running.

  • bpo-37421: multiprocessing tests now stop the ForkServer instance if it’s running: close the “alive” file descriptor to ask the server to stop and then remove its UNIX address.

  • bpo-37421: test_distutils.test_build_ext() is now able to remove the temporary directory on Windows: don’t import the newly built C extension (“xx”) in the current process, but test it in a separated process.

  • bpo-37421: test_concurrent_futures now cleans up multiprocessing to remove immediately temporary directories created by multiprocessing.util.get_temp_dir().

  • bpo-37421: test_winconsoleio doesn’t leak a temporary file anymore: use tempfile.TemporaryFile() to remove it when the test completes.

  • bpo-37421: multiprocessing tests now explicitly call _run_finalizers() to immediately remove temporary directories created by tests.

  • bpo-37421: urllib.request tests now call urlcleanup() to remove temporary files created by urlretrieve() tests and to clear the _opener global variable set by urlopen() and functions calling indirectly urlopen().

  • bpo-37472: Remove Lib/test/outstanding_bugs.py.

  • bpo-37199: Fix test failures when IPv6 is unavailable or disabled.

  • bpo-19696: Replace deprecated method “random.choose” with “random.choice” in “test_pkg_import.py”.

  • bpo-37335: Remove no longer necessary code from c locale coercion tests

  • bpo-37421: Fix test_shutil to no longer leak temporary files.

  • bpo-37411: Fix test_wsgiref.testEnviron() to no longer depend on the environment variables (don’t fail if “X” variable is set).

  • bpo-37400: Fix test_os.test_chown(): use os.getgroups() rather than grp.getgrall() to get groups. Rename also the test to test_chown_gid().

  • bpo-37359: Add –cleanup option to python3 -m test to remove test_python_* directories of previous failed jobs. Add “make cleantest” to run python3 -m test --cleanup.

  • bpo-37362: test_gdb no longer fails if it gets an “unexpected” message on stderr: it now ignores stderr. The purpose of test_gdb is to test that python-gdb.py commands work as expected, not to test gdb.

  • bpo-35998: Avoid TimeoutError in test_asyncio: test_start_tls_server_1()

  • bpo-37278: Fix test_asyncio ProactorLoopCtrlC: join the thread to prevent leaking a running thread and leaking a reference.

  • bpo-37261: Fix test.support.catch_unraisable_exception(): its __exit__() method now ignores unraisable exception raised when clearing its unraisable attribute.

  • bpo-37069: regrtest now uses sys.unraisablehook() to mark a test as “environment altered” (ENV_CHANGED) if it emits an “unraisable exception”. Moreover, regrtest logs a warning in this case.

    Use python3 -m test --fail-env-changed to catch unraisable exceptions in tests.

  • bpo-37252: Fix assertions in test_close and test_events_mask_overflow devpoll tests.

  • bpo-37169: Rewrite _PyObject_IsFreed() unit tests.

  • bpo-37153: test_venv.test_multiprocessing() now explicitly calls pool.terminate() to wait until the pool completes.

  • bpo-34001: Make test_ssl pass with LibreSSL. LibreSSL handles minimum and maximum TLS version differently than OpenSSL.

  • bpo-36919: Make test_source_encoding.test_issue2301 implementation independent. The test will work now for both CPython and IronPython.

  • bpo-30202: Update test.test_importlib.test_abc to test find_spec().

  • bpo-28009: Modify the test_uuid logic to test when a program is available AND can be used to obtain a MACADDR as basis for an UUID. Patch by M. Felt

  • bpo-34596: Fallback to a default reason when unittest.skip() is uncalled. Patch by Naitree Zhu.

Build

  • bpo-38809: On Windows, build scripts will now recognize and use python.exe from an active virtual env.

  • bpo-38684: Fix _hashlib build when Blake2 is disabled, but OpenSSL supports it.

  • bpo-38468: Misc/python-config.in now uses getvar() for all still existing sysconfig.get_config_var() calls. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye.

  • bpo-37415: Fix stdatomic.h header check for ICC compiler: the ICC implementation lacks atomic_uintptr_t type which is needed by Python.

  • bpo-38301: In Solaris family, we must be sure to use -D_REENTRANT. Patch by Jesús Cea Avión.

  • bpo-36002: Locate llvm-profdata and llvm-ar binaries using AC_PATH_TOOL rather than AC_PATH_TARGET_TOOL.

  • bpo-37936: The .gitignore file systematically keeps “rooted”, with a non-trailing slash, all the rules that are meant to apply to files in a specific place in the repo. Previously, when the intended file to ignore happened to be at the root of the repo, we’d most often accidentally also ignore files and directories with the same name anywhere in the tree.

  • bpo-37760: The Tools/unicode/makeunicodedata.py script, which is used for converting information from the Unicode Character Database into generated code and data used by the methods of str and by the unicodedata module, now handles each character’s data as a dataclass with named attributes, rather than a length-18 list of different fields.

  • bpo-37936: The .gitignore file no longer applies to any files that are in fact tracked in the Git repository. Patch by Greg Price.

  • bpo-37725: Change “clean” makefile target to also clean the program guided optimization (PGO) data. Previously you would have to use “make clean” and “make profile-removal”, or “make clobber”.

  • bpo-37707: Mark some individual tests to skip when –pgo is used. The tests marked increase the PGO task time significantly and likely don’t help improve optimization of the final executable.

  • bpo-36044: Reduce the number of unit tests run for the PGO generation task. This speeds up the task by a factor of about 15x. Running the full unit test suite is slow. This change may result in a slightly less optimized build since not as many code branches will be executed. If you are willing to wait for the much slower build, the old behavior can be restored using ‘./configure [..] PROFILE_TASK=”-m test –pgo-extended”’. We make no guarantees as to which PGO task set produces a faster build. Users who care should run their own relevant benchmarks as results can depend on the environment, workload, and compiler tool chain.

  • bpo-37468: make install no longer installs wininst-*.exe files used by distutils bdist_wininst: bdist_wininst only works on Windows.

  • bpo-37189: Many PyRun_XXX() functions like PyRun_String() were no longer exported in libpython38.dll by mistake. Export them again to fix the ABI compatibility.

  • bpo-25361: Enables use of SSE2 instructions in Windows 32-bit build.

  • bpo-36210: Update optional extension module detection for AIX. ossaudiodev and spwd are not applicable for AIX, and are no longer reported as missing. 3rd-party packaging of ncurses (with ASIS support) conflicts with officially supported AIX curses library, so configure AIX to use libcurses.a. However, skip trying to build _curses_panel.

    patch by M Felt

Windows

  • bpo-38589: Fixes HTML Help shortcut when Windows is not installed to C drive

  • bpo-38453: Ensure ntpath.realpath() correctly resolves relative paths.

  • bpo-38519: Restores the internal C headers that were missing from the nuget.org and Microsoft Store packages.

  • bpo-38492: Remove pythonw.exe dependency on the Microsoft C++ runtime.

  • bpo-38344: Fix error message in activate.bat

  • bpo-38359: Ensures pyw.exe launcher reads correct registry key.

  • bpo-38355: Fixes ntpath.realpath failing on sys.executable.

  • bpo-38117: Update bundled OpenSSL to 1.1.1d

  • bpo-38092: Reduce overhead when using multiprocessing in a Windows virtual environment.

  • bpo-38133: Allow py.exe launcher to locate installations from the Microsoft Store and improve display of active virtual environments.

  • bpo-38114: The pip.ini is no longer included in the Nuget package.

  • bpo-32592: Set Windows 8 as the minimum required version for API support

  • bpo-36634: os.cpu_count() now returns active processors rather than maximum processors.

  • bpo-36634: venv activate.bat now works when the existing variables contain double quote characters.

  • bpo-38081: Prevent error calling os.path.realpath() on 'NUL'.

  • bpo-38087: Fix case sensitivity in test_pathlib and test_ntpath.

  • bpo-38088: Fixes distutils not finding vcruntime140.dll with only the v142 toolset installed.

  • bpo-37283: Ensure command-line and unattend.xml setting override previously detected states in Windows installer.

  • bpo-38030: Fixes os.stat() failing for block devices on Windows

  • bpo-38020: Fixes potential crash when calling os.readlink() (or indirectly through realpath()) on a file that is not a supported link.

  • bpo-37705: Improve the implementation of winerror_to_errno().

  • bpo-37549: os.dup() no longer fails for standard streams on Windows 7.

  • bpo-1311: The nul file on Windows now returns True from exists() and a valid result from os.stat() with S_IFCHR set.

  • bpo-9949: Enable support for following symlinks in os.realpath().

  • bpo-37834: Treat all name surrogate reparse points on Windows in os.lstat() and other reparse points as regular files in os.stat().

  • bpo-36266: Add the module name in the formatted error message when DLL load fail happens during module import in _PyImport_FindSharedFuncptrWindows(). Patch by Srinivas Nyayapati.

  • bpo-25172: Trying to import the crypt module on Windows will result in an ImportError with a message explaining that the module isn’t supported on Windows. On other platforms, if the underlying _crypt module is not available, the ImportError will include a message explaining the problem.

  • bpo-37778: Fixes the icons used for file associations to the Microsoft Store package.

  • bpo-37734: Fix use of registry values to launch Python from Microsoft Store app.

  • bpo-37702: Fix memory leak on Windows in creating an SSLContext object or running urllib.request.urlopen(‘https://…’).

  • bpo-37672: Switch Windows Store package’s pip to use bundled pip.ini instead of PIP_USER variable.

  • bpo-10945: Officially drop support for creating bdist_wininst installers on non-Windows systems.

  • bpo-37445: Include the FORMAT_MESSAGE_IGNORE_INSERTS flag in FormatMessageW() calls.

  • bpo-37369: Fixes path for sys.executable when running from the Microsoft Store.

  • bpo-37380: Don’t collect unfinished processes with subprocess._active on Windows to cleanup later. Patch by Ruslan Kuprieiev.

  • bpo-37351: Removes libpython38.a from standard Windows distribution.

  • bpo-35360: Update Windows builds to use SQLite 3.28.0.

  • bpo-37267: On Windows, os.dup() no longer creates an inheritable fd when handling a character file.

  • bpo-36779: Ensure time.tzname is correct on Windows when the active code page is set to CP_UTF7 or CP_UTF8.

  • bpo-32587: Make winreg.REG_MULTI_SZ support zero-length strings.

  • bpo-28269: Replace use of strcasecmp() for the system function _stricmp(). Patch by Minmin Gong.

  • bpo-36590: Add native Bluetooth RFCOMM support to socket module.

macOS

  • bpo-38117: Updated OpenSSL to 1.1.1d in macOS installer.

  • bpo-38089: Move Azure Pipelines to latest VM versions and make macOS tests optional

  • bpo-18049: Increase the default stack size of threads from 5MB to 16MB on macOS, to match the stack size of the main thread. This avoids crashes on deep recursion in threads.

  • bpo-34602: Avoid test suite failures on macOS by no longer calling resource.setrlimit to increase the process stack size limit at runtime. The runtime change is no longer needed since the interpreter is being built with a larger default stack size.

  • bpo-35360: Update macOS installer to use SQLite 3.28.0.

  • bpo-34631: Updated OpenSSL to 1.1.1c in macOS installer.

IDLE

  • bpo-26353: Stop adding newline when saving an IDLE shell window.

  • bpo-4630: Add an option to toggle IDLE’s cursor blink for shell, editor, and output windows. See Settings, General, Window Preferences, Cursor Blink. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-38598: Do not try to compile IDLE shell or output windows

  • bpo-36698: IDLE no longer fails when write non-encodable characters to stderr. It now escapes them with a backslash, as the regular Python interpreter. Added the errors field to the standard streams.

  • bpo-35379: When exiting IDLE, catch any AttributeError. One happens when EditorWindow.close is called twice. Printing a traceback, when IDLE is run from a terminal, is useless and annoying.

  • bpo-38183: To avoid problems, test_idle ignores the user config directory. It no longer tries to create or access .idlerc or any files within. Users must run IDLE to discover problems with saving settings.

  • bpo-38077: IDLE no longer adds ‘argv’ to the user namespace when initializing it. This bug only affected 3.7.4 and 3.8.0b2 to 3.8.0b4.

  • bpo-38041: Shell restart lines now fill the window width, always start with ‘=’, and avoid wrapping unnecessarily. The line will still wrap if the included file name is long relative to the width.

  • bpo-35771: To avoid occasional spurious test_idle failures on slower machines, increase the hover_delay in test_tooltip.

  • bpo-37824: Properly handle user input warnings in IDLE shell. Cease turning SyntaxWarnings into SyntaxErrors.

  • bpo-37929: IDLE Settings dialog now closes properly when there is no shell window.

  • bpo-37902: Add mousewheel scrolling for IDLE module, path, and stack browsers. Patch by George Zhang.

  • bpo-37849: Fixed completions list appearing too high or low when shown above the current line.

  • bpo-36419: Refactor IDLE autocomplete and improve testing.

  • bpo-37748: Reorder the Run menu. Put the most common choice, Run Module, at the top.

  • bpo-37692: Improve highlight config sample with example shell interaction and better labels for shell elements.

  • bpo-37628: Settings dialog no longer expands with font size.

  • bpo-37627: Initialize the Customize Run dialog with the command line arguments most recently entered before. The user can optionally edit before submitting them.

  • bpo-33610: Fix code context not showing the correct context when first toggled on.

  • bpo-37530: Optimize code context to reduce unneeded background activity. Font and highlight changes now occur along with text changes instead of after a random delay.

  • bpo-27452: Cleanup config.py by inlining RemoveFile and simplifying the handling of file in CreateConfigHandlers.

  • bpo-37325: Fix tab focus traversal order for help source and custom run dialogs.

  • bpo-37321: Both subprocess connection error messages now refer to the ‘Startup failure’ section of the IDLE doc.

  • bpo-17535: Add optional line numbers for IDLE editor windows. Windows open without line numbers unless set otherwise in the General tab of the configuration dialog.

  • bpo-26806: To compensate for stack frames added by IDLE and avoid possible problems with low recursion limits, add 30 to limits in the user code execution process. Subtract 30 when reporting recursion limits to make this addition mostly transparent.

  • bpo-37177: Properly ‘attach’ search dialogs to their main window so that they behave like other dialogs and do not get hidden behind their main window.

  • bpo-37039: Adjust “Zoom Height” to individual screens by momentarily maximizing the window on first use with a particular screen. Changing screen settings may invalidate the saved height. While a window is maximized, “Zoom Height” has no effect.

  • bpo-35763: Make calltip reminder about ‘/’ meaning positional-only less obtrusive by only adding it when there is room on the first line.

  • bpo-5680: Add ‘Run… Customized’ to the Run menu to run a module with customized settings. Any ‘command line arguments’ entered are added to sys.argv. One can suppress the normal Shell main module restart.

  • bpo-36390: Gather Format menu functions into format.py. Combine paragraph.py, rstrip.py, and format methods from editor.py.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-38118: Update Valgrind suppression file to ignore a false alarm in PyUnicode_Decode() when using GCC builtin strcmp().

  • bpo-38347: pathfix.py: Assume all files that end on ‘.py’ are Python scripts when working recursively.

  • bpo-37803: pdb’s --help and --version long options now work.

  • bpo-37942: Improve ArgumentClinic converter for floats.

  • bpo-37704: Remove Tools/scripts/h2py.py: use cffi to access a C API in Python.

  • bpo-37675: 2to3 now works when run from a zipped standard library.

  • bpo-37034: Argument Clinic now uses the argument name on errors with keyword-only argument instead of their position. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-37064: Add option -k to pathscript.py script: preserve shebang flags. Add option -a to pathscript.py script: add flags.

C API

  • bpo-37633: Re-export some function compatibility wrappers for macros in pythonrun.h.

  • bpo-38644: Provide Py_EnterRecursiveCall() and Py_LeaveRecursiveCall() as regular functions for the limited API. Previously, there were defined as macros, but these macros didn’t work with the limited API which cannot access PyThreadState.recursion_depth field. Remove _Py_CheckRecursionLimit from the stable ABI.

  • bpo-38650: The global variable PyStructSequence_UnnamedField is now a constant and refers to a constant string.

  • bpo-38540: Fixed possible leak in PyArg_Parse() and similar functions for format units "es#" and "et#" when the macro PY_SSIZE_T_CLEAN is not defined.

  • bpo-38395: Fix a crash in weakref.proxy objects due to incorrect lifetime management when calling some associated methods that may delete the last reference to object being referenced by the proxy. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-36389: The _PyObject_CheckConsistency() function is now also available in release mode. For example, it can be used to debug a crash in the visit_decref() function of the GC.

  • bpo-38266: Revert the removal of PyThreadState_DeleteCurrent() with documentation.

  • bpo-38303: Update audioop extension module to use the stable ABI (PEP-384). Patch by Tyler Kieft.

  • bpo-38234: Py_SetPath() now sets sys.executable to the program full path (Py_GetProgramFullPath()) rather than to the program name (Py_GetProgramName()).

  • bpo-38234: Python ignored arguments passed to Py_SetPath(), Py_SetPythonHome() and Py_SetProgramName(): fix Python initialization to use specified arguments.

  • bpo-38205: The Py_UNREACHABLE() macro now calls Py_FatalError().

  • bpo-38140: Make dict and weakref offsets opaque for C heap types by passing the offsets through PyMemberDef

  • bpo-15088: The C function PyGen_NeedsFinalizing has been removed. It was not documented, tested or used anywhere within CPython after the implementation of PEP 442. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye. (Patch by Joannah Nanjekye)

  • bpo-36763: Options added by PySys_AddXOption() are now handled the same way than PyConfig.xoptions and command line -X options.

  • bpo-37926: Fix a crash in PySys_SetArgvEx(0, NULL, 0).

  • bpo-37879: Fix subtype_dealloc to suppress the type decref when the base type is a C heap type

  • bpo-37645: Add _PyObject_FunctionStr() to get a user-friendly string representation of a function-like object. Patch by Jeroen Demeyer.

  • bpo-29548: The functions PyEval_CallObject, PyEval_CallFunction, PyEval_CallMethod and PyEval_CallObjectWithKeywords are deprecated. Use PyObject_Call() and its variants instead.

  • bpo-37151: PyCFunction_Call is now a deprecated alias of PyObject_Call().

  • bpo-37540: The vectorcall protocol now requires that the caller passes only strings as keyword names.

  • bpo-37207: The vectorcall protocol is now enabled for type objects: set tp_vectorcall to a vectorcall function to be used instead of tp_new and tp_init when calling the class itself.

  • bpo-21120: Exclude Python-ast.h, ast.h and asdl.h from the limited API.

  • bpo-37483: Add new function _PyObject_CallOneArg for calling an object with one positional argument.

  • bpo-36763: Add PyConfig_SetWideStringList() function.

  • bpo-37337: Add fast functions for calling methods: _PyObject_VectorcallMethod(), _PyObject_CallMethodNoArgs() and _PyObject_CallMethodOneArg().

  • bpo-28805: The METH_FASTCALL calling convention has been documented.

  • bpo-37221: The new function PyCode_NewWithPosOnlyArgs() allows to create code objects like PyCode_New(), but with an extra posonlyargcount parameter for indicating the number of positonal-only arguments.

  • bpo-37215: Fix dtrace issue introduce by bpo-36842

  • bpo-37194: Add a new public PyObject_CallNoArgs() function to the C API: call a callable Python object without any arguments. It is the most efficient way to call a callback without any argument. On x86-64, for example, PyObject_CallFunctionObjArgs(func, NULL) allocates 960 bytes on the stack per call, whereas PyObject_CallNoArgs(func) only allocates 624 bytes per call.

  • bpo-37170: Fix the cast on error in PyLong_AsUnsignedLongLongMask().

  • bpo-35381: Convert posixmodule.c statically allocated types DirEntryType and ScandirIteratorType to heap-allocated types.

  • bpo-34331: Use singular/plural noun in error message when instantiating an abstract class with non-overriden abstract method(s).

Python 3.8.0 beta 1

Release date: 2019-06-04

Security

  • bpo-35907: CVE-2019-9948: Avoid file reading by disallowing local-file:// and local_file:// URL schemes in URLopener().open() and URLopener().retrieve() of urllib.request.

  • bpo-33529: Prevent fold function used in email header encoding from entering infinite loop when there are too many non-ASCII characters in a header.

  • bpo-33164: Updated blake2 implementation which uses secure memset implementation provided by platform.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-35814: Allow unpacking in the right hand side of annotated assignments. In particular, t: Tuple[int, ...] = x, y, *z is now allowed.

  • bpo-37126: All structseq objects are now tracked by the garbage collector. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-37122: Make the co_argcount attribute of code objects represent the total number of positional arguments (including positional-only arguments). The value of co_posonlyargcount can be used to distinguish which arguments are positional only, and the difference (co_argcount - co_posonlyargcount) is the number of positional-or-keyword arguments. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-20092: Constructors of int, float and complex will now use the __index__() special method, if available and the corresponding method __int__(), __float__() or __complex__() is not available.

  • bpo-37087: Add native thread ID (TID) support to OpenBSD.

  • bpo-26219: Implemented per opcode cache mechanism and LOAD_GLOBAL instruction use it. LOAD_GLOBAL is now about 40% faster. Contributed by Yury Selivanov, and Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-37072: Fix crash in PyAST_FromNodeObject() when flags is NULL.

  • bpo-37029: Freeing a great many small objects could take time quadratic in the number of arenas, due to using linear search to keep obmalloc.c’s list of usable arenas sorted by order of number of free memory pools. This is accomplished without search now, leaving the worst-case time linear in the number of arenas. For programs where this quite visibly matters (typically with more than 100 thousand small objects alive simultaneously), this can greatly reduce the time needed to release their memory.

  • bpo-26423: Fix possible overflow in wrap_lenfunc() when sizeof(long) < sizeof(Py_ssize_t) (e.g., 64-bit Windows).

  • bpo-37050: Improve the AST for “debug” f-strings, which use ‘=’ to print out the source of the expression being evaluated. Delete expr_text from the FormattedValue node, and instead use a Constant string node (possibly merged with adjacent constant expressions inside the f-string).

  • bpo-22385: The bytes.hex, bytearray.hex, and memoryview.hex methods as well as the binascii.hexlify and b2a_hex functions now have the ability to include an optional separator between hex bytes. This functionality was inspired by MicroPython’s hexlify implementation.

  • bpo-26836: Add os.memfd_create().

  • bpo-37032: Added new replace() method to the code type (types.CodeType).

  • bpo-37007: Implement socket.if_nameindex(), socket.if_nametoindex(), and socket.if_indextoname() on Windows.

  • bpo-36829: PyErr_WriteUnraisable() now creates a traceback object if there is no current traceback. Moreover, call PyErr_NormalizeException() and PyException_SetTraceback() to normalize the exception value. Ignore any error.

  • bpo-36878: Only accept text after # type: ignore if the first character is ASCII. This is to disallow things like # type: ignoreé.

  • bpo-36878: Store text appearing after a # type: ignore comment in the AST. For example a type ignore like # type: ignore[E1000] will have the string "[E1000]" stored in its AST node.

  • bpo-2180: Treat line continuation at EOF as a SyntaxError by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-36907: Fix a crash when calling a C function with a keyword dict (f(**kwargs)) and changing the dict kwargs while that function is running.

  • bpo-36946: Fix possible signed integer overflow when handling slices.

  • bpo-36826: Add NamedExpression kind support to ast_unparse.c

  • bpo-1875: A SyntaxError is now raised if a code blocks that will be optimized away (e.g. if conditions that are always false) contains syntax errors. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-36027: Allow computation of modular inverses via three-argument pow: the second argument is now permitted to be negative in the case where the first and third arguments are relatively prime.

  • bpo-36861: Update the Unicode database to version 12.1.0.

  • bpo-28866: Avoid caching attributes of classes which type defines mro() to avoid a hard cache invalidation problem.

  • bpo-36851: The FrameType stack is now correctly cleaned up if the execution ends with a return and the stack is not empty.

  • bpo-34616: The compile() builtin functions now support the ast.PyCF_ALLOW_TOP_LEVEL_AWAIT flag, which allow to compile sources that contains top-level await, async with or async for. This is useful to evaluate async-code from with an already async functions; for example in a custom REPL.

  • bpo-36842: Implement PEP 578, adding sys.audit, io.open_code and related APIs.

  • bpo-27639: Correct return type for UserList slicing operations. Patch by Michael Blahay, Erick Cervantes, and vaultah

  • bpo-36737: Move PyRuntimeState.warnings into per-interpreter state (via “module state”).

  • bpo-36793: Removed __str__ implementations from builtin types bool, int, float, complex and few classes from the standard library. They now inherit __str__() from object.

  • bpo-36817: Add a = feature f-strings for debugging. This can precede !s, !r, or !a. It produces the text of the expression, followed by an equal sign, followed by the repr of the value of the expression. So f'{3*9+15=}' would be equal to the string '3*9+15=42'. If = is specified, the default conversion is set to !r, unless a format spec is given, in which case the formatting behavior is unchanged, and __format__ will be used.

  • bpo-24048: Save the live exception during import.c’s remove_module().

  • bpo-27987: pymalloc returns memory blocks aligned by 16 bytes, instead of 8 bytes, on 64-bit platforms to conform x86-64 ABI. Recent compilers assume this alignment more often. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-36601: A long-since-meaningless check for getpid() == main_pid was removed from Python’s internal C signal handler.

  • bpo-36594: Fix incorrect use of %p in format strings. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-36045: builtins.help() now prefixes async for async functions

  • bpo-36084: Add native thread ID (TID) to threading.Thread objects (supported platforms: Windows, FreeBSD, Linux, macOS)

  • bpo-36035: Added fix for broken symlinks in combination with pathlib

  • bpo-35983: Added new trashcan macros to deal with a double deallocation that could occur when the tp_dealloc of a subclass calls the tp_dealloc of a base class and that base class uses the trashcan mechanism. Patch by Jeroen Demeyer.

  • bpo-20602: Do not clear sys.flags and sys.float_info during shutdown. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-26826: Expose copy_file_range() as a low level API in the os module.

  • bpo-32388: Remove cross-version binary compatibility requirement in tp_flags.

  • bpo-31862: Port binascii to PEP 489 multiphase initialization. Patch by Marcel Plch.

Library

  • bpo-37128: Added math.perm().

  • bpo-37120: Add SSLContext.num_tickets to control the number of TLSv1.3 session tickets.

  • bpo-12202: Fix the error handling in msilib.SummaryInformation.GetProperty(). Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-26835: The fcntl module now contains file sealing constants for sealing of memfds.

  • bpo-29262: Add get_origin() and get_args() introspection helpers to typing module.

  • bpo-12639: msilib.Directory.start_component() no longer fails if keyfile is not None.

  • bpo-36999: Add the asyncio.Task.get_coro() method to publicly expose the tasks’s coroutine object.

  • bpo-35246: Make asyncio.create_subprocess_exec() accept path-like arguments.

  • bpo-35279: Change default max_workers of ThreadPoolExecutor from cpu_count() * 5 to min(32, cpu_count() + 4)). Previous value was unreasonably large on many cores machines.

  • bpo-37076: _thread.start_new_thread() now logs uncaught exception raised by the function using sys.unraisablehook(), rather than sys.excepthook(), so the hook gets access to the function which raised the exception.

  • bpo-33725: On macOS, the multiprocessing module now uses spawn start method by default.

  • bpo-37054: Fix destructor _pyio.BytesIO and _pyio.TextIOWrapper: initialize their _buffer attribute as soon as possible (in the class body), because it’s used by __del__() which calls close().

  • bpo-37058: PEP 544: Add Protocol and @runtime_checkable to the typing module.

  • bpo-36933: The functions sys.set_coroutine_wrapper and sys.get_coroutine_wrapper that were deprecated and marked for removal in 3.8 have been removed.

  • bpo-37047: Handle late binding and attribute access in unittest.mock.AsyncMock setup for autospeccing. Document newly implemented async methods in unittest.mock.MagicMock.

  • bpo-37049: PEP 589: Add TypedDict to the typing module.

  • bpo-37046: PEP 586: Add Literal to the typing module.

  • bpo-37045: PEP 591: Add Final qualifier and @final decorator to the typing module.

  • bpo-37035: Don’t log OSError based exceptions if a fatal error has occurred in asyncio transport. Peer can generate almost any OSError, user cannot avoid these exceptions by fixing own code. Errors are still propagated to user code, it’s just logging them is pointless and pollute asyncio logs.

  • bpo-37001: symtable.symtable() now accepts the same input types for source code as the built-in compile() function. Patch by Dino Viehland.

  • bpo-37028: Implement asyncio REPL

  • bpo-37027: Return safe to use proxy socket object from transport.get_extra_info(‘socket’)

  • bpo-32528: Make asyncio.CancelledError a BaseException.

    This will address the common mistake many asyncio users make: an “except Exception” clause breaking Tasks cancellation.

    In addition to this change, we stop inheriting asyncio.TimeoutError and asyncio.InvalidStateError from their concurrent.futures.* counterparts. There’s no point for these exceptions to share the inheritance chain.

  • bpo-1230540: Add a new threading.excepthook() function which handles uncaught threading.Thread.run() exception. It can be overridden to control how uncaught threading.Thread.run() exceptions are handled.

  • bpo-36996: Handle unittest.mock.patch() used as a decorator on async functions.

  • bpo-37008: Add support for calling next() with the mock resulting from unittest.mock.mock_open()

  • bpo-27737: Allow whitespace only header encoding in email.header - by Batuhan Taskaya

  • bpo-36969: PDB command args now display positional only arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-36969: PDB command args now display keyword only arguments. Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-36983: Add missing names to typing.__all__: ChainMap, ForwardRef, OrderedDict - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-36972: Add SupportsIndex protocol to the typing module to allow type checking to detect classes that can be passed to hex(), oct() and bin().

  • bpo-32972: Implement unittest.IsolatedAsyncioTestCase to help testing asyncio-based code.

  • bpo-36952: fileinput.input() and fileinput.FileInput bufsize argument has been removed (was deprecated and ignored since Python 3.6), and as a result the mode and openhook arguments have been made keyword-only.

  • bpo-36952: Starting with Python 3.3, importing ABCs from collections is deprecated, and import should be done from collections.abc. Still being able to import from collections was marked for removal in 3.8, but has been delayed to 3.9; documentation and DeprecationWarning clarified.

  • bpo-36949: Implement __repr__ for WeakSet objects.

  • bpo-36948: Fix NameError in urllib.request.URLopener.retrieve(). Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-33524: Fix the folding of email header when the max_line_length is 0 or None and the header contains non-ascii characters. Contributed by Licht Takeuchi (@Licht-T).

  • bpo-24564: shutil.copystat() now ignores errno.EINVAL on os.setxattr() which may occur when copying files on filesystems without extended attributes support.

    Original patch by Giampaolo Rodola, updated by Ying Wang.

  • bpo-36888: Python child processes can now access the status of their parent process using multiprocessing.process.parent_process

  • bpo-36921: Deprecate @coroutine for sake of async def.

  • bpo-25652: Fix bug in __rmod__ of UserString - by Batuhan Taskaya.

  • bpo-36916: Remove a message about an unhandled exception in a task when writer.write() is used without await and writer.drain() fails with an exception.

  • bpo-36889: Introduce asyncio.Stream class that merges asyncio.StreamReader and asyncio.StreamWriter functionality. asyncio.Stream can work in readonly, writeonly and readwrite modes. Provide asyncio.connect(), asyncio.connect_unix(), asyncio.connect_read_pipe() and asyncio.connect_write_pipe() factories to open asyncio.Stream connections. Provide asyncio.StreamServer and UnixStreamServer to serve servers with asyncio.Stream API. Modify asyncio.create_subprocess_shell() and asyncio.create_subprocess_exec() to use asyncio.Stream instead of deprecated StreamReader and StreamWriter. Deprecate asyncio.StreamReader and asyncio.StreamWriter. Deprecate usage of private classes, e.g. asyncio.FlowControlMixing and asyncio.StreamReaderProtocol outside of asyncio package.

  • bpo-36845: Added validation of integer prefixes to the construction of IP networks and interfaces in the ipaddress module.

  • bpo-23378: Add an extend action to argparser.

  • bpo-36867: Fix a bug making a SharedMemoryManager instance and its parent process use two separate resource_tracker processes.

  • bpo-23896: Adds a grammar to lib2to3.pygram that contains exec as a function not as statement.

  • bpo-36895: The function time.clock() was deprecated in 3.3 in favor of time.perf_counter() and marked for removal in 3.8, it has removed.

  • bpo-35545: Fix asyncio discarding IPv6 scopes when ensuring hostname resolutions internally

  • bpo-36887: Add new function math.isqrt() to compute integer square roots.

  • bpo-34632: Introduce the importlib.metadata module with (provisional) support for reading metadata from third-party packages.

  • bpo-36878: When using type_comments=True in ast.parse, treat # type: ignore followed by a non-alphanumeric character and then arbitrary text as a type ignore, instead of requiring nothing but whitespace or another comment. This is to permit formations such as # type: ignore[E1000].

  • bpo-36778: cp65001 encoding (Windows code page 65001) becomes an alias to utf_8 encoding.

  • bpo-36867: The multiprocessing.resource_tracker replaces the multiprocessing.semaphore_tracker module. Other than semaphores, resource_tracker also tracks shared_memory segments.

  • bpo-30262: The Cache and Statement objects of the sqlite3 module are not exposed to the user. Patch by Aviv Palivoda.

  • bpo-24538: In shutil.copystat(), first copy extended file attributes and then file permissions, since extended attributes can only be set on the destination while it is still writeable.

  • bpo-36829: Add new sys.unraisablehook() function which can be overridden to control how “unraisable exceptions” are handled. It is called when an exception has occurred but there is no way for Python to handle it. For example, when a destructor raises an exception or during garbage collection (gc.collect()).

  • bpo-36832: Introducing zipfile.Path, a pathlib-compatible wrapper for traversing zip files.

  • bpo-36814: Fix an issue where os.posix_spawnp() would incorrectly raise a TypeError when file_actions is None.

  • bpo-33110: Handle exceptions raised by functions added by concurrent.futures add_done_callback correctly when the Future has already completed.

  • bpo-26903: Limit max_workers in ProcessPoolExecutor to 61 to work around a WaitForMultipleObjects limitation.

  • bpo-36813: Fix QueueListener to call queue.task_done() upon stopping. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-36806: Forbid creation of asyncio stream objects like StreamReader, StreamWriter, Process, and their protocols outside of asyncio package.

  • bpo-36802: Provide both sync and async calls for StreamWriter.write() and StreamWriter.close()

  • bpo-36801: Properly handle SSL connection closing in asyncio StreamWriter.drain() call.

  • bpo-36785: Implement PEP 574 (pickle protocol 5 with out-of-band buffers).

  • bpo-36772: functools.lru_cache() can now be used as a straight decorator in addition to its existing usage as a function that returns a decorator.

  • bpo-6584: Add a BadGzipFile exception to the gzip module.

  • bpo-36748: Optimized write buffering in C implementation of TextIOWrapper. Writing ASCII string to TextIOWrapper with ascii, latin1, or utf-8 encoding is about 20% faster. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-8138: Don’t mark wsgiref.simple_server.SimpleServer as multi-threaded since wsgiref.simple_server.WSGIServer is single-threaded.

  • bpo-22640: py_compile.compile() now supports silent mode. Patch by Joannah Nanjekye

  • bpo-29183: Fix double exceptions in wsgiref.handlers.BaseHandler by calling its close() method only when no exception is raised.

  • bpo-36548: Improved the repr of regular expression flags.

  • bpo-36542: The signature of Python functions can now be overridden by specifying the __text_signature__ attribute.

  • bpo-36533: Reinitialize logging.Handler locks in forked child processes instead of attempting to acquire them all in the parent before forking only to be released in the child process. The acquire/release pattern was leading to deadlocks in code that has implemented any form of chained logging handlers that depend upon one another as the lock acquisition order cannot be guaranteed.

  • bpo-35252: Throw a TypeError instead of an AssertionError when using an invalid type annotation with singledispatch.

  • bpo-35900: Allow reduction methods to return a 6-item tuple where the 6th item specifies a custom state-setting method that’s called instead of the regular __setstate__ method.

  • bpo-35900: enable custom reduction callback registration for functions and classes in _pickle.c, using the new Pickler’s attribute reducer_override

  • bpo-36368: Fix a bug crashing SharedMemoryManager instances in interactive sessions after a ctrl-c (KeyboardInterrupt) was sent

  • bpo-31904: Fix mmap fail for VxWorks

  • bpo-27497: csv.DictWriter.writeheader() now returns the return value of the underlying csv.Writer.writerow() method. Patch contributed by Ashish Nitin Patil.

  • bpo-36239: Parsing .mo files now ignores comments starting and ending with #-#-#-#-#.

  • bpo-26707: Enable plistlib to read and write binary plist files that were created as a KeyedArchive file. Specifically, this allows the plistlib to process 0x80 tokens as UID objects.

  • bpo-31904: Add posix module support for VxWorks.

  • bpo-35125: Asyncio: Remove inner callback on outer cancellation in shield

  • bpo-35721: Fix asyncio.SelectorEventLoop.subprocess_exec() leaks file descriptors if Popen fails and called with stdin=subprocess.PIPE. Patch by Niklas Fiekas.

  • bpo-31855: unittest.mock.mock_open() results now respects the argument of read([size]). Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-35431: Implement math.comb() that returns binomial coefficient, that computes the number of ways to choose k items from n items without repetition and without order. Patch by Yash Aggarwal and Keller Fuchs.

  • bpo-26660: Fixed permission errors in TemporaryDirectory clean up. Previously TemporaryDirectory.cleanup() failed when non-writeable or non-searchable files or directories were created inside a temporary directory.

  • bpo-34271: Add debugging helpers to ssl module. It’s now possible to dump key material and to trace TLS protocol. The default and stdlib contexts also support SSLKEYLOGFILE env var.

  • bpo-26467: Added AsyncMock to support using unittest to mock asyncio coroutines. Patch by Lisa Roach.

  • bpo-33569: dataclasses.InitVar: Exposes the type used to create the init var.

  • bpo-34424: Fix serialization of messages containing encoded strings when the policy.linesep is set to a multi-character string. Patch by Jens Troeger.

  • bpo-34303: Performance of functools.reduce() is slightly improved. Patch by Sergey Fedoseev.

  • bpo-33361: Fix a bug in codecs.StreamRecoder where seeking might leave old data in a buffer and break subsequent read calls. Patch by Ammar Askar.

  • bpo-22454: The shlex module now exposes shlex.join(), the inverse of shlex.split(). Patch by Bo Bayles.

  • bpo-31922: asyncio.AbstractEventLoop.create_datagram_endpoint(): Do not connect UDP socket when broadcast is allowed. This allows to receive replies after a UDP broadcast.

  • bpo-24882: Change ThreadPoolExecutor to use existing idle threads before spinning up new ones.

  • bpo-31961: Added support for bytes and path-like objects in subprocess.Popen() on Windows. The args parameter now accepts a path-like object if shell is False and a sequence containing bytes and path-like objects. The executable parameter now accepts a bytes and path-like object. The cwd parameter now accepts a bytes object. Based on patch by Anders Lorentsen.

  • bpo-33123: pathlib.Path.unlink now accepts a missing_ok parameter to avoid a FileNotFoundError from being raised. Patch by Robert Buchholz.

  • bpo-32941: Allow mmap.mmap objects to access the madvise() system call (through mmap.mmap.madvise()).

  • bpo-22102: Added support for ZIP files with disks set to 0. Such files are commonly created by builtin tools on Windows when use ZIP64 extension. Patch by Francisco Facioni.

  • bpo-32515: trace.py can now run modules via python3 -m trace -t –module module_name

  • bpo-32299: Changed unittest.mock.patch.dict() to return the patched dictionary when used as context manager. Patch by Vadim Tsander.

  • bpo-27141: Added a __copy__() to collections.UserList and collections.UserDict in order to correctly implement shallow copying of the objects. Patch by Bar Harel.

  • bpo-31829: \r, \0 and \x1a (end-of-file on Windows) are now escaped in protocol 0 pickles of Unicode strings. This allows to load them without loss from files open in text mode in Python 2.

  • bpo-23395: _thread.interrupt_main() now avoids setting the Python error status if the SIGINT signal is ignored or not handled by Python.

Documentation

  • bpo-36896: Clarify that some types have unstable constructor signature between Python versions.

  • bpo-36686: Improve documentation of the stdin, stdout, and stderr arguments of the asyncio.subprocess_exec function to specify which values are supported. Also mention that decoding as text is not supported.

    Add a few tests to verify that the various values passed to the std* arguments actually work.

  • bpo-36984: Improve version added references in typing module - by Anthony Sottile.

  • bpo-36868: What’s new now mentions SSLContext.hostname_checks_common_name instead of SSLContext.host_flags.

  • bpo-35924: Add a note to the curses.addstr() documentation to warn that multiline strings can cause segfaults because of an ncurses bug.

  • bpo-36783: Added C API Documentation for Time_FromTimeAndFold and PyDateTime_FromDateAndTimeAndFold as per PEP 495. Patch by Edison Abahurire.

  • bpo-36797: More of the legacy distutils documentation has been either pruned, or else more clearly marked as being retained solely until the setuptools documentation covers it independently.

  • bpo-22865: Add detail to the documentation on the pty.spawn function.

  • bpo-35397: Remove deprecation and document urllib.parse.unwrap(). Patch contributed by Rémi Lapeyre.

  • bpo-32995: Added the context variable in glossary.

  • bpo-33519: Clarify that copy() is not part of the MutableSequence ABC.

  • bpo-33482: Make codecs.StreamRecoder.writelines take a list of bytes.

  • bpo-25735: Added documentation for func factorial to indicate that returns integer values

  • bpo-20285: Expand object.__doc__ (docstring) to make it clearer. Modify pydoc.py so that help(object) lists object methods (for other classes, help omits methods of the object base class.)

Tests

  • bpo-37069: Modify test_coroutines, test_cprofile, test_generators, test_raise, test_ssl and test_yield_from to use test.support.catch_unraisable_exception() rather than test.support.captured_stderr().

  • bpo-37098: Fix test_memfd_create on older Linux Kernels.

  • bpo-37081: Test with OpenSSL 1.1.1c

  • bpo-36829: Add test.support.catch_unraisable_exception(): context manager catching unraisable exception using sys.unraisablehook().

  • bpo-36915: The main regrtest process now always removes all temporary directories of worker processes even if they crash or if they are killed on KeyboardInterrupt (CTRL+c).

  • bpo-36719: “python3 -m test -jN …” now continues the execution of next tests when a worker process crash (CHILD_ERROR state). Previously, the test suite stopped immediately. Use –failfast to stop at the first error.

  • bpo-36816: Update Lib/test/selfsigned_pythontestdotnet.pem to match self-signed.pythontest.net’s new TLS certificate.

  • bpo-35925: Skip httplib and nntplib networking tests when they would otherwise fail due to a modern OS or distro with a default OpenSSL policy of rejecting connections to servers with weak certificates.

  • bpo-36782: Add tests for several C API functions in the datetime module. Patch by Edison Abahurire.

  • bpo-36342: Fix test_multiprocessing in test_venv if platform lacks functioning sem_open.

Build

  • bpo-36721: To embed Python into an application, a new --embed option must be passed to python3-config --libs --embed to get -lpython3.8 (link the application to libpython). To support both 3.8 and older, try python3-config --libs --embed first and fallback to python3-config --libs (without --embed) if the previous command fails.

    Add a pkg-config python-3.8-embed module to embed Python into an application: pkg-config python-3.8-embed --libs includes -lpython3.8. To support both 3.8 and older, try pkg-config python-X.Y-embed --libs first and fallback to pkg-config python-X.Y --libs (without --embed) if the previous command fails (replace X.Y with the Python version).

    On the other hand, pkg-config python3.8 --libs no longer contains -lpython3.8. C extensions must not be linked to libpython (except on Android, case handled by the script); this change is backward incompatible on purpose.

  • bpo-36786: “make install” now runs compileall in parallel.

Windows

  • bpo-36965: include of STATUS_CONTROL_C_EXIT without depending on MSC compiler

  • bpo-35926: Update to OpenSSL 1.1.1b for Windows.

  • bpo-29883: Add Windows support for UDP transports for the Proactor Event Loop. Patch by Adam Meily.

  • bpo-33407: The Py_DEPRECATED() macro has been implemented for MSVC.

macOS

  • bpo-36231: Support building Python on macOS without /usr/include installed. As of macOS 10.14, system header files are only available within an SDK provided by either the Command Line Tools or the Xcode app.

IDLE

  • bpo-35610: Replace now redundant .context_use_ps1 with .prompt_last_line. This finishes change started in bpo-31858.

  • bpo-37038: Make idlelib.run runnable; add test clause.

  • bpo-36958: Print any argument other than None or int passed to SystemExit or sys.exit().

  • bpo-36807: When saving a file, call os.fsync() so bits are flushed to e.g. USB drive.

  • bpo-32411: In browser.py, remove extraneous sorting by line number since dictionary was created in line number order.

Tools/Demos

  • bpo-37053: Handle strings like u”bar” correctly in Tools/parser/unparse.py. Patch by Chih-Hsuan Yen.

C API

  • bpo-36763: Implement the PEP 587 “Python Initialization Configuration”.

  • bpo-36379: Fix crashes when attempting to use the modulo parameter when __ipow__ is implemented in C.

  • bpo-37107: Update PyObject_CallMethodObjArgs() and _PyObject_CallMethodIdObjArgs to use _PyObject_GetMethod to avoid creating a bound method object in many cases. Patch by Michael J. Sullivan.

  • bpo-36974: Implement PEP 590: Vectorcall: a fast calling protocol for CPython. This is a new protocol to optimize calls of custom callable objects.

  • bpo-36763: Py_Main() now returns the exitcode rather than calling Py_Exit(exitcode) when calling PyErr_Print() if the current exception type is SystemExit.

  • bpo-36922: Add new type flag Py_TPFLAGS_METHOD_DESCRIPTOR for objects behaving like unbound methods. These are objects supporting the optimization given by the LOAD_METHOD/CALL_METHOD opcodes. See PEP 590.

  • bpo-36728: The PyEval_ReInitThreads() function has been removed from the C API. It should not be called explicitly: use PyOS_AfterFork_Child() instead.

Python 3.8.0 alpha 4

Release date: 2019-05-06

Security

  • bpo-36742: Fixes mishandling of pre-normalization characters in urlsplit().

  • bpo-30458: Address CVE-2019-9740 by disallowing URL paths with embedded whitespace or control characters through into the underlying http client request. Such potentially malicious header injection URLs now cause an http.client.InvalidURL exception to be raised.

  • bpo-35755: shutil.which() now uses os.confstr("CS_PATH") if available and if the PATH environment variable is not set. Remove also the current directory from posixpath.defpath. On Unix, shutil.which() and the subprocess module no longer search the executable in the current directory if the PATH environment variable is not set.

Core and Builtins

  • bpo-36722: In debug build, import now also looks for C extensions compiled in release mode and for C extensions compiled in the stable ABI.

  • bpo-32849: Fix Python Initialization code on FreeBSD to detect properly when stdin file descriptor (fd 0) is invalid.

  • bpo-36623: Remove parser headers and related function declarations that lack implementations after the removal of pgen.

  • bpo-20180: dict.pop() is now up to 33% faster thanks to Argument Clinic. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-36611: Debug memory allocators: disable serialno field by default from debug hooks on Python memory allocators to reduce the memory footprint by 5%. Enable tracemalloc to get the traceback where a memory block has been allocated when a fatal memory error is logged to decide where to put a breakpoint. Compile Python with PYMEM_DEBUG_SERIALNO defined to get back the field.

  • bpo-36588: On AIX, sys.platform doesn’t contain the major version anymore. Always return 'aix', instead of 'aix3' .. 'aix7'. Since older Python versions include the version number, it is recommended to always use sys.platform.startswith('aix'). Contributed by M. Felt.

  • bpo-36549: Change str.capitalize to use titlecase for the first character instead of uppercase.

  • bpo-36540: Implement PEP 570 (Python positional-only parameters). Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-36475: PyEval_AcquireLock() and PyEval_AcquireThread() now terminate the current thread if called while the interpreter is finalizing, making them consistent with PyEval_RestoreThread(), Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS(), and PyGILState_Ensure().

  • bpo-36504: Fix signed integer overflow in _ctypes.c’s PyCArrayType_new().

  • bpo-20844: Fix running script with encoding cookie and LF line ending may fail on Windows.

  • bpo-24214: Fixed support of the surrogatepass error handler in the UTF-8 incremental decoder.

  • bpo-36452: Changing dict keys during iteration of the dict itself, keys(), values(), or items() will now be detected in certain corner cases where keys are deleted/added so that the number of keys isn’t changed. A RuntimeError will be raised after len(dict) iterations. Contributed by Thomas Perl.

  • bpo-36459: Fix a possible double PyMem_FREE() due to tokenizer.c’s tok_nextc().

  • bpo-36433: Fixed TypeError message in classmethoddescr_call.

  • bpo-36430: Fix a possible reference leak in itertools.count().

  • bpo-36440: Include node names in ParserError messages, instead of numeric IDs. Patch by A. Skrobov.

  • bpo-36143: Regenerate keyword from the Grammar and Tokens file using pgen. Patch by Pablo Galindo.

  • bpo-18372: Add missing PyObject_GC_Track() calls in the pickle module. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

Library

  • bpo-35952: Fix pythoninfo when the compiler is missing.

  • bpo-28238: The .find*() methods of xml.etree.ElementTree can now search for wildcards like {*}tag and {ns}* that match a tag in any namespace or all tags in a namespace. Patch by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-26978: pathlib.path.link_to() is now implemented. It creates a hard link pointing to a path.

  • bpo-1613500: fileinput.FileInput now uses the input file mode to correctly set the output file mode (previously it was hardcoded to 'w') when inplace=True is passed to its constructor.

  • bpo-36734: Fix compilation of faulthandler.c on HP-UX. Initialize stack_t current_stack to zero using memset().

  • bpo-13611: The xml.etree.ElementTree packages gained support for C14N 2.0 serialisation. Patch by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-36669: Add missing matrix multiplication operator support to weakref.proxy.

  • bpo-36676: The XMLParser() in xml.etree.ElementTree provides namespace prefix context to the parser target if it defines the callback methods “start_ns()” and/or “end_ns()”. Patch by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-36673: The TreeBuilder and XMLPullParser in xml.etree.ElementTree gained support for parsing comments and processing instructions. Patch by Stefan Behnel.

  • bpo-36650: The C version of functools.lru_cache() was treating calls with an empty **kwargs dictionary as being distinct from calls with no keywords at all. This did not result in an incorrect answer, but it did trigger an unexpected cache miss.

  • bpo-28552: Fix distutils.sysconfig if sys.executable is None or an empty string: use os.getcwd() to initialize project_base. Fix also the distutils build command: don’t use sys.executable if it is None or an empty string.

  • bpo-35755: shutil.which() and distutils.spawn.find_executable() now use os.confstr("CS_PATH") if available instead of os.defpath, if the PATH environment variable is not set. Moreover, don’t use os.confstr("CS_PATH") nor os.defpath if the PATH environment variable is set to an empty string.

  • bpo-25430: improve performance of IPNetwork.__contains__()

  • bpo-30485: Path expressions in xml.etree.ElementTree can now avoid explicit namespace prefixes for tags (or the “{namespace}tag” notation) by passing a default namespace with an empty string prefix.

  • bpo-36613: Fix asyncio wait() not removing callback if exception

  • bpo-36598: Fix isinstance check for Mock objects with spec when the code is executed under tracing. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-18748: In development mode (-X dev) and in debug build, the io.IOBase destructor now logs close() exceptions. These exceptions are silent by default in release mode.

  • bpo-36575: The _lsprof module now uses internal timer same to time.perf_counter() by default. gettimeofday(2) was used on Unix. New timer has better resolution on most Unix platforms and timings are no longer impacted by system clock updates since perf_counter() is monotonic. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-33461: json.loads now emits DeprecationWarning when encoding option is specified. Patch by Matthias Bussonnier.

  • bpo-36559: The random module now prefers the lean internal _sha512 module over hashlib for seed(version=2) to optimize import time.

  • bpo-17561: Set backlog=None as the default for socket.create_server.

  • bpo-34373: Fix time.mktime() error handling on AIX for year before 1970.

  • bpo-36232: Improve error message when trying to open existing DBM database that actually doesn’t exist. Patch by Marco Rougeth.

  • bpo-36546: Add statistics.quantiles()

  • bpo-36050: Optimized http.client.HTTPResponse.read() for large response. Patch by Inada Naoki.

  • bpo-36522: If debuglevel is set to >0 in http.client, print all values for headers with multiple values for the same header name. Patch by Matt Houglum.

  • bpo-36492: Deprecated passing required arguments like func as keyword arguments in functions which should accept arbitrary keyword arguments and pass them to other function. Arbitrary keyword arguments (even with names “self” and “func”) can now be passed to these functions if the required arguments are passed as positional arguments.

  • bpo-27181: Add statistics.geometric_mean().

  • bpo-30427: os.path.normcase() relies on os.fspath() to check the type of its argument. Redundant checks have been removed from its posixpath.normcase() and ntpath.normcase() implementations. Patch by Wolfgang Maier.

  • bpo-36385: Stop rejecting IPv4 octets for being ambiguously octal. Leading zeros are ignored, and no longer are assumed to specify octal octets. Octets are always decimal numbers. Octets must still be no more than three digits, including leading zeroes.

  • bpo-36434: Errors during writing to a ZIP file no longer prevent to properly close it.

  • bpo-36407: Fixed wrong indentation writing for CDATA section in xml.dom.minidom. Patch by Vladimir Surjaninov.

  • bpo-36326: inspect.getdoc() can now find docstrings for member objects when __slots__ is a dictionary.

  • bpo-36366: Calling stop() on an unstarted or stopped unittest.mock.patch() object will now return None instead of raising RuntimeError, making the method idempotent. Patch by Karthikeyan Singaravelan.

  • bpo-36348: The imap.IMAP4.logout() method no longer ignores silently arbitrary exceptions.

  • bpo-31904: Add time module support and fix test_time faiures for VxWorks.

  • bpo-36227: Added support for keyword arguments default_namespace and xml_declaration in functions ElementTree.tostring() and ElementTree.tostringlist().

  • bpo-36004: Added new alternate constructors datetime.date.fromisocalendar() and datetime.datetime.fromisocalendar(), which construct date objects from ISO year, week number and weekday; these are the inverse of each class’s isocalendar method. Patch by Paul Ganssle.

  • bpo-35936: modulefinder no longer depends on the deprecated imp module, and the initializer for modulefinder.ModuleFinder now has immutable default arguments. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-35376: modulefinder correctly handles modules that have the same name as a bad package. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-17396: modulefinder no longer crashes when encountering syntax errors in followed imports. Patch by Brandt Bucher.

  • bpo-35934: Added create_server() and has_dualstack_ipv6() convenience functions to automate the necessary tasks usually involved when creating a server socket, including accepting both IPv4 and IPv6 connections on the same socket. (Contributed by Giampaolo Rodola in bpo-17561.)

  • bpo-23078: Add support for classmethod() and staticmethod() to unittest.mock.create_autospec(). Initial patch by Felipe Ochoa.

  • bpo-35416: Fix potential resource warnings in distutils. Patch by Mickaël Schoentgen.

  • bpo-25451: Add transparency methods to tkinter.PhotoImage. Patch by Zackery Spytz.

  • bpo-35082: Don’t return deleted attributes when calling dir on a unittest.mock.Mock.

  • bpo-34547: wsgiref.handlers.BaseHandler now handles abrupt client connection terminations gracefully. Patch by Petter Strandmark.

  • bpo-31658: xml.sax.parse() now supports path-like. Patch by Mickaël Schoentgen.

  • bpo-34139: Remove stale unix datagram socket before binding

  • bpo-33530: Implemented Happy Eyeballs in asyncio.create_connection(). Added two new arguments, happy_eyeballs_delay and interleave, to specify Happy Eyeballs behavior.

  • bpo-33291: Do not raise AttributeError when calling the inspect functions isgeneratorfunction, iscoroutinefunction, isasyncgenfunction on a method created from an arbitrary callable. Instead, return False.

  • bpo-31310: Fix the multiprocessing.semaphore_tracker so it is reused by child processes

  • bpo-31292: Fix setup.py check --restructuredtext for files containing include directives.

Documentation

  • bpo-36625: Remove obsolete comments from docstrings in fractions.Fraction

  • bpo-30840: Document relative imports

  • bpo-36523: Add docstring for io.IOBase.writelines().

  • bpo-36425: New documentation translation: Simplified Chinese.

  • bpo-36345: Avoid the duplication of code from Tools/scripts/serve.py in using the literalinclude directive for the basic wsgiref-based web server in the documentation of wsgiref. Contributed by Stéphane Wirtel.

  • bpo-36345: Using the code of the Tools/scripts/serve.py script as an example in the wsgiref documentation. Contributed by Stéphane Wirtel.

  • bpo-36157: Added Documention for PyInterpreterState_Main().

  • bpo-33043: Updates the docs.python.org page with the addition of a ‘Contributing to Docs’ link at the end of the page (between ‘Reporting Bugs’ and ‘About Documentation’). Updates the ‘Found a Bug’ page with additional links and information in the Documentation Bugs section.

  • bpo-35581: @typing.type_check_only now allows type stubs to mark functions and classes not available during runtime.

  • bpo-33832: Add glossary entry for ‘magic method’.

  • bpo-32913: Added re.Match.groupdict example to regex HOWTO.

Tests

  • bpo-36719: regrtest now always detects uncollectable objects. Previously, the check was only enabled by --findleaks. The check now also works with -jN/--multiprocess N. --findleaks becomes a deprecated alias to --fail-env-changed.

  • bpo-36725: When using multiprocessing mode (-jN), regrtest now better reports errors if a worker process fails, and it exits immediately on a worker thread failure or when interrupted.

  • bpo-36454: Change test_time.test_monotonic() to test only the lower bound of elapsed time after a sleep command rather than the upper bound. This prevents unnecessary test failures on slow buildbots. Patch by Victor Stinner.

  • bpo-32424: Improve test coverage for xml.etree.ElementTree. Patch by Gordon P. Hemsley.

  • bpo-32424: Fix typo in test_cyclic_gc() test for xml.etree.ElementTree. Patch by Gordon P. Hemsley.

  • bpo-36635: Add a new _testinternalcapi module to test the internal C API.

  • bpo-36629: Fix test_imap4_host_default_value() of test_imaplib: catch also errno.ENETUNREACH error.

  • bpo-36611: Fix test_sys.test_getallocatedblocks() when tracemalloc is enabled.

  • bpo-36560: Fix reference leak hunting in regrtest: compute also deltas (of reference count, allocated memory blocks, file descriptor count) during warmup, to ensure that everything is initialized before starting to hunt reference leaks.

  • bpo-36565: Fix reference hunting (python3 -m test -R 3:3) when Python has no built-in abc module.

  • bpo-31904: Port test_resource to VxWorks: skip tests cases setting RLIMIT_FSIZE and RLIMIT_CPU.

  • bpo-31904: Fix test_tabnanny on VxWorks: adjust ENOENT error message.

  • bpo-36436: Fix _testcapi.pymem_buffer_overflow(): handle memory allocation failure.

  • bpo-31904: Fix test_utf8_mode on VxWorks: Python always use UTF-8 on VxWorks.

  • bpo-36341: Fix tests that may fail with PermissionError upon calling bind() on AF_UNIX sockets.

Build

  • bpo-36747: Remove the stale scriptsinstall Makefile target.

  • bpo-21536: On Unix, C extensions are no longer linked to libpython except on Android and Cygwin.

    It is now possible for a statically linked Python to load a C extension built using a shared library Python.

    When Python is embedded, libpython must not be loaded with RTLD_LOCAL, but RTLD_GLOBAL instead. Previously, using RTLD_LOCAL, it was already not possible to load C extensions which were not linked to libpython, such as C extensions of the standard library built by the *shared* section of Modules/Setup.

    distutils, python-config and python-config.py have been modified.

  • bpo-36707: ./configure --with-pymalloc no longer adds the m flag to SOABI (sys.implementation.cache_tag). Enabling or disabling pymalloc has no impact on the ABI.

  • bpo-36635: Change PyAPI_FUNC(type), PyAPI_DATA(type) and PyMODINIT_FUNC macros of pyport.h when Py_BUILD_CORE_MODULE is defined. The Py_BUILD_CORE_MODULE define must be now be used to build a C extension as a dynamic library accessing Python internals: export the PyInit_xxx() function in DLL exports on Windows.

  • bpo-31904: Don’t build the _crypt extension on VxWorks.

  • bpo-36618: Add -fmax-type-align=8 to CFLAGS when clang compiler is detected. The pymalloc memory allocator aligns memory on 8 bytes. On x86-64, clang expects alignment on 16 bytes by default and so uses MOVAPS instruction which can lead to segmentation fault. Instruct clang that Python is limited to alignment on 8 bytes to use MOVUPS instruction instead: slower but don’t trigger a SIGSEGV if the memory is not aligned on 16 bytes. Sadly, the flag must be added to CFLAGS and not just CFLAGS_NODIST, since third party C extensions can have the same issue.

  • bpo-36605: make tags and make TAGS now also parse Modules/_io/*.c and Modules/_io/*.h.

  • bpo-36465: Release builds and debug builds are now ABI compatible: defining the Py_DEBUG macro no longer implies the Py_TRACE_REFS macro, which introduces the only ABI incompatibility. The Py_TRACE_REFS macro, which adds the sys.getobjects() function and the PYTHONDUMPREFS environment variable, can be set using the new ./configure --with-trace-refs build option.

  • bpo-36577: setup.py now correctly reports missing OpenSSL headers and libraries again.

  • bpo-36544: Fix regression introduced in bpo-36146 refactoring setup.py

  • bpo-36508: python-config --ldflags no longer includes flags of the LINKFORSHARED variable. The LINKFORSHARED variable must only be used to build executables.

  • bpo-36503: Remove references to “aix3” and “aix4”. Patch by M. Felt.

Windows

  • bpo-35920: Added platform.win32_edition() and platform.win32_is_iot(). Added support for cross-compiling packages for Windows ARM32. Skip tests that are not expected to work on Windows IoT Core ARM32.

  • bpo-36649: Remove trailing spaces for registry keys when installed via the Store.

  • bpo-34144: Fixed activate.bat to correctly update codepage when chcp.com returns dots in output. Patch by Lorenz Mende.

  • bpo-36509: Added preset-iot layout for Windows IoT ARM containers. This layout doesn’t contain UI components like tkinter or IDLE. It also doesn’t contain files to support on-target builds since Windows ARM32 builds must be cross-compiled when using MSVC.

  • bpo-35941: enum_certificates function of the ssl module now returns certificates from all available certificate stores inside windows in a query instead of returning only certificates from the system wide certificate store. This includes certificates from these certificate stores: local machine, local machine enterprise, local machine group policy, current user, current user group policy, services, users. ssl.enum_crls() function is changed in the same way to return all certificate revocation lists inside the windows certificate revocation list stores.

  • bpo-36441: Fixes creating a venv when debug binaries are installed.

  • bpo-36085: Enable better DLL resolution on Windows by using safe DLL search paths and adding os.add_dll_directory().

  • bpo-36010: Add the venv standard library module to the nuget distribution for Windows.

  • bpo-29515: Add the following socket module constants on Windows: IPPROTO_AH IPPROTO_CBT IPPROTO_DSTOPTS IPPROTO_EGP IPPROTO_ESP IPPROTO_FRAGMENT IPPROTO_GGP IPPROTO_HOPOPTS IPPROTO_ICLFXBM IPPROTO_ICMPV6 IPPROTO_IDP IPPROTO_IGMP IPPROTO_IGP IPPROTO_IPV4 IPPROTO_IPV6 IPPROTO_L2TP IPPROTO_MAX IPPROTO_ND IPPROTO_NONE IPPROTO_PGM IPPROTO_PIM IPPROTO_PUP IPPROTO_RDP IPPROTO_ROUTING IPPROTO_SCTP IPPROTO_ST

  • bpo-35947: Added current version of libffi to cpython-source-deps. Change _ctypes to use current version of libffi on Windows.

  • bpo-34060: Report system load when running test suite on Windows. Patch by Ammar Askar. Based on prior work by Jeremy Kloth.

  • bpo-31512: With the Windows 10 Creators Update, non-elevated users can now create symlinks as long as the computer has Developer Mode enabled.

macOS

  • bpo-34602: Avoid failures setting macOS stack resource limit with resource.setrlimit. This reverts an earlier fix for bpo-18075 which forced a non-default stack size when building the interpreter executable on macOS.

IDLE

  • bpo-36429: Fix starting IDLE with pyshell. Add idlelib.pyshell alias at top; remove pyshell alias at bottom. Remove obsolete __name__==’__main__’ command.

Tools/Demos