沿革與授權

軟體沿革

Python 是由荷蘭數學和計算機科學研究學會(CWI,見 https://www.cwi.nl/)的 Guido van Rossum 於 1990 年代早期所創造,目的是作為一種稱為 ABC 語言的後繼者。儘管 Python 包含了許多來自其他人的貢獻,Guido 仍是其主要作者。

1995 年,Guido 在維吉尼亞州雷斯頓的國家創新研究公司(CNRI,見 https://www.cnri.reston.va.us/)繼續他在 Python 的工作,並在那裡發佈了該軟體的多個版本。

2000 年五月,Guido 和 Python 核心開發團隊轉移到 BeOpen.com 並成立了 BeOpen PythonLabs 團隊。同年十月,PythonLabs 團隊轉移到 Digital Creations(現為 Zope Corporation;見 https://www.zope.org/)。2001 年,Python 軟體基金會(PSF,見 https://www.python.org/psf/)成立,這是一個專為擁有 Python 相關的智慧財產權而創立的非營利組織。Zope Corporation 是 PSF 的一個贊助會員。

所有的 Python 版本都是開源的(有關開源的定義,參閱 https://opensource.org/)。歷史上,大多數但非全部的 Python 版本,也是 GPL 相容的;以下表格總結各個版本的差異。

發佈版本

源自

年份

擁有者

GPL 相容性?

0.9.0 至 1.2

不適用

1991-1995

CWI

1.3 至 1.5.2

1.2

1995-1999

CNRI

1.6

1.5.2

2000

CNRI

2.0

1.6

2000

BeOpen.com

1.6.1

1.6

2001

CNRI

2.1

2.0+1.6.1

2001

PSF

2.0.1

2.0+1.6.1

2001

PSF

2.1.1

2.1+2.0.1

2001

PSF

2.1.2

2.1.1

2002

PSF

2.1.3

2.1.2

2002

PSF

2.2 以上

2.1.1

2001 至今

PSF

備註

GPL 相容並不表示我們是在 GPL 下發佈 Python。不像 GPL,所有的 Python 授權都可以讓您發佈修改後的版本,但不一定要使您的變更成為開源。GPL 相容的授權使得 Python 可以結合其他在 GPL 下發佈的軟體一起使用;但其它的授權則不行。

感謝許多的外部志工,在 Guido 指導下的付出,使得這些版本的發佈成為可能。

關於存取或以其他方式使用 Python 的合約條款

Python 軟體和說明文件的授權是基於 PSF 授權合約

從 Python 3.8.6 開始,說明文件中的範例、程式庫和其他程式碼,是被雙重授權 (dual licensed) 於 PSF 授權合約以及 Zero-Clause BSD 授權

有些被納入 Python 中的軟體是基於不同的授權。這些授權將會與其授權之程式碼一起被列出。關於這些授權的不完整清單,請參閱被收錄軟體的授權與致謝

用於 PYTHON 3.11.8 的 PSF 授權合約

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Python Software Foundation ("PSF"), and
   the Individual or Organization ("Licensee") accessing and otherwise using Python
   3.11.8 software in source or binary form and its associated documentation.

2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, PSF hereby
   grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce,
   analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works,
   distribute, and otherwise use Python 3.11.8 alone or in any derivative
   version, provided, however, that PSF's License Agreement and PSF's notice of
   copyright, i.e., "Copyright © 2001-2023 Python Software Foundation; All Rights
   Reserved" are retained in Python 3.11.8 alone or in any derivative version
   prepared by Licensee.

3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or
   incorporates Python 3.11.8 or any part thereof, and wants to make the
   derivative work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby
   agrees to include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python
   3.11.8.

4. PSF is making Python 3.11.8 available to Licensee on an "AS IS" basis.
   PSF MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.  BY WAY OF
   EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, PSF MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR
   WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE
   USE OF PYTHON 3.11.8 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

5. PSF SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 3.11.8
   FOR ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF
   MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 3.11.8, OR ANY DERIVATIVE
   THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF.

6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of
   its terms and conditions.

7. Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship
   of agency, partnership, or joint venture between PSF and Licensee.  This License
   Agreement does not grant permission to use PSF trademarks or trade name in a
   trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any
   third party.

8. By copying, installing or otherwise using Python 3.11.8, Licensee agrees
   to be bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement.

用於 PYTHON 2.0 的 BEOPEN.COM 授權合約

BEOPEN PYTHON 開源授權合約第 1 版

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between BeOpen.com ("BeOpen"), having an office at
   160 Saratoga Avenue, Santa Clara, CA 95051, and the Individual or Organization
   ("Licensee") accessing and otherwise using this software in source or binary
   form and its associated documentation ("the Software").

2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this BeOpen Python License Agreement,
   BeOpen hereby grants Licensee a non-exclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license
   to reproduce, analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative
   works, distribute, and otherwise use the Software alone or in any derivative
   version, provided, however, that the BeOpen Python License is retained in the
   Software, alone or in any derivative version prepared by Licensee.

3. BeOpen is making the Software available to Licensee on an "AS IS" basis.
   BEOPEN MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.  BY WAY OF
   EXAMPLE, BUT NOT LIMITATION, BEOPEN MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR
   WARRANTY OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE
   USE OF THE SOFTWARE WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

4. BEOPEN SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF THE SOFTWARE FOR
   ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF USING,
   MODIFYING OR DISTRIBUTING THE SOFTWARE, OR ANY DERIVATIVE THEREOF, EVEN IF
   ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF.

5. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of
   its terms and conditions.

6. This License Agreement shall be governed by and interpreted in all respects
   by the law of the State of California, excluding conflict of law provisions.
   Nothing in this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of
   agency, partnership, or joint venture between BeOpen and Licensee.  This License
   Agreement does not grant permission to use BeOpen trademarks or trade names in a
   trademark sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any
   third party.  As an exception, the "BeOpen Python" logos available at
   http://www.pythonlabs.com/logos.html may be used according to the permissions
   granted on that web page.

7. By copying, installing or otherwise using the software, Licensee agrees to be
   bound by the terms and conditions of this License Agreement.

用於 PYTHON 1.6.1 的 CNRI 授權合約

1. This LICENSE AGREEMENT is between the Corporation for National Research
   Initiatives, having an office at 1895 Preston White Drive, Reston, VA 20191
   ("CNRI"), and the Individual or Organization ("Licensee") accessing and
   otherwise using Python 1.6.1 software in source or binary form and its
   associated documentation.

2. Subject to the terms and conditions of this License Agreement, CNRI hereby
   grants Licensee a nonexclusive, royalty-free, world-wide license to reproduce,
   analyze, test, perform and/or display publicly, prepare derivative works,
   distribute, and otherwise use Python 1.6.1 alone or in any derivative version,
   provided, however, that CNRI's License Agreement and CNRI's notice of copyright,
   i.e., "Copyright © 1995-2001 Corporation for National Research Initiatives; All
   Rights Reserved" are retained in Python 1.6.1 alone or in any derivative version
   prepared by Licensee.  Alternately, in lieu of CNRI's License Agreement,
   Licensee may substitute the following text (omitting the quotes): "Python 1.6.1
   is made available subject to the terms and conditions in CNRI's License
   Agreement.  This Agreement together with Python 1.6.1 may be located on the
   internet using the following unique, persistent identifier (known as a handle):
   1895.22/1013.  This Agreement may also be obtained from a proxy server on the
   internet using the following URL: http://hdl.handle.net/1895.22/1013."

3. In the event Licensee prepares a derivative work that is based on or
   incorporates Python 1.6.1 or any part thereof, and wants to make the derivative
   work available to others as provided herein, then Licensee hereby agrees to
   include in any such work a brief summary of the changes made to Python 1.6.1.

4. CNRI is making Python 1.6.1 available to Licensee on an "AS IS" basis.  CNRI
   MAKES NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED.  BY WAY OF EXAMPLE,
   BUT NOT LIMITATION, CNRI MAKES NO AND DISCLAIMS ANY REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY
   OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE OR THAT THE USE OF
   PYTHON 1.6.1 WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY THIRD PARTY RIGHTS.

5. CNRI SHALL NOT BE LIABLE TO LICENSEE OR ANY OTHER USERS OF PYTHON 1.6.1 FOR
   ANY INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR LOSS AS A RESULT OF
   MODIFYING, DISTRIBUTING, OR OTHERWISE USING PYTHON 1.6.1, OR ANY DERIVATIVE
   THEREOF, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY THEREOF.

6. This License Agreement will automatically terminate upon a material breach of
   its terms and conditions.

7. This License Agreement shall be governed by the federal intellectual property
   law of the United States, including without limitation the federal copyright
   law, and, to the extent such U.S. federal law does not apply, by the law of the
   Commonwealth of Virginia, excluding Virginia's conflict of law provisions.
   Notwithstanding the foregoing, with regard to derivative works based on Python
   1.6.1 that incorporate non-separable material that was previously distributed
   under the GNU General Public License (GPL), the law of the Commonwealth of
   Virginia shall govern this License Agreement only as to issues arising under or
   with respect to Paragraphs 4, 5, and 7 of this License Agreement.  Nothing in
   this License Agreement shall be deemed to create any relationship of agency,
   partnership, or joint venture between CNRI and Licensee.  This License Agreement
   does not grant permission to use CNRI trademarks or trade name in a trademark
   sense to endorse or promote products or services of Licensee, or any third
   party.

8. By clicking on the "ACCEPT" button where indicated, or by copying, installing
   or otherwise using Python 1.6.1, Licensee agrees to be bound by the terms and
   conditions of this License Agreement.

用於 PYTHON 0.9.0 至 1.2 的 CWI 授權合約

Copyright © 1991 - 1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum Amsterdam, The
Netherlands.  All rights reserved.

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted, provided that
the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that both that copyright
notice and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation, and that
the name of Stichting Mathematisch Centrum or CWI not be used in advertising or
publicity pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written
prior permission.

STICHTING MATHEMATISCH CENTRUM DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS
SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN NO
EVENT SHALL STICHTING MATHEMATISCH CENTRUM BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE,
DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS
ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS
SOFTWARE.

用於 PYTHON 3.11.8 說明文件內程式碼的 ZERO-CLAUSE BSD 授權

Permission to use, copy, modify, and/or distribute this software for any
purpose with or without fee is hereby granted.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS" AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH
REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY
AND FITNESS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, DIRECT,
INDIRECT, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR
OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR
PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

被收錄軟體的授權與致謝

本節是一個不完整但持續增加的授權與致謝清單,對象是在 Python 發佈版本中所收錄的第三方軟體。

Mersenne Twister

_random 模組包含了以 http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~m-mat/MT/MT2002/emt19937ar.html 的下載內容為基礎的程式碼。以下是原始程式碼的完整聲明:

A C-program for MT19937, with initialization improved 2002/1/26.
Coded by Takuji Nishimura and Makoto Matsumoto.

Before using, initialize the state by using init_genrand(seed)
or init_by_array(init_key, key_length).

Copyright (C) 1997 - 2002, Makoto Matsumoto and Takuji Nishimura,
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

 1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

 2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
    documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

 3. The names of its contributors may not be used to endorse or promote
    products derived from this software without specific prior written
    permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR
PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS
SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.


Any feedback is very welcome.
http://www.math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/~m-mat/MT/emt.html
email: m-mat @ math.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp (remove space)

Sockets

socket 使用了 getaddrinfo()getnameinfo() WIDE 项目的不同源文件中: https://www.wide.ad.jp/

Copyright (C) 1995, 1996, 1997, and 1998 WIDE Project.
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
3. Neither the name of the project nor the names of its contributors
   may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software
   without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE PROJECT AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE PROJECT OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.

非同步 socket 服務

asynchatasyncore 模組包含以下聲明:

Copyright 1996 by Sam Rushing

                        All Rights Reserved

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and
its documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby
granted, provided that the above copyright notice appear in all
copies and that both that copyright notice and this permission
notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of Sam
Rushing not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
distribution of the software without specific, written prior
permission.

SAM RUSHING DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO THIS SOFTWARE,
INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS, IN
NO EVENT SHALL SAM RUSHING BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR
CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS
OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

執行追蹤

trace 模組包含以下聲明:

portions copyright 2001, Autonomous Zones Industries, Inc., all rights...
err...  reserved and offered to the public under the terms of the
Python 2.2 license.
Author: Zooko O'Whielacronx
http://zooko.com/
mailto:zooko@zooko.com

Copyright 2000, Mojam Media, Inc., all rights reserved.
Author: Skip Montanaro

Copyright 1999, Bioreason, Inc., all rights reserved.
Author: Andrew Dalke

Copyright 1995-1997, Automatrix, Inc., all rights reserved.
Author: Skip Montanaro

Copyright 1991-1995, Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, all rights reserved.


Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this Python software and
its associated documentation for any purpose without fee is hereby
granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in all copies,
and that both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation, and that the name of neither Automatrix,
Bioreason or Mojam Media be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to
distribution of the software without specific, written prior permission.

UUencode 與 UUdecode 函式

uu 模組包含以下聲明:

Copyright 1994 by Lance Ellinghouse
Cathedral City, California Republic, United States of America.
                       All Rights Reserved
Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and its
documentation for any purpose and without fee is hereby granted,
provided that the above copyright notice appear in all copies and that
both that copyright notice and this permission notice appear in
supporting documentation, and that the name of Lance Ellinghouse
not be used in advertising or publicity pertaining to distribution
of the software without specific, written prior permission.
LANCE ELLINGHOUSE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD TO
THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND
FITNESS, IN NO EVENT SHALL LANCE ELLINGHOUSE CENTRUM BE LIABLE
FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY DAMAGES
WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN
ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT
OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.

Modified by Jack Jansen, CWI, July 1995:
- Use binascii module to do the actual line-by-line conversion
  between ascii and binary. This results in a 1000-fold speedup. The C
  version is still 5 times faster, though.
- Arguments more compliant with Python standard

XML 遠端程序呼叫

xmlrpc.client 模組包含以下聲明:

    The XML-RPC client interface is

Copyright (c) 1999-2002 by Secret Labs AB
Copyright (c) 1999-2002 by Fredrik Lundh

By obtaining, using, and/or copying this software and/or its
associated documentation, you agree that you have read, understood,
and will comply with the following terms and conditions:

Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software and
its associated documentation for any purpose and without fee is
hereby granted, provided that the above copyright notice appears in
all copies, and that both that copyright notice and this permission
notice appear in supporting documentation, and that the name of
Secret Labs AB or the author not be used in advertising or publicity
pertaining to distribution of the software without specific, written
prior permission.

SECRET LABS AB AND THE AUTHOR DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES WITH REGARD
TO THIS SOFTWARE, INCLUDING ALL IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANT-
ABILITY AND FITNESS.  IN NO EVENT SHALL SECRET LABS AB OR THE AUTHOR
BE LIABLE FOR ANY SPECIAL, INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES OR ANY
DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS
ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE
OF THIS SOFTWARE.

test_epoll

test.test_epoll 模块包含以下说明:

Copyright (c) 2001-2006 Twisted Matrix Laboratories.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Select kqueue

select 模組對於 kqueue 介面包含以下聲明:

Copyright (c) 2000 Doug White, 2006 James Knight, 2007 Christian Heimes
All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:
1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS ``AS IS'' AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.

SipHash24

Python/pyhash.c 檔案包含 Marek Majkowski' 基於 Dan Bernstein 的 SipHash24 演算法的實作。它包含以下聲明:

<MIT License>
Copyright (c) 2013  Marek Majkowski <marek@popcount.org>

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
</MIT License>

Original location:
   https://github.com/majek/csiphash/

Solution inspired by code from:
   Samuel Neves (supercop/crypto_auth/siphash24/little)
   djb (supercop/crypto_auth/siphash24/little2)
   Jean-Philippe Aumasson (https://131002.net/siphash/siphash24.c)

strtod 與 dtoa

Python/dtoa.c 檔案提供了 C 的 dtoa 和 strtod 函式,用於將 C 的雙精度浮點數和字串互相轉換。該檔案是衍生自 David M. Gay 建立的同名檔案,後者現在可以從 https://web.archive.org/web/20220517033456/http://www.netlib.org/fp/dtoa.c 下載。於 2009 年 3 月 16 日所檢索的原始檔案包含以下版權與授權聲明:

/****************************************************************
 *
 * The author of this software is David M. Gay.
 *
 * Copyright (c) 1991, 2000, 2001 by Lucent Technologies.
 *
 * Permission to use, copy, modify, and distribute this software for any
 * purpose without fee is hereby granted, provided that this entire notice
 * is included in all copies of any software which is or includes a copy
 * or modification of this software and in all copies of the supporting
 * documentation for such software.
 *
 * THIS SOFTWARE IS BEING PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
 * WARRANTY.  IN PARTICULAR, NEITHER THE AUTHOR NOR LUCENT MAKES ANY
 * REPRESENTATION OR WARRANTY OF ANY KIND CONCERNING THE MERCHANTABILITY
 * OF THIS SOFTWARE OR ITS FITNESS FOR ANY PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
 *
 ***************************************************************/

OpenSSL

如果操作系统提供支持,则 hashlib, posix, ssl, crypt 模块会使用 OpenSSL 库来提高性能。 此外,Python 的 Windows 和 macOS 安装程序可能会包括 OpenSSL 库的副本,所以我们也在此包括一份 OpenSSL 许可证的副本。 对于 OpenSSL 3.0 版及其后续衍生版本,均使用 Apache 许可证 v2:

                              Apache License
                        Version 2.0, January 2004
                     https://www.apache.org/licenses/

TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR USE, REPRODUCTION, AND DISTRIBUTION

1. Definitions.

   "License" shall mean the terms and conditions for use, reproduction,
   and distribution as defined by Sections 1 through 9 of this document.

   "Licensor" shall mean the copyright owner or entity authorized by
   the copyright owner that is granting the License.

   "Legal Entity" shall mean the union of the acting entity and all
   other entities that control, are controlled by, or are under common
   control with that entity. For the purposes of this definition,
   "control" means (i) the power, direct or indirect, to cause the
   direction or management of such entity, whether by contract or
   otherwise, or (ii) ownership of fifty percent (50%) or more of the
   outstanding shares, or (iii) beneficial ownership of such entity.

   "You" (or "Your") shall mean an individual or Legal Entity
   exercising permissions granted by this License.

   "Source" form shall mean the preferred form for making modifications,
   including but not limited to software source code, documentation
   source, and configuration files.

   "Object" form shall mean any form resulting from mechanical
   transformation or translation of a Source form, including but
   not limited to compiled object code, generated documentation,
   and conversions to other media types.

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expat

pyexpat 扩展是使用所包括的 expat 源副本来构建的,除非配置了 --with-system-expat:

Copyright (c) 1998, 1999, 2000 Thai Open Source Software Center Ltd
                               and Clark Cooper

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.
IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY
CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT,
TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE
SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

libffi

除非在建置 _ctypes 擴充時設定為 --with-system-libffi,否則該擴充會用一個內含 libffi 原始碼的副本來建置:

Copyright (c) 1996-2008  Red Hat, Inc and others.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
``Software''), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included
in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED ``AS IS'', WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT
HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY,
WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER
DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

zlib

如果在系統上找到的 zlib 版本太舊以致於無法用於建置 zlib 擴充,則該擴充會用一個內含 zlib 原始碼的副本來建置:

Copyright (C) 1995-2011 Jean-loup Gailly and Mark Adler

This software is provided 'as-is', without any express or implied
warranty.  In no event will the authors be held liable for any damages
arising from the use of this software.

Permission is granted to anyone to use this software for any purpose,
including commercial applications, and to alter it and redistribute it
freely, subject to the following restrictions:

1. The origin of this software must not be misrepresented; you must not
   claim that you wrote the original software. If you use this software
   in a product, an acknowledgment in the product documentation would be
   appreciated but is not required.

2. Altered source versions must be plainly marked as such, and must not be
   misrepresented as being the original software.

3. This notice may not be removed or altered from any source distribution.

Jean-loup Gailly        Mark Adler
jloup@gzip.org          madler@alumni.caltech.edu

cfuhash

tracemalloc 使用的雜湊表 (hash table) 實作,是以 cfuhash 專案為基礎:

Copyright (c) 2005 Don Owens
All rights reserved.

This code is released under the BSD license:

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

  * Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
    notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

  * Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
    copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
    disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
    with the distribution.

  * Neither the name of the author nor the names of its
    contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived
    from this software without specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
(INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR
SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT,
STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE)
ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED
OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

libmpdec

除非在建置 _decimal 模組時設定為 --with-system-libmpdec,否則該模組會用一個內含 libmpdec 函式庫的副本來建置:

Copyright (c) 2008-2020 Stefan Krah. All rights reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

1. Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.

2. Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright
   notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
   documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE AUTHOR AND CONTRIBUTORS "AS IS" AND
ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE
IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE
ARE DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHOR OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE
FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL
DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION)
HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT
LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF
SUCH DAMAGE.

W3C C14N 測試套件

test 程式包中的 C14N 2.0 測試套件 (Lib/test/xmltestdata/c14n-20/) 是從 W3C 網站 https://www.w3.org/TR/xml-c14n2-testcases/ 被檢索,且是基於 3-clause BSD 授權被發佈:

Copyright (c) 2013 W3C(R) (MIT, ERCIM, Keio, Beihang),
All Rights Reserved.

Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
are met:

* Redistributions of works must retain the original copyright notice,
  this list of conditions and the following disclaimer.
* Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the original copyright
  notice, this list of conditions and the following disclaimer in the
  documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
* Neither the name of the W3C nor the names of its contributors may be
  used to endorse or promote products derived from this work without
  specific prior written permission.

THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR
A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL,
SPECIAL, EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT
LIMITED TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY
THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT
(INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE
OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

audioop

audioop 模块使用了 SoX 项目的 g771.c 文件中的基础代码。 https://sourceforge.net/projects/sox/files/sox/12.17.7/sox-12.17.7.tar.gz

此源代码是 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 的产品并可供无限制地使用。 用户可以拷贝或修改此源代码而无须付费。

SUN SOURCE CODE IS PROVIDED AS IS WITH NO WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND INCLUDING THE WARRANTIES OF DESIGN, MERCHANTIBILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR ARISING FROM A COURSE OF DEALING, USAGE OR TRADE PRACTICE.

提供的 Sun 源代码不附带技术支持并且 Sun Microsystems, Inc. 也没有义务协助其使用、排错、修改或增强。

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Sun Microsystems, Inc. 2550 Garcia Avenue Mountain View, California 94043

asyncio

asyncio 模块的某些部分来自 uvloop 0.16,它是基于 MIT 许可证发行的:

Copyright (c) 2015-2021 MagicStack Inc.  http://magic.io

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining
a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the
"Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish,
distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to
permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be
included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND,
EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND
NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE
LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION
WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.