uuid --- UUID objects according to RFC 4122

Source code: Lib/uuid.py


这个模块提供了不可变的 UUID 对象 (UUID 类) 和 uuid1(), uuid3(), uuid4(), uuid5() 等函数用于生成 RFC 4122 所定义的第 1, 3, 4 和 5 版 UUID。

If all you want is a unique ID, you should probably call uuid1() or uuid4(). Note that uuid1() may compromise privacy since it creates a UUID containing the computer's network address. uuid4() creates a random UUID.

Depending on support from the underlying platform, uuid1() may or may not return a "safe" UUID. A safe UUID is one which is generated using synchronization methods that ensure no two processes can obtain the same UUID. All instances of UUID have an is_safe attribute which relays any information about the UUID's safety, using this enumeration:

class uuid.SafeUUID

3.7 新版功能.

safe

The UUID was generated by the platform in a multiprocessing-safe way.

unsafe

The UUID was not generated in a multiprocessing-safe way.

unknown

The platform does not provide information on whether the UUID was generated safely or not.

class uuid.UUID(hex=None, bytes=None, bytes_le=None, fields=None, int=None, version=None, *, is_safe=SafeUUID.unknown)

Create a UUID from either a string of 32 hexadecimal digits, a string of 16 bytes in big-endian order as the bytes argument, a string of 16 bytes in little-endian order as the bytes_le argument, a tuple of six integers (32-bit time_low, 16-bit time_mid, 16-bit time_hi_version, 8-bit clock_seq_hi_variant, 8-bit clock_seq_low, 48-bit node) as the fields argument, or a single 128-bit integer as the int argument. When a string of hex digits is given, curly braces, hyphens, and a URN prefix are all optional. For example, these expressions all yield the same UUID:

UUID('{12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678}')
UUID('12345678123456781234567812345678')
UUID('urn:uuid:12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678')
UUID(bytes=b'\x12\x34\x56\x78'*4)
UUID(bytes_le=b'\x78\x56\x34\x12\x34\x12\x78\x56' +
              b'\x12\x34\x56\x78\x12\x34\x56\x78')
UUID(fields=(0x12345678, 0x1234, 0x5678, 0x12, 0x34, 0x567812345678))
UUID(int=0x12345678123456781234567812345678)

Exactly one of hex, bytes, bytes_le, fields, or int must be given. The version argument is optional; if given, the resulting UUID will have its variant and version number set according to RFC 4122, overriding bits in the given hex, bytes, bytes_le, fields, or int.

Comparison of UUID objects are made by way of comparing their UUID.int attributes. Comparison with a non-UUID object raises a TypeError.

str(uuid) returns a string in the form 12345678-1234-5678-1234-567812345678 where the 32 hexadecimal digits represent the UUID.

UUID instances have these read-only attributes:

UUID.bytes

The UUID as a 16-byte string (containing the six integer fields in big-endian byte order).

UUID.bytes_le

The UUID as a 16-byte string (with time_low, time_mid, and time_hi_version in little-endian byte order).

UUID.fields

以元组形式存放的UUID的6个整数域,有六个单独的属性和两个派生属性:

意义

time_low

UUID的前32位

time_mid

接前一域的16位

time_hi_version

接前一域的16位

clock_seq_hi_variant

接前一域的8位

clock_seq_low

接前一域的8位

node

UUID的最后48位

time

UUID的总长60位的时间戳

clock_seq

14位的序列号

UUID.hex

The UUID as a 32-character hexadecimal string.

UUID.int

The UUID as a 128-bit integer.

UUID.urn

RFC 4122 中定义的 URN 形式的 UUID。

UUID.variant

The UUID variant, which determines the internal layout of the UUID. This will be one of the constants RESERVED_NCS, RFC_4122, RESERVED_MICROSOFT, or RESERVED_FUTURE.

UUID.version

The UUID version number (1 through 5, meaningful only when the variant is RFC_4122).

UUID.is_safe

An enumeration of SafeUUID which indicates whether the platform generated the UUID in a multiprocessing-safe way.

3.7 新版功能.

The uuid module defines the following functions:

uuid.getnode()

Get the hardware address as a 48-bit positive integer. The first time this runs, it may launch a separate program, which could be quite slow. If all attempts to obtain the hardware address fail, we choose a random 48-bit number with the multicast bit (least significant bit of the first octet) set to 1 as recommended in RFC 4122. "Hardware address" means the MAC address of a network interface. On a machine with multiple network interfaces, universally administered MAC addresses (i.e. where the second least significant bit of the first octet is unset) will be preferred over locally administered MAC addresses, but with no other ordering guarantees.

在 3.7 版更改: Universally administered MAC addresses are preferred over locally administered MAC addresses, since the former are guaranteed to be globally unique, while the latter are not.

uuid.uuid1(node=None, clock_seq=None)

Generate a UUID from a host ID, sequence number, and the current time. If node is not given, getnode() is used to obtain the hardware address. If clock_seq is given, it is used as the sequence number; otherwise a random 14-bit sequence number is chosen.

uuid.uuid3(namespace, name)

Generate a UUID based on the MD5 hash of a namespace identifier (which is a UUID) and a name (which is a string).

uuid.uuid4()

Generate a random UUID.

uuid.uuid5(namespace, name)

Generate a UUID based on the SHA-1 hash of a namespace identifier (which is a UUID) and a name (which is a string).

The uuid module defines the following namespace identifiers for use with uuid3() or uuid5().

uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS

When this namespace is specified, the name string is a fully-qualified domain name.

uuid.NAMESPACE_URL

When this namespace is specified, the name string is a URL.

uuid.NAMESPACE_OID

When this namespace is specified, the name string is an ISO OID.

uuid.NAMESPACE_X500

When this namespace is specified, the name string is an X.500 DN in DER or a text output format.

The uuid module defines the following constants for the possible values of the variant attribute:

uuid.RESERVED_NCS

Reserved for NCS compatibility.

uuid.RFC_4122

Specifies the UUID layout given in RFC 4122.

uuid.RESERVED_MICROSOFT

为微软的兼容性保留。

uuid.RESERVED_FUTURE

Reserved for future definition.

参见

RFC 4122 - A Universally Unique IDentifier (UUID) URN Namespace

This specification defines a Uniform Resource Name namespace for UUIDs, the internal format of UUIDs, and methods of generating UUIDs.

示例

Here are some examples of typical usage of the uuid module:

>>> import uuid

>>> # make a UUID based on the host ID and current time
>>> uuid.uuid1()
UUID('a8098c1a-f86e-11da-bd1a-00112444be1e')

>>> # make a UUID using an MD5 hash of a namespace UUID and a name
>>> uuid.uuid3(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, 'python.org')
UUID('6fa459ea-ee8a-3ca4-894e-db77e160355e')

>>> # make a random UUID
>>> uuid.uuid4()
UUID('16fd2706-8baf-433b-82eb-8c7fada847da')

>>> # make a UUID using a SHA-1 hash of a namespace UUID and a name
>>> uuid.uuid5(uuid.NAMESPACE_DNS, 'python.org')
UUID('886313e1-3b8a-5372-9b90-0c9aee199e5d')

>>> # make a UUID from a string of hex digits (braces and hyphens ignored)
>>> x = uuid.UUID('{00010203-0405-0607-0809-0a0b0c0d0e0f}')

>>> # convert a UUID to a string of hex digits in standard form
>>> str(x)
'00010203-0405-0607-0809-0a0b0c0d0e0f'

>>> # get the raw 16 bytes of the UUID
>>> x.bytes
b'\x00\x01\x02\x03\x04\x05\x06\x07\x08\t\n\x0b\x0c\r\x0e\x0f'

>>> # make a UUID from a 16-byte string
>>> uuid.UUID(bytes=x.bytes)
UUID('00010203-0405-0607-0809-0a0b0c0d0e0f')