ipaddress --- IPv4/IPv6 操作库

源代码: Lib/ipaddress.py


ipaddress 提供了创建、处理和操作 IPv4 和 IPv6 地址和网络的功能。

该模块中的函数和类可以直接处理与IP地址相关的各种任务,包括检查两个主机是否在同一个子网中,遍历某个子网中的所有主机,检查一个字符串是否是一个有效的IP地址或网络定义等等。

这是完整的模块 API 参考—若要查看概述,请见 ipaddress模块介绍.

3.3 新版功能.

方便的工厂函数

ipaddress 模块提供来工厂函数来方便地创建 IP 地址,网络和接口:

ipaddress.ip_address(address)

返回一个 IPv4AddressIPv6Address 对象,取决于作为参数传递的 IP 地址。可以提供IPv4或IPv6地址,小于 2**32 的整数默认被认为是 IPv4。如果 address 不是有效的 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址,则会抛出 ValueError

>>> ipaddress.ip_address('192.168.0.1')
IPv4Address('192.168.0.1')
>>> ipaddress.ip_address('2001:db8::')
IPv6Address('2001:db8::')
ipaddress.ip_network(address, strict=True)

返回一个 IPv4NetworkIPv6Network 对象,具体取决于作为参数传入的 IP 地址。 address 是表示 IP 网址的字符串或整数。 可以提供 IPv4 或 IPv6 网址;小于 2**32 的整数默认被视为 IPv4。 strict 会被传给 IPv4NetworkIPv6Network 构造器。 如果 address 不表示有效的 IPv4 或 IPv6 网址,或者网络设置了 host 比特位,则会引发 ValueError

>>> ipaddress.ip_network('192.168.0.0/28')
IPv4Network('192.168.0.0/28')
ipaddress.ip_interface(address)

返回一个 IPv4InterfaceIPv6Interface 对象,取决于作为参数传递的 IP 地址。 address 是代表 IP 地址的字符串或整数。 可以提供 IPv4 或 IPv6 地址,小于 2**32 的整数默认认为是 IPv4。 如果 address 不是有效的IPv4 或 IPv6 地址,则会抛出一个 ValueError

这些方便的函数的一个缺点是需要同时处理IPv4和IPv6格式,这意味着提供的错误信息并不精准,因为函数不知道是打算采用IPv4还是IPv6格式。更详细的错误报告可以通过直接调用相应版本的类构造函数来获得。

IP 地址

地址对象

IPv4AddressIPv6Address 对象有很多共同的属性。一些只对IPv6 地址有意义的属性也在 IPv4Address 对象实现,以便更容易编写正确处理两种 IP 版本的代码。地址对象是可哈希的 hashable,所以它们可以作为字典中的键来使用。

class ipaddress.IPv4Address(address)

构造一个 IPv4 地址。 如果 address 不是一个有效的 IPv4 地址,会抛出 AddressValueError

以下是有效的 IPv4 地址:

  1. 以十进制小数点表示的字符串,由四个十进制整数组成,范围为0--255,用点隔开(例如 192.168.0.1 )。每个整数代表地址中的八位(一个字节)。不允许使用前导零,以免与八进制表示产生歧义。

  2. 一个32位可容纳的整数。

  3. 一个长度为 4 的封装在 bytes 对象中的整数(高位优先)。

>>> ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.168.0.1')
IPv4Address('192.168.0.1')
>>> ipaddress.IPv4Address(3232235521)
IPv4Address('192.168.0.1')
>>> ipaddress.IPv4Address(b'\xC0\xA8\x00\x01')
IPv4Address('192.168.0.1')

在 3.8 版更改: 前导零可被接受,即使是在可能与八进制表示混淆的情况下也会被接受。

在 3.10 版更改: 前导零不再被接受,并且会被视作错误。IPv4地址字符串现在严格按照glibc的 inet_pton() 函数进行解析。

在 3.9.5 版更改: 上述变更也在自3.9.5版本起的Python 3.9当中被包含。

在 3.8.12 版更改: The above change was also included in Python 3.8 starting with version 3.8.12.

version

合适的版本号:IPv4为 4 ,IPv6为 6

max_prefixlen

在该版本的地址表示中,比特数的总数:IPv4为 32 ;IPv6为 128

The prefix defines the number of leading bits in an address that are compared to determine whether or not an address is part of a network.

compressed
exploded

The string representation in dotted decimal notation. Leading zeroes are never included in the representation.

As IPv4 does not define a shorthand notation for addresses with octets set to zero, these two attributes are always the same as str(addr) for IPv4 addresses. Exposing these attributes makes it easier to write display code that can handle both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.

packed

The binary representation of this address - a bytes object of the appropriate length (most significant octet first). This is 4 bytes for IPv4 and 16 bytes for IPv6.

reverse_pointer

The name of the reverse DNS PTR record for the IP address, e.g.:

>>> ipaddress.ip_address("127.0.0.1").reverse_pointer
'1.0.0.127.in-addr.arpa'
>>> ipaddress.ip_address("2001:db8::1").reverse_pointer
'1.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.0.8.b.d.0.1.0.0.2.ip6.arpa'

This is the name that could be used for performing a PTR lookup, not the resolved hostname itself.

3.5 新版功能.

is_multicast

如果该地址被保留用作多播用途,返回 True 。关于多播地址,请参见 RFC 3171 (IPv4)和 RFC 2373 (IPv6)。

is_private

如果该地址被分配至私有网络,返回 True 。关于公共网络,请参见 iana-ipv4-special-registry (针对IPv4)和 iana-ipv6-special-registry (针对IPv6)。

is_global

如果该地址被分配至公共网络,返回 True 。关于公共网络,请参见 iana-ipv4-special-registry (针对IPv4)和 iana-ipv6-special-registry (针对IPv6)。

3.4 新版功能.

is_unspecified

True if the address is unspecified. See RFC 5735 (for IPv4) or RFC 2373 (for IPv6).

is_reserved

如果该地址属于互联网工程任务组(IETF)所规定的其他保留地址,返回 True

is_loopback

如果该地址为一个回环地址,返回 True 。关于回环地址,请见 RFC 3330 (IPv4)和 RFC 2373 (IPv6)。

True if the address is reserved for link-local usage. See RFC 3927.

IPv4Address.__format__(fmt)

Returns a string representation of the IP address, controlled by an explicit format string. fmt can be one of the following: 's', the default option, equivalent to str(), 'b' for a zero-padded binary string, 'X' or 'x' for an uppercase or lowercase hexadecimal representation, or 'n', which is equivalent to 'b' for IPv4 addresses and 'x' for IPv6. For binary and hexadecimal representations, the form specifier '#' and the grouping option '_' are available. __format__ is used by format, str.format and f-strings.

>>> format(ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.168.0.1'))
'192.168.0.1'
>>> '{:#b}'.format(ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.168.0.1'))
'0b11000000101010000000000000000001'
>>> f'{ipaddress.IPv6Address("2001:db8::1000"):s}'
'2001:db8::1000'
>>> format(ipaddress.IPv6Address('2001:db8::1000'), '_X')
'2001_0DB8_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_1000'
>>> '{:#_n}'.format(ipaddress.IPv6Address('2001:db8::1000'))
'0x2001_0db8_0000_0000_0000_0000_0000_1000'

3.9 新版功能.

class ipaddress.IPv6Address(address)

构造一个 IPv6 地址。 如果 address 不是一个有效的 IPv6 地址,会抛出 AddressValueError

以下是有效的 IPv6 地址:

  1. A string consisting of eight groups of four hexadecimal digits, each group representing 16 bits. The groups are separated by colons. This describes an exploded (longhand) notation. The string can also be compressed (shorthand notation) by various means. See RFC 4291 for details. For example, "0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0abc:0007:0def" can be compressed to "::abc:7:def".

    Optionally, the string may also have a scope zone ID, expressed with a suffix %scope_id. If present, the scope ID must be non-empty, and may not contain %. See RFC 4007 for details. For example, fe80::1234%1 might identify address fe80::1234 on the first link of the node.

  2. An integer that fits into 128 bits.

  3. An integer packed into a bytes object of length 16, big-endian.

>>> ipaddress.IPv6Address('2001:db8::1000')
IPv6Address('2001:db8::1000')
>>> ipaddress.IPv6Address('ff02::5678%1')
IPv6Address('ff02::5678%1')
compressed

The short form of the address representation, with leading zeroes in groups omitted and the longest sequence of groups consisting entirely of zeroes collapsed to a single empty group.

This is also the value returned by str(addr) for IPv6 addresses.

exploded

The long form of the address representation, with all leading zeroes and groups consisting entirely of zeroes included.

For the following attributes and methods, see the corresponding documentation of the IPv4Address class:

packed
reverse_pointer
version
max_prefixlen
is_multicast
is_private
is_global
is_unspecified
is_reserved
is_loopback

3.4 新版功能: is_global

is_site_local

True if the address is reserved for site-local usage. Note that the site-local address space has been deprecated by RFC 3879. Use is_private to test if this address is in the space of unique local addresses as defined by RFC 4193.

ipv4_mapped

For addresses that appear to be IPv4 mapped addresses (starting with ::FFFF/96), this property will report the embedded IPv4 address. For any other address, this property will be None.

scope_id

For scoped addresses as defined by RFC 4007, this property identifies the particular zone of the address's scope that the address belongs to, as a string. When no scope zone is specified, this property will be None.

sixtofour

For addresses that appear to be 6to4 addresses (starting with 2002::/16) as defined by RFC 3056, this property will report the embedded IPv4 address. For any other address, this property will be None.

teredo

For addresses that appear to be Teredo addresses (starting with 2001::/32) as defined by RFC 4380, this property will report the embedded (server, client) IP address pair. For any other address, this property will be None.

IPv6Address.__format__(fmt)

Refer to the corresponding method documentation in IPv4Address.

3.9 新版功能.

Conversion to Strings and Integers

To interoperate with networking interfaces such as the socket module, addresses must be converted to strings or integers. This is handled using the str() and int() builtin functions:

>>> str(ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.168.0.1'))
'192.168.0.1'
>>> int(ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.168.0.1'))
3232235521
>>> str(ipaddress.IPv6Address('::1'))
'::1'
>>> int(ipaddress.IPv6Address('::1'))
1

Note that IPv6 scoped addresses are converted to integers without scope zone ID.

运算符

Address objects support some operators. Unless stated otherwise, operators can only be applied between compatible objects (i.e. IPv4 with IPv4, IPv6 with IPv6).

比较运算符

Address objects can be compared with the usual set of comparison operators. Same IPv6 addresses with different scope zone IDs are not equal. Some examples:

>>> IPv4Address('127.0.0.2') > IPv4Address('127.0.0.1')
True
>>> IPv4Address('127.0.0.2') == IPv4Address('127.0.0.1')
False
>>> IPv4Address('127.0.0.2') != IPv4Address('127.0.0.1')
True
>>> IPv6Address('fe80::1234') == IPv6Address('fe80::1234%1')
False
>>> IPv6Address('fe80::1234%1') != IPv6Address('fe80::1234%2')
True

算术运算符

Integers can be added to or subtracted from address objects. Some examples:

>>> IPv4Address('127.0.0.2') + 3
IPv4Address('127.0.0.5')
>>> IPv4Address('127.0.0.2') - 3
IPv4Address('126.255.255.255')
>>> IPv4Address('255.255.255.255') + 1
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
ipaddress.AddressValueError: 4294967296 (>= 2**32) is not permitted as an IPv4 address

IP网络的定义

The IPv4Network and IPv6Network objects provide a mechanism for defining and inspecting IP network definitions. A network definition consists of a mask and a network address, and as such defines a range of IP addresses that equal the network address when masked (binary AND) with the mask. For example, a network definition with the mask 255.255.255.0 and the network address 192.168.1.0 consists of IP addresses in the inclusive range 192.168.1.0 to 192.168.1.255.

Prefix, net mask and host mask

There are several equivalent ways to specify IP network masks. A prefix /<nbits> is a notation that denotes how many high-order bits are set in the network mask. A net mask is an IP address with some number of high-order bits set. Thus the prefix /24 is equivalent to the net mask 255.255.255.0 in IPv4, or ffff:ff00:: in IPv6. In addition, a host mask is the logical inverse of a net mask, and is sometimes used (for example in Cisco access control lists) to denote a network mask. The host mask equivalent to /24 in IPv4 is 0.0.0.255.

Network objects

All attributes implemented by address objects are implemented by network objects as well. In addition, network objects implement additional attributes. All of these are common between IPv4Network and IPv6Network, so to avoid duplication they are only documented for IPv4Network. Network objects are hashable, so they can be used as keys in dictionaries.

class ipaddress.IPv4Network(address, strict=True)

Construct an IPv4 network definition. address can be one of the following:

  1. A string consisting of an IP address and an optional mask, separated by a slash (/). The IP address is the network address, and the mask can be either a single number, which means it's a prefix, or a string representation of an IPv4 address. If it's the latter, the mask is interpreted as a net mask if it starts with a non-zero field, or as a host mask if it starts with a zero field, with the single exception of an all-zero mask which is treated as a net mask. If no mask is provided, it's considered to be /32.

    For example, the following address specifications are equivalent: 192.168.1.0/24, 192.168.1.0/255.255.255.0 and 192.168.1.0/0.0.0.255.

  2. An integer that fits into 32 bits. This is equivalent to a single-address network, with the network address being address and the mask being /32.

  3. An integer packed into a bytes object of length 4, big-endian. The interpretation is similar to an integer address.

  4. A two-tuple of an address description and a netmask, where the address description is either a string, a 32-bits integer, a 4-bytes packed integer, or an existing IPv4Address object; and the netmask is either an integer representing the prefix length (e.g. 24) or a string representing the prefix mask (e.g. 255.255.255.0).

An AddressValueError is raised if address is not a valid IPv4 address. A NetmaskValueError is raised if the mask is not valid for an IPv4 address.

If strict is True and host bits are set in the supplied address, then ValueError is raised. Otherwise, the host bits are masked out to determine the appropriate network address.

Unless stated otherwise, all network methods accepting other network/address objects will raise TypeError if the argument's IP version is incompatible to self.

在 3.5 版更改: Added the two-tuple form for the address constructor parameter.

version
max_prefixlen

Refer to the corresponding attribute documentation in IPv4Address.

is_multicast
is_private
is_unspecified
is_reserved
is_loopback

These attributes are true for the network as a whole if they are true for both the network address and the broadcast address.

network_address

The network address for the network. The network address and the prefix length together uniquely define a network.

broadcast_address

The broadcast address for the network. Packets sent to the broadcast address should be received by every host on the network.

hostmask

The host mask, as an IPv4Address object.

netmask

The net mask, as an IPv4Address object.

with_prefixlen
compressed
exploded

A string representation of the network, with the mask in prefix notation.

with_prefixlen and compressed are always the same as str(network). exploded uses the exploded form the network address.

with_netmask

A string representation of the network, with the mask in net mask notation.

with_hostmask

A string representation of the network, with the mask in host mask notation.

num_addresses

The total number of addresses in the network.

prefixlen

Length of the network prefix, in bits.

hosts()

Returns an iterator over the usable hosts in the network. The usable hosts are all the IP addresses that belong to the network, except the network address itself and the network broadcast address. For networks with a mask length of 31, the network address and network broadcast address are also included in the result. Networks with a mask of 32 will return a list containing the single host address.

>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/29').hosts())  
[IPv4Address('192.0.2.1'), IPv4Address('192.0.2.2'),
 IPv4Address('192.0.2.3'), IPv4Address('192.0.2.4'),
 IPv4Address('192.0.2.5'), IPv4Address('192.0.2.6')]
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/31').hosts())
[IPv4Address('192.0.2.0'), IPv4Address('192.0.2.1')]
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.1/32').hosts())
[IPv4Address('192.0.2.1')]
overlaps(other)

True if this network is partly or wholly contained in other or other is wholly contained in this network.

address_exclude(network)

Computes the network definitions resulting from removing the given network from this one. Returns an iterator of network objects. Raises ValueError if network is not completely contained in this network.

>>> n1 = ip_network('192.0.2.0/28')
>>> n2 = ip_network('192.0.2.1/32')
>>> list(n1.address_exclude(n2))  
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.8/29'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.4/30'),
 IPv4Network('192.0.2.2/31'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/32')]
subnets(prefixlen_diff=1, new_prefix=None)

The subnets that join to make the current network definition, depending on the argument values. prefixlen_diff is the amount our prefix length should be increased by. new_prefix is the desired new prefix of the subnets; it must be larger than our prefix. One and only one of prefixlen_diff and new_prefix must be set. Returns an iterator of network objects.

>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').subnets())
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/25'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/25')]
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').subnets(prefixlen_diff=2))  
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/26'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.64/26'),
 IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/26'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.192/26')]
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').subnets(new_prefix=26))  
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/26'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.64/26'),
 IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/26'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.192/26')]
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').subnets(new_prefix=23))
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
    raise ValueError('new prefix must be longer')
ValueError: new prefix must be longer
>>> list(ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').subnets(new_prefix=25))
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/25'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/25')]
supernet(prefixlen_diff=1, new_prefix=None)

The supernet containing this network definition, depending on the argument values. prefixlen_diff is the amount our prefix length should be decreased by. new_prefix is the desired new prefix of the supernet; it must be smaller than our prefix. One and only one of prefixlen_diff and new_prefix must be set. Returns a single network object.

>>> ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').supernet()
IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/23')
>>> ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').supernet(prefixlen_diff=2)
IPv4Network('192.0.0.0/22')
>>> ip_network('192.0.2.0/24').supernet(new_prefix=20)
IPv4Network('192.0.0.0/20')
subnet_of(other)

Return True if this network is a subnet of other.

>>> a = ip_network('192.168.1.0/24')
>>> b = ip_network('192.168.1.128/30')
>>> b.subnet_of(a)
True

3.7 新版功能.

supernet_of(other)

Return True if this network is a supernet of other.

>>> a = ip_network('192.168.1.0/24')
>>> b = ip_network('192.168.1.128/30')
>>> a.supernet_of(b)
True

3.7 新版功能.

compare_networks(other)

Compare this network to other. In this comparison only the network addresses are considered; host bits aren't. Returns either -1, 0 or 1.

>>> ip_network('192.0.2.1/32').compare_networks(ip_network('192.0.2.2/32'))
-1
>>> ip_network('192.0.2.1/32').compare_networks(ip_network('192.0.2.0/32'))
1
>>> ip_network('192.0.2.1/32').compare_networks(ip_network('192.0.2.1/32'))
0

3.7 版后已移除: It uses the same ordering and comparison algorithm as "<", "==", and ">"

class ipaddress.IPv6Network(address, strict=True)

Construct an IPv6 network definition. address can be one of the following:

  1. A string consisting of an IP address and an optional prefix length, separated by a slash (/). The IP address is the network address, and the prefix length must be a single number, the prefix. If no prefix length is provided, it's considered to be /128.

    Note that currently expanded netmasks are not supported. That means 2001:db00::0/24 is a valid argument while 2001:db00::0/ffff:ff00:: not.

  2. An integer that fits into 128 bits. This is equivalent to a single-address network, with the network address being address and the mask being /128.

  3. An integer packed into a bytes object of length 16, big-endian. The interpretation is similar to an integer address.

  4. A two-tuple of an address description and a netmask, where the address description is either a string, a 128-bits integer, a 16-bytes packed integer, or an existing IPv6Address object; and the netmask is an integer representing the prefix length.

An AddressValueError is raised if address is not a valid IPv6 address. A NetmaskValueError is raised if the mask is not valid for an IPv6 address.

If strict is True and host bits are set in the supplied address, then ValueError is raised. Otherwise, the host bits are masked out to determine the appropriate network address.

在 3.5 版更改: Added the two-tuple form for the address constructor parameter.

version
max_prefixlen
is_multicast
is_private
is_unspecified
is_reserved
is_loopback
network_address
broadcast_address
hostmask
netmask
with_prefixlen
compressed
exploded
with_netmask
with_hostmask
num_addresses
prefixlen
hosts()

Returns an iterator over the usable hosts in the network. The usable hosts are all the IP addresses that belong to the network, except the Subnet-Router anycast address. For networks with a mask length of 127, the Subnet-Router anycast address is also included in the result. Networks with a mask of 128 will return a list containing the single host address.

overlaps(other)
address_exclude(network)
subnets(prefixlen_diff=1, new_prefix=None)
supernet(prefixlen_diff=1, new_prefix=None)
subnet_of(other)
supernet_of(other)
compare_networks(other)

Refer to the corresponding attribute documentation in IPv4Network.

is_site_local

These attribute is true for the network as a whole if it is true for both the network address and the broadcast address.

运算符

Network objects support some operators. Unless stated otherwise, operators can only be applied between compatible objects (i.e. IPv4 with IPv4, IPv6 with IPv6).

Logical operators

Network objects can be compared with the usual set of logical operators. Network objects are ordered first by network address, then by net mask.

迭代

Network objects can be iterated to list all the addresses belonging to the network. For iteration, all hosts are returned, including unusable hosts (for usable hosts, use the hosts() method). An example:

>>> for addr in IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/28'):
...     addr
...
IPv4Address('192.0.2.0')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.1')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.2')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.3')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.4')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.5')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.6')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.7')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.8')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.9')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.10')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.11')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.12')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.13')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.14')
IPv4Address('192.0.2.15')

Networks as containers of addresses

Network objects can act as containers of addresses. Some examples:

>>> IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/28')[0]
IPv4Address('192.0.2.0')
>>> IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/28')[15]
IPv4Address('192.0.2.15')
>>> IPv4Address('192.0.2.6') in IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/28')
True
>>> IPv4Address('192.0.3.6') in IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/28')
False

Interface objects

Interface objects are hashable, so they can be used as keys in dictionaries.

class ipaddress.IPv4Interface(address)

Construct an IPv4 interface. The meaning of address is as in the constructor of IPv4Network, except that arbitrary host addresses are always accepted.

IPv4Interface is a subclass of IPv4Address, so it inherits all the attributes from that class. In addition, the following attributes are available:

ip

The address (IPv4Address) without network information.

>>> interface = IPv4Interface('192.0.2.5/24')
>>> interface.ip
IPv4Address('192.0.2.5')
network

The network (IPv4Network) this interface belongs to.

>>> interface = IPv4Interface('192.0.2.5/24')
>>> interface.network
IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/24')
with_prefixlen

A string representation of the interface with the mask in prefix notation.

>>> interface = IPv4Interface('192.0.2.5/24')
>>> interface.with_prefixlen
'192.0.2.5/24'
with_netmask

A string representation of the interface with the network as a net mask.

>>> interface = IPv4Interface('192.0.2.5/24')
>>> interface.with_netmask
'192.0.2.5/255.255.255.0'
with_hostmask

A string representation of the interface with the network as a host mask.

>>> interface = IPv4Interface('192.0.2.5/24')
>>> interface.with_hostmask
'192.0.2.5/0.0.0.255'
class ipaddress.IPv6Interface(address)

Construct an IPv6 interface. The meaning of address is as in the constructor of IPv6Network, except that arbitrary host addresses are always accepted.

IPv6Interface is a subclass of IPv6Address, so it inherits all the attributes from that class. In addition, the following attributes are available:

ip
network
with_prefixlen
with_netmask
with_hostmask

Refer to the corresponding attribute documentation in IPv4Interface.

运算符

Interface objects support some operators. Unless stated otherwise, operators can only be applied between compatible objects (i.e. IPv4 with IPv4, IPv6 with IPv6).

Logical operators

Interface objects can be compared with the usual set of logical operators.

For equality comparison (== and !=), both the IP address and network must be the same for the objects to be equal. An interface will not compare equal to any address or network object.

For ordering (<, >, etc) the rules are different. Interface and address objects with the same IP version can be compared, and the address objects will always sort before the interface objects. Two interface objects are first compared by their networks and, if those are the same, then by their IP addresses.

Other Module Level Functions

The module also provides the following module level functions:

ipaddress.v4_int_to_packed(address)

Represent an address as 4 packed bytes in network (big-endian) order. address is an integer representation of an IPv4 IP address. A ValueError is raised if the integer is negative or too large to be an IPv4 IP address.

>>> ipaddress.ip_address(3221225985)
IPv4Address('192.0.2.1')
>>> ipaddress.v4_int_to_packed(3221225985)
b'\xc0\x00\x02\x01'
ipaddress.v6_int_to_packed(address)

Represent an address as 16 packed bytes in network (big-endian) order. address is an integer representation of an IPv6 IP address. A ValueError is raised if the integer is negative or too large to be an IPv6 IP address.

ipaddress.summarize_address_range(first, last)

Return an iterator of the summarized network range given the first and last IP addresses. first is the first IPv4Address or IPv6Address in the range and last is the last IPv4Address or IPv6Address in the range. A TypeError is raised if first or last are not IP addresses or are not of the same version. A ValueError is raised if last is not greater than first or if first address version is not 4 or 6.

>>> [ipaddr for ipaddr in ipaddress.summarize_address_range(
...    ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.0.2.0'),
...    ipaddress.IPv4Address('192.0.2.130'))]
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/25'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/31'), IPv4Network('192.0.2.130/32')]
ipaddress.collapse_addresses(addresses)

Return an iterator of the collapsed IPv4Network or IPv6Network objects. addresses is an iterator of IPv4Network or IPv6Network objects. A TypeError is raised if addresses contains mixed version objects.

>>> [ipaddr for ipaddr in
... ipaddress.collapse_addresses([ipaddress.IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/25'),
... ipaddress.IPv4Network('192.0.2.128/25')])]
[IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/24')]
ipaddress.get_mixed_type_key(obj)

Return a key suitable for sorting between networks and addresses. Address and Network objects are not sortable by default; they're fundamentally different, so the expression:

IPv4Address('192.0.2.0') <= IPv4Network('192.0.2.0/24')

doesn't make sense. There are some times however, where you may wish to have ipaddress sort these anyway. If you need to do this, you can use this function as the key argument to sorted().

obj is either a network or address object.

Custom Exceptions

To support more specific error reporting from class constructors, the module defines the following exceptions:

exception ipaddress.AddressValueError(ValueError)

Any value error related to the address.

exception ipaddress.NetmaskValueError(ValueError)

Any value error related to the net mask.