28.3. venv — 创建虚拟环境

3.3 新版功能.

源码: Lib/venv/

The venv module provides support for creating lightweight “virtual environments” with their own site directories, optionally isolated from system site directories. Each virtual environment has its own Python binary (allowing creation of environments with various Python versions) and can have its own independent set of installed Python packages in its site directories.

有关 Python 虚拟环境的更多信息,请参阅 PEP 405


从 Python 3.6 开始,不推荐使用 pyvenv 脚本,而是使用 python3 -m venv 来帮助防止任何关于虚拟环境将基于哪个 Python 解释器的混淆。

28.3.1. 创建虚拟环境

通过执行 venv 指令来创建一个 虚拟环境:

python3 -m venv /path/to/new/virtual/environment

Running this command creates the target directory (creating any parent directories that don’t exist already) and places a pyvenv.cfg file in it with a home key pointing to the Python installation from which the command was run. It also creates a bin (or Scripts on Windows) subdirectory containing a copy/symlink of the Python binary/binaries (as appropriate for the platform or arguments used at environment creation time). It also creates an (initially empty) lib/pythonX.Y/site-packages subdirectory (on Windows, this is Lib\site-packages). If an existing directory is specified, it will be re-used.

3.6 版后已移除: pyvenv 是 Python 3.3 和 3.4 中创建虚拟环境的推荐工具,不过 在 Python 3.6 中已弃用

在 3.5 版更改: 现在推荐使用 venv 来创建虚拟环境。

在 Windows 上,调用 venv 命令如下:

c:\>c:\Python35\python -m venv c:\path\to\myenv

或者,如果已经为 Python 安装 配置好 PATHPATHEXT 变量:

c:\>python -m venv c:\path\to\myenv

本命令如果以 -h 参数运行,将显示可用的选项:

usage: venv [-h] [--system-site-packages] [--symlinks | --copies] [--clear]
            [--upgrade] [--without-pip]
            ENV_DIR [ENV_DIR ...]

Creates virtual Python environments in one or more target directories.

positional arguments:
  ENV_DIR               A directory to create the environment in.

optional arguments:
  -h, --help            show this help message and exit
                        Give the virtual environment access to the system
                        site-packages dir.
  --symlinks            Try to use symlinks rather than copies, when symlinks
                        are not the default for the platform.
  --copies              Try to use copies rather than symlinks, even when
                        symlinks are the default for the platform.
  --clear               Delete the contents of the environment directory if it
                        already exists, before environment creation.
  --upgrade             Upgrade the environment directory to use this version
                        of Python, assuming Python has been upgraded in-place.
  --without-pip         Skips installing or upgrading pip in the virtual
                        environment (pip is bootstrapped by default)

Once an environment has been created, you may wish to activate it, e.g. by
sourcing an activate script in its bin directory.

在 3.4 版更改: 默认安装 pip,并添加 --without-pip--copies 选项

在 3.4 版更改: 在早期版本中,如果目标目录已存在,将引发错误,除非使用了 --clear--upgrade 选项。

生成的 pyvenv.cfg 文件还包括 include-system-site-packages 键,如果运行 venv 带有 --system-site-packages 选项,则键值为 true,否则为 false

除非采用 --without-pip 选项,否则将会调用 ensurepippip 引导到虚拟环境中。

可以向 venv 传入多个路径,此时将根据给定的选项,在所给的每个路径上创建相同的虚拟环境。

创建虚拟环境后,可以使用虚拟环境的二进制目录中的脚本来“激活”该环境。不同平台调用的脚本是不同的(须将 <venv> 替换为包含虚拟环境的目录路径):






$ source <venv>/bin/activate


$ . <venv>/bin/activate.fish


$ source <venv>/bin/activate.csh



C:\> <venv>\Scripts\activate.bat


PS C:\> <venv>\Scripts\Activate.ps1

激活环境不是 必须 的,激活只是将虚拟环境的二进制目录添加到搜索路径中,这样 “python” 命令将调用虚拟环境的 Python 解释器,可以运行其中已安装的脚本,而不必输入其完整路径。但是,安装在虚拟环境中的所有脚本都应在不激活的情况下可运行,并自动与虚拟环境的 Python 一起运行。

You can deactivate a virtual environment by typing “deactivate” in your shell. The exact mechanism is platform-specific: for example, the Bash activation script defines a “deactivate” function, whereas on Windows there are separate scripts called deactivate.bat and Deactivate.ps1 which are installed when the virtual environment is created.

3.4 新版功能: fishcsh 激活脚本。


虚拟环境是一个 Python 环境,安装到其中的 Python 解释器、库和脚本与其他虚拟环境中的内容是隔离的,且(默认)与“系统级” Python(操作系统的一部分)中安装的库是隔离的。

虚拟环境是一个目录树,其中包含 Python 可执行文件和其他文件,其他文件指示了这是一个是虚拟环境。

Common installation tools such as Setuptools and pip work as expected with virtual environments. In other words, when a virtual environment is active, they install Python packages into the virtual environment without needing to be told to do so explicitly.

当虚拟环境被激活(即虚拟环境的 Python 解释器正在运行),属性 sys.prefixsys.exec_prefix 指向的是虚拟环境的基础目录,而 sys.base_prefixsys.base_exec_prefix 指向非虚拟环境的 Python 安装,即曾用于创建虚拟环境的那个 Python 安装。如果虚拟环境没有被激活,则 sys.prefixsys.base_prefix 相同,且 sys.exec_prefixsys.base_exec_prefix 相同(它们均指向非虚拟环境的 Python 安装)。

When a virtual environment is active, any options that change the installation path will be ignored from all distutils configuration files to prevent projects being inadvertently installed outside of the virtual environment.

When working in a command shell, users can make a virtual environment active by running an activate script in the virtual environment’s executables directory (the precise filename is shell-dependent), which prepends the virtual environment’s directory for executables to the PATH environment variable for the running shell. There should be no need in other circumstances to activate a virtual environment—scripts installed into virtual environments have a “shebang” line which points to the virtual environment’s Python interpreter. This means that the script will run with that interpreter regardless of the value of PATH. On Windows, “shebang” line processing is supported if you have the Python Launcher for Windows installed (this was added to Python in 3.3 - see PEP 397 for more details). Thus, double-clicking an installed script in a Windows Explorer window should run the script with the correct interpreter without there needing to be any reference to its virtual environment in PATH.

28.3.2. API

上述的高级方法使用了一个简单的 API,该 API 提供了一种机制,第三方虚拟环境创建者可以根据其需求自定义环境创建过程,该 API 为 EnvBuilder 类。

class venv.EnvBuilder(system_site_packages=False, clear=False, symlinks=False, upgrade=False, with_pip=False, prompt=None)

EnvBuilder 类在实例化时接受以下关键字参数:

  • system_site_packages – 一个布尔值,要求系统 Python 的 site-packages 对环境可用(默认为 False)。

  • clear – 一个布尔值,如果为 true,则在创建环境前将删除目标目录的现有内容。

  • symlinks – a Boolean value indicating whether to attempt to symlink the Python binary (and any necessary DLLs or other binaries, e.g. pythonw.exe), rather than copying.

  • upgrade – 一个布尔值,如果为 true,则将使用当前运行的 Python 去升级一个现有的环境,这主要在原位置的 Python 更新后使用(默认为 False)。

  • with_pip – 一个布尔值,如果为 true,则确保在虚拟环境中已安装 pip。这使用的是带有 --default-pip 选项的 ensurepip

  • prompt – a String to be used after virtual environment is activated (defaults to None which means directory name of the environment would be used).

在 3.4 版更改: 添加 with_pip 参数

3.6 新版功能: 添加 prompt 参数

Creators of third-party virtual environment tools will be free to use the provided EnvBuilder class as a base class.

返回的 env-builder 是一个对象,包含一个 create 方法:


This method takes as required argument the path (absolute or relative to the current directory) of the target directory which is to contain the virtual environment. The create method will either create the environment in the specified directory, or raise an appropriate exception.

The create method of the EnvBuilder class illustrates the hooks available for subclass customization:

def create(self, env_dir):
    Create a virtualized Python environment in a directory.
    env_dir is the target directory to create an environment in.
    env_dir = os.path.abspath(env_dir)
    context = self.ensure_directories(env_dir)

每个方法 ensure_directories(), create_configuration(), setup_python(), setup_scripts()post_setup() 都可以被重写。


创建环境目录和所有必需的目录,并返回一个上下文对象。该对象只是一个容器,保存属性(如路径),供其他方法使用。允许目录已经存在,如果指定了 clearupgrade 就允许在现有环境目录上进行操作。


在环境中创建 pyvenv.cfg 配置文件。


Creates a copy of the Python executable (and, under Windows, DLLs) in the environment. On a POSIX system, if a specific executable python3.x was used, symlinks to python and python3 will be created pointing to that executable, unless files with those names already exist.





此外,EnvBuilder 提供了如下实用方法,可以从子类的 setup_scripts()post_setup() 调用,用来将自定义脚本安装到虚拟环境中。

install_scripts(context, path)

path 是一个目录的路径,该目录应包含子目录 “common”, “posix”, “nt”,每个子目录存有发往对应环境中 bin 目录的脚本。在下列占位符替换完毕后,将复制 “common” 的内容和与 os.name 对应的子目录:

  • __VENV_DIR__ 会被替换为环境目录的绝对路径。

  • __VENV_NAME__ 会被替换为环境名称(环境目录的最后一个字段)。

  • __VENV_PROMPT__ 会被替换为提示符(用括号括起来的环境名称紧跟着一个空格)。

  • __VENV_BIN_NAME__ 会被替换为 bin 目录的名称( binScripts )。

  • __VENV_PYTHON__ 会被替换为环境可执行文件的绝对路径。



venv.create(env_dir, system_site_packages=False, clear=False, symlinks=False, with_pip=False)

通过关键词参数来创建一个 EnvBuilder,并且使用 env_dir 参数来调用它的 create() 方法。

在 3.4 版更改: 添加 with_pip 参数

28.3.3. 一个扩展 EnvBuilder 的例子

下面的脚本展示了如何通过实现一个子类来扩展 EnvBuilder。这个子类会安装 setuptotols 和 pip 的到被创建的虚拟环境中。

import os
import os.path
from subprocess import Popen, PIPE
import sys
from threading import Thread
from urllib.parse import urlparse
from urllib.request import urlretrieve
import venv

class ExtendedEnvBuilder(venv.EnvBuilder):
    This builder installs setuptools and pip so that you can pip or
    easy_install other packages into the created virtual environment.

    :param nodist: If True, setuptools and pip are not installed into the
                   created virtual environment.
    :param nopip: If True, pip is not installed into the created
                  virtual environment.
    :param progress: If setuptools or pip are installed, the progress of the
                     installation can be monitored by passing a progress
                     callable. If specified, it is called with two
                     arguments: a string indicating some progress, and a
                     context indicating where the string is coming from.
                     The context argument can have one of three values:
                     'main', indicating that it is called from virtualize()
                     itself, and 'stdout' and 'stderr', which are obtained
                     by reading lines from the output streams of a subprocess
                     which is used to install the app.

                     If a callable is not specified, default progress
                     information is output to sys.stderr.

    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        self.nodist = kwargs.pop('nodist', False)
        self.nopip = kwargs.pop('nopip', False)
        self.progress = kwargs.pop('progress', None)
        self.verbose = kwargs.pop('verbose', False)
        super().__init__(*args, **kwargs)

    def post_setup(self, context):
        Set up any packages which need to be pre-installed into the
        virtual environment being created.

        :param context: The information for the virtual environment
                        creation request being processed.
        os.environ['VIRTUAL_ENV'] = context.env_dir
        if not self.nodist:
        # Can't install pip without setuptools
        if not self.nopip and not self.nodist:

    def reader(self, stream, context):
        Read lines from a subprocess' output stream and either pass to a progress
        callable (if specified) or write progress information to sys.stderr.
        progress = self.progress
        while True:
            s = stream.readline()
            if not s:
            if progress is not None:
                progress(s, context)
                if not self.verbose:

    def install_script(self, context, name, url):
        _, _, path, _, _, _ = urlparse(url)
        fn = os.path.split(path)[-1]
        binpath = context.bin_path
        distpath = os.path.join(binpath, fn)
        # Download script into the virtual environment's binaries folder
        urlretrieve(url, distpath)
        progress = self.progress
        if self.verbose:
            term = '\n'
            term = ''
        if progress is not None:
            progress('Installing %s ...%s' % (name, term), 'main')
            sys.stderr.write('Installing %s ...%s' % (name, term))
        # Install in the virtual environment
        args = [context.env_exe, fn]
        p = Popen(args, stdout=PIPE, stderr=PIPE, cwd=binpath)
        t1 = Thread(target=self.reader, args=(p.stdout, 'stdout'))
        t2 = Thread(target=self.reader, args=(p.stderr, 'stderr'))
        if progress is not None:
            progress('done.', 'main')
        # Clean up - no longer needed

    def install_setuptools(self, context):
        Install setuptools in the virtual environment.

        :param context: The information for the virtual environment
                        creation request being processed.
        url = 'https://bitbucket.org/pypa/setuptools/downloads/ez_setup.py'
        self.install_script(context, 'setuptools', url)
        # clear up the setuptools archive which gets downloaded
        pred = lambda o: o.startswith('setuptools-') and o.endswith('.tar.gz')
        files = filter(pred, os.listdir(context.bin_path))
        for f in files:
            f = os.path.join(context.bin_path, f)

    def install_pip(self, context):
        Install pip in the virtual environment.

        :param context: The information for the virtual environment
                        creation request being processed.
        url = 'https://raw.github.com/pypa/pip/master/contrib/get-pip.py'
        self.install_script(context, 'pip', url)

def main(args=None):
    compatible = True
    if sys.version_info < (3, 3):
        compatible = False
    elif not hasattr(sys, 'base_prefix'):
        compatible = False
    if not compatible:
        raise ValueError('This script is only for use with '
                         'Python 3.3 or later')
        import argparse

        parser = argparse.ArgumentParser(prog=__name__,
                                         description='Creates virtual Python '
                                                     'environments in one or '
                                                     'more target '
        parser.add_argument('dirs', metavar='ENV_DIR', nargs='+',
                            help='A directory in which to create the
                                 'virtual environment.')
        parser.add_argument('--no-setuptools', default=False,
                            action='store_true', dest='nodist',
                            help="Don't install setuptools or pip in the "
                                 "virtual environment.")
        parser.add_argument('--no-pip', default=False,
                            action='store_true', dest='nopip',
                            help="Don't install pip in the virtual "
        parser.add_argument('--system-site-packages', default=False,
                            action='store_true', dest='system_site',
                            help='Give the virtual environment access to the '
                                 'system site-packages dir.')
        if os.name == 'nt':
            use_symlinks = False
            use_symlinks = True
        parser.add_argument('--symlinks', default=use_symlinks,
                            action='store_true', dest='symlinks',
                            help='Try to use symlinks rather than copies, '
                                 'when symlinks are not the default for '
                                 'the platform.')
        parser.add_argument('--clear', default=False, action='store_true',
                            dest='clear', help='Delete the contents of the '
                                               'virtual environment '
                                               'directory if it already '
                                               'exists, before virtual '
                                               'environment creation.')
        parser.add_argument('--upgrade', default=False, action='store_true',
                            dest='upgrade', help='Upgrade the virtual '
                                                 'environment directory to '
                                                 'use this version of '
                                                 'Python, assuming Python '
                                                 'has been upgraded '
        parser.add_argument('--verbose', default=False, action='store_true',
                            dest='verbose', help='Display the output '
                                               'from the scripts which '
                                               'install setuptools and pip.')
        options = parser.parse_args(args)
        if options.upgrade and options.clear:
            raise ValueError('you cannot supply --upgrade and --clear together.')
        builder = ExtendedEnvBuilder(system_site_packages=options.system_site,
        for d in options.dirs:

if __name__ == '__main__':
    rc = 1
        rc = 0
    except Exception as e:
        print('Error: %s' % e, file=sys.stderr)

This script is also available for download online.