28.14. site —— 指定 Site 的配置钩子

源代码: Lib/site.py

这个模块将在初始化时被自动导入。 此自动导入可以通过使用解释器的 -S 选项来屏蔽。

Importing this module will append site-specific paths to the module search path and add a few builtins.

It starts by constructing up to four directories from a head and a tail part. For the head part, it uses sys.prefix and sys.exec_prefix; empty heads are skipped. For the tail part, it uses the empty string and then lib/site-packages (on Windows) or lib/pythonX.Y/site-packages and then lib/site-python (on Unix and Macintosh). For each of the distinct head-tail combinations, it sees if it refers to an existing directory, and if so, adds it to sys.path and also inspects the newly added path for configuration files.

一个路径配置文件是具有 name.pth 命名格式的文件,并且存在上面提到的四个目录之一中;它的内容是要添加到 sys.path 中的额外项目(每行一个)。不存在的项目不会添加到 sys.path,并且不会检查项目指向的是目录还是文件。项目不会被添加到 sys.path 超过一次。空行和由 # 起始的行会被跳过。以 import 开始的行(跟着空格或 TAB)会被执行。

在 2.6 版更改: A space or tab is now required after the import keyword.

例如,假设 sys.prefixsys.exec_prefix 已经被设置为 /usr/local。 Python X.Y 的库之后被安装为 /usr/local/lib/pythonX.Y。假设有一个拥有三个孙目录 foo, barspam 的子目录 /usr/local/lib/pythonX.Y/site-packages,并且有两个路径配置文件 foot.pthbar.pth。假定 foo.pth 内容如下:

# foo package configuration


并且 bar.pth 包含:

# bar package configuration


则下面特定版目录将以如下顺序被添加到 sys.path


Note that bletch is omitted because it doesn’t exist; the bar directory precedes the foo directory because bar.pth comes alphabetically before foo.pth; and spam is omitted because it is not mentioned in either path configuration file.

After these path manipulations, an attempt is made to import a module named sitecustomize, which can perform arbitrary site-specific customizations. It is typically created by a system administrator in the site-packages directory. If this import fails with an ImportError exception, it is silently ignored. If Python is started without output streams available, as with pythonw.exe on Windows (which is used by default to start IDLE), attempted output from sitecustomize is ignored. Any exception other than ImportError causes a silent and perhaps mysterious failure of the process.

After this, an attempt is made to import a module named usercustomize, which can perform arbitrary user-specific customizations, if ENABLE_USER_SITE is true. This file is intended to be created in the user site-packages directory (see below), which is part of sys.path unless disabled by -s. An ImportError will be silently ignored.

Note that for some non-Unix systems, sys.prefix and sys.exec_prefix are empty, and the path manipulations are skipped; however the import of sitecustomize and usercustomize is still attempted.


A list of prefixes for site-packages directories.

2.6 新版功能.


Flag showing the status of the user site-packages directory. True means that it is enabled and was added to sys.path. False means that it was disabled by user request (with -s or PYTHONNOUSERSITE). None means it was disabled for security reasons (mismatch between user or group id and effective id) or by an administrator.

2.6 新版功能.


Path to the user site-packages for the running Python. Can be None if getusersitepackages() hasn’t been called yet. Default value is ~/.local/lib/pythonX.Y/site-packages for UNIX and non-framework Mac OS X builds, ~/Library/Python/X.Y/lib/python/site-packages for Mac framework builds, and %APPDATA%\Python\PythonXY\site-packages on Windows. This directory is a site directory, which means that .pth files in it will be processed.

2.6 新版功能.


Path to the base directory for the user site-packages. Can be None if getuserbase() hasn’t been called yet. Default value is ~/.local for UNIX and Mac OS X non-framework builds, ~/Library/Python/X.Y for Mac framework builds, and %APPDATA%\Python for Windows. This value is used by Distutils to compute the installation directories for scripts, data files, Python modules, etc. for the user installation scheme. See also PYTHONUSERBASE.

2.6 新版功能.

site.addsitedir(sitedir, known_paths=None)

Add a directory to sys.path and process its .pth files. Typically used in sitecustomize or usercustomize (see above).


Return a list containing all global site-packages directories (and possibly site-python).

2.7 新版功能.


Return the path of the user base directory, USER_BASE. If it is not initialized yet, this function will also set it, respecting PYTHONUSERBASE.

2.7 新版功能.


Return the path of the user-specific site-packages directory, USER_SITE. If it is not initialized yet, this function will also set it, respecting PYTHONNOUSERSITE and USER_BASE.

2.7 新版功能.

The site module also provides a way to get the user directories from the command line:

$ python -m site --user-site

If it is called without arguments, it will print the contents of sys.path on the standard output, followed by the value of USER_BASE and whether the directory exists, then the same thing for USER_SITE, and finally the value of ENABLE_USER_SITE.


Print the path to the user base directory.


Print the path to the user site-packages directory.

If both options are given, user base and user site will be printed (always in this order), separated by os.pathsep.

If any option is given, the script will exit with one of these values: 0 if the user site-packages directory is enabled, 1 if it was disabled by the user, 2 if it is disabled for security reasons or by an administrator, and a value greater than 2 if there is an error.


PEP 370 – 分用户的 site-packages 目录