8.7. sets
— Unordered collections of unique elements¶
2.3 新版功能.
The sets
module provides classes for constructing and manipulating
unordered collections of unique elements. Common uses include membership
testing, removing duplicates from a sequence, and computing standard math
operations on sets such as intersection, union, difference, and symmetric
difference.
Like other collections, sets support x in set
, len(set)
, and for x in
set
. Being an unordered collection, sets do not record element position or
order of insertion. Accordingly, sets do not support indexing, slicing, or
other sequencelike behavior.
Most set applications use the Set
class which provides every set method
except for __hash__()
. For advanced applications requiring a hash method,
the ImmutableSet
class adds a __hash__()
method but omits methods
which alter the contents of the set. Both Set
and ImmutableSet
derive from BaseSet
, an abstract class useful for determining whether
something is a set: isinstance(obj, BaseSet)
.
The set classes are implemented using dictionaries. Accordingly, the
requirements for set elements are the same as those for dictionary keys; namely,
that the element defines both __eq__()
and __hash__()
. As a result,
sets cannot contain mutable elements such as lists or dictionaries. However,
they can contain immutable collections such as tuples or instances of
ImmutableSet
. For convenience in implementing sets of sets, inner sets
are automatically converted to immutable form, for example,
Set([Set(['dog'])])
is transformed to Set([ImmutableSet(['dog'])])
.

class
sets.
Set
([iterable])¶ Constructs a new empty
Set
object. If the optional iterable parameter is supplied, updates the set with elements obtained from iteration. All of the elements in iterable should be immutable or be transformable to an immutable using the protocol described in section Protocol for automatic conversion to immutable.

class
sets.
ImmutableSet
([iterable])¶ Constructs a new empty
ImmutableSet
object. If the optional iterable parameter is supplied, updates the set with elements obtained from iteration. All of the elements in iterable should be immutable or be transformable to an immutable using the protocol described in section Protocol for automatic conversion to immutable.Because
ImmutableSet
objects provide a__hash__()
method, they can be used as set elements or as dictionary keys.ImmutableSet
objects do not have methods for adding or removing elements, so all of the elements must be known when the constructor is called.
8.7.1. Set Objects¶
Instances of Set
and ImmutableSet
both provide the following
operations:
Operation 
Equivalent 
Result 


number of elements in set s (cardinality) 


test x for membership in s 


test x for nonmembership in s 



test whether every element in s is in t 


test whether every element in t is in s 


new set with elements from both s and t 


new set with elements common to s and t 


new set with elements in s but not in t 


new set with elements in either s or t but not both 

new set with a shallow copy of s 
Note, the nonoperator versions of union()
, intersection()
,
difference()
, and symmetric_difference()
will accept any iterable as
an argument. In contrast, their operator based counterparts require their
arguments to be sets. This precludes errorprone constructions like
Set('abc') & 'cbs'
in favor of the more readable
Set('abc').intersection('cbs')
.
在 2.3.1 版更改: Formerly all arguments were required to be sets.
In addition, both Set
and ImmutableSet
support set to set
comparisons. Two sets are equal if and only if every element of each set is
contained in the other (each is a subset of the other). A set is less than
another set if and only if the first set is a proper subset of the second set
(is a subset, but is not equal). A set is greater than another set if and only
if the first set is a proper superset of the second set (is a superset, but is
not equal).
The subset and equality comparisons do not generalize to a complete ordering
function. For example, any two disjoint sets are not equal and are not subsets
of each other, so all of the following return False
: a<b
, a==b
,
or a>b
. Accordingly, sets do not implement the __cmp__()
method.
Since sets only define partial ordering (subset relationships), the output of
the list.sort()
method is undefined for lists of sets.
The following table lists operations available in ImmutableSet
but not
found in Set
:
Operation 
Result 


returns a hash value for s 
The following table lists operations available in Set
but not found in
ImmutableSet
:
Operation 
Equivalent 
Result 


s = t 
return set s with elements added from t 

s &= t 
return set s keeping only elements also found in t 

s = t 
return set s after removing elements found in t 

s ^= t 
return set s with elements from s or t but not both 

add element x to set s 


remove x from set s; raises



removes x from set s if present 


remove and return an arbitrary
element from s; raises



remove all elements from set s 
Note, the nonoperator versions of update()
, intersection_update()
,
difference_update()
, and symmetric_difference_update()
will accept
any iterable as an argument.
在 2.3.1 版更改: Formerly all arguments were required to be sets.
Also note, the module also includes a union_update()
method which is an
alias for update()
. The method is included for backwards compatibility.
Programmers should prefer the update()
method because it is supported by
the builtin set()
and frozenset()
types.
8.7.2. Example¶
>>> from sets import Set
>>> engineers = Set(['John', 'Jane', 'Jack', 'Janice'])
>>> programmers = Set(['Jack', 'Sam', 'Susan', 'Janice'])
>>> managers = Set(['Jane', 'Jack', 'Susan', 'Zack'])
>>> employees = engineers  programmers  managers # union
>>> engineering_management = engineers & managers # intersection
>>> fulltime_management = managers  engineers  programmers # difference
>>> engineers.add('Marvin') # add element
>>> print engineers
Set(['Jane', 'Marvin', 'Janice', 'John', 'Jack'])
>>> employees.issuperset(engineers) # superset test
False
>>> employees.update(engineers) # update from another set
>>> employees.issuperset(engineers)
True
>>> for group in [engineers, programmers, managers, employees]:
... group.discard('Susan') # unconditionally remove element
... print group
...
Set(['Jane', 'Marvin', 'Janice', 'John', 'Jack'])
Set(['Janice', 'Jack', 'Sam'])
Set(['Jane', 'Zack', 'Jack'])
Set(['Jack', 'Sam', 'Jane', 'Marvin', 'Janice', 'John', 'Zack'])
8.7.3. Protocol for automatic conversion to immutable¶
Sets can only contain immutable elements. For convenience, mutable Set
objects are automatically copied to an ImmutableSet
before being added
as a set element.
The mechanism is to always add a hashable element, or if it is not
hashable, the element is checked to see if it has an __as_immutable__()
method which returns an immutable equivalent.
Since Set
objects have a __as_immutable__()
method returning an
instance of ImmutableSet
, it is possible to construct sets of sets.
A similar mechanism is needed by the __contains__()
and remove()
methods which need to hash an element to check for membership in a set. Those
methods check an element for hashability and, if not, check for a
__as_temporarily_immutable__()
method which returns the element wrapped by
a class that provides temporary methods for __hash__()
, __eq__()
,
and __ne__()
.
The alternate mechanism spares the need to build a separate copy of the original mutable object.
Set
objects implement the __as_temporarily_immutable__()
method
which returns the Set
object wrapped by a new class
_TemporarilyImmutableSet
.
The two mechanisms for adding hashability are normally invisible to the user;
however, a conflict can arise in a multithreaded environment where one thread
is updating a set while another has temporarily wrapped it in
_TemporarilyImmutableSet
. In other words, sets of mutable sets are not
threadsafe.
8.7.4. Comparison to the builtin set
types¶
The builtin set
and frozenset
types were designed based on
lessons learned from the sets
module. The key differences are:
Set
andImmutableSet
were renamed toset
andfrozenset
.There is no equivalent to
BaseSet
. Instead, useisinstance(x, (set, frozenset))
.The hash algorithm for the builtins performs significantly better (fewer collisions) for most datasets.
The builtin versions have more space efficient pickles.
The builtin versions do not have a
union_update()
method. Instead, use theupdate()
method which is equivalent.The builtin versions do not have a
_repr(sorted=True)
method. Instead, use the builtinrepr()
andsorted()
functions:repr(sorted(s))
.The builtin version does not have a protocol for automatic conversion to immutable. Many found this feature to be confusing and no one in the community reported having found real uses for it.