24.6. IDLE

IDLE 是 Python 所内置的开发与学习环境。

IDLE 具有以下特性:

  • 编码于 100% 纯正的 Python,使用名为 tkinter 的图形用户界面工具

  • cross-platform: works mostly the same on Windows, Unix, and Mac OS X

  • 提供输入输出高亮和错误信息的 Python 命令行窗口 (交互解释器)

  • 提供多次撤销操作、Python 语法高亮、智能缩进、函数调用提示、自动补全等功能的多窗口文本编辑器

  • 在多个窗口中检索,在编辑器中替换文本,以及在多个文件中检索(通过 grep)

  • 提供持久保存的断点调试、单步调试、查看本地和全局命名空间功能的调试器

  • 配置、浏览以及其它对话框

24.6.2. 编辑和导航

In this section, ‘C’ refers to the Control key on Windows and Unix and the Command key on Mac OSX.

  • Backspace 向左删除; Del 向右删除

  • C-Backspace 向左删除单词; C-Del 向右删除单词

  • 方向键和 Page Up/Page Down 移动

  • C-LeftArrowC-RightArrow 按字移动

  • Home/End 跳转到行首/尾

  • C-Home/C-End 跳转到文档首/尾

  • 一些有用的Emacs绑定是从Tcl / Tk继承的:

    • C-a 行首

    • C-e 行尾

    • C-k 删除行(但未将其放入剪贴板)

    • C-l center window around the insertion point

    • C-b go backward one character without deleting (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)

    • C-f go forward one character without deleting (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)

    • C-p go up one line (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)

    • C-d 删除下一个字符

Standard keybindings (like C-c to copy and C-v to paste) may work. Keybindings are selected in the Configure IDLE dialog. 自动缩进

After a block-opening statement, the next line is indented by 4 spaces (in the Python Shell window by one tab). After certain keywords (break, return etc.) the next line is dedented. In leading indentation, Backspace deletes up to 4 spaces if they are there. Tab inserts spaces (in the Python Shell window one tab), number depends on Indent width. Currently, tabs are restricted to four spaces due to Tcl/Tk limitations.

See also the indent/dedent region commands in the edit menu. 完成

Completions are supplied for functions, classes, and attributes of classes, both built-in and user-defined. Completions are also provided for filenames.

The AutoCompleteWindow (ACW) will open after a predefined delay (default is two seconds) after a ‘.’ or (in a string) an os.sep is typed. If after one of those characters (plus zero or more other characters) a tab is typed the ACW will open immediately if a possible continuation is found.

If there is only one possible completion for the characters entered, a Tab will supply that completion without opening the ACW.

‘Show Completions’ will force open a completions window, by default the C-space will open a completions window. In an empty string, this will contain the files in the current directory. On a blank line, it will contain the built-in and user-defined functions and classes in the current namespaces, plus any modules imported. If some characters have been entered, the ACW will attempt to be more specific.

If a string of characters is typed, the ACW selection will jump to the entry most closely matching those characters. Entering a tab will cause the longest non-ambiguous match to be entered in the Editor window or Shell. Two tab in a row will supply the current ACW selection, as will return or a double click. Cursor keys, Page Up/Down, mouse selection, and the scroll wheel all operate on the ACW.

“Hidden” attributes can be accessed by typing the beginning of hidden name after a ‘.’, e.g. ‘_’. This allows access to modules with __all__ set, or to class-private attributes.

Completions and the ‘Expand Word’ facility can save a lot of typing!

Completions are currently limited to those in the namespaces. Names in an Editor window which are not via __main__ and sys.modules will not be found. Run the module once with your imports to correct this situation. Note that IDLE itself places quite a few modules in sys.modules, so much can be found by default, e.g. the re module.

If you don’t like the ACW popping up unbidden, simply make the delay longer or disable the extension. 提示

A calltip is shown when one types ( after the name of an accessible function. A name expression may include dots and subscripts. A calltip remains until it is clicked, the cursor is moved out of the argument area, or ) is typed. When the cursor is in the argument part of a definition, the menu or shortcut display a calltip.

A calltip consists of the function signature and the first line of the docstring. For builtins without an accessible signature, the calltip consists of all lines up the fifth line or the first blank line. These details may change.

The set of accessible functions depends on what modules have been imported into the user process, including those imported by Idle itself, and what definitions have been run, all since the last restart.

For example, restart the Shell and enter itertools.count(. A calltip appears because Idle imports itertools into the user process for its own use. (This could change.) Enter turtle.write( and nothing appears. Idle does not import turtle. The menu or shortcut do nothing either. Enter import turtle and then turtle.write( will work.

In an editor, import statements have no effect until one runs the file. One might want to run a file after writing the import statements at the top, or immediately run an existing file before editing. Python Shell 窗口

  • C-c 中断执行命令

  • C-d sends end-of-file; closes window if typed at a >>> prompt

  • Alt-/ (Expand word) is also useful to reduce typing


    • Alt-p retrieves previous command matching what you have typed. On OS X use C-p.

    • Alt-n retrieves next. On OS X use C-n.

    • Return while on any previous command retrieves that command 文本颜色

Idle defaults to black on white text, but colors text with special meanings. For the shell, these are shell output, shell error, user output, and user error. For Python code, at the shell prompt or in an editor, these are keywords, builtin class and function names, names following class and def, strings, and comments. For any text window, these are the cursor (when present), found text (when possible), and selected text.

Text coloring is done in the background, so uncolorized text is occasionally visible. To change the color scheme, use the Configure IDLE dialog Highlighting tab. The marking of debugger breakpoint lines in the editor and text in popups and dialogs is not user-configurable.

24.6.3. 启动和代码执行

Upon startup with the -s option, IDLE will execute the file referenced by the environment variables IDLESTARTUP or PYTHONSTARTUP. IDLE first checks for IDLESTARTUP; if IDLESTARTUP is present the file referenced is run. If IDLESTARTUP is not present, IDLE checks for PYTHONSTARTUP. Files referenced by these environment variables are convenient places to store functions that are used frequently from the IDLE shell, or for executing import statements to import common modules.

In addition, Tk also loads a startup file if it is present. Note that the Tk file is loaded unconditionally. This additional file is .Idle.py and is looked for in the user’s home directory. Statements in this file will be executed in the Tk namespace, so this file is not useful for importing functions to be used from IDLE’s Python shell. 命令行语法

idle.py [-c command] [-d] [-e] [-h] [-i] [-r file] [-s] [-t title] [-] [arg] ...

-c command  run command in the shell window
-d          enable debugger and open shell window
-e          open editor window
-h          print help message with legal combinations and exit
-i          open shell window
-r file     run file in shell window
-s          run $IDLESTARTUP or $PYTHONSTARTUP first, in shell window
-t title    set title of shell window
-           run stdin in shell (- must be last option before args)


  • If -, -c, or r is used, all arguments are placed in sys.argv[1:...] and sys.argv[0] is set to '', '-c', or '-r'. No editor window is opened, even if that is the default set in the Options dialog.

  • Otherwise, arguments are files opened for editing and sys.argv reflects the arguments passed to IDLE itself. IDLE-console differences

As much as possible, the result of executing Python code with IDLE is the same as executing the same code in a console window. However, the different interface and operation occasionally affect visible results. For instance, sys.modules starts with more entries.

IDLE also replaces sys.stdin, sys.stdout, and sys.stderr with objects that get input from and send output to the Shell window. When this window has the focus, it controls the keyboard and screen. This is normally transparent, but functions that directly access the keyboard and screen will not work. If sys is reset with reload(sys), IDLE’s changes are lost and things like input, raw_input, and print will not work correctly.

With IDLE’s Shell, one enters, edits, and recalls complete statements. Some consoles only work with a single physical line at a time. IDLE uses exec to run each statement. As a result, '__builtins__' is always defined for each statement. 在没有子进程的情况下运行

By default, IDLE executes user code in a separate subprocess via a socket, which uses the internal loopback interface. This connection is not externally visible and no data is sent to or received from the Internet. If firewall software complains anyway, you can ignore it.

If the attempt to make the socket connection fails, Idle will notify you. Such failures are sometimes transient, but if persistent, the problem may be either a firewall blocking the connection or misconfiguration of a particular system. Until the problem is fixed, one can run Idle with the -n command line switch.

If IDLE is started with the -n command line switch it will run in a single process and will not create the subprocess which runs the RPC Python execution server. This can be useful if Python cannot create the subprocess or the RPC socket interface on your platform. However, in this mode user code is not isolated from IDLE itself. Also, the environment is not restarted when Run/Run Module (F5) is selected. If your code has been modified, you must reload() the affected modules and re-import any specific items (e.g. from foo import baz) if the changes are to take effect. For these reasons, it is preferable to run IDLE with the default subprocess if at all possible.

3.4 版后已移除.

24.6.4. 帮助和偏好 Additional help sources

IDLE includes a help menu entry called “Python Docs” that will open the extensive sources of help, including tutorials, available at docs.python.org. Selected URLs can be added or removed from the help menu at any time using the Configure IDLE dialog. See the IDLE help option in the help menu of IDLE for more information. 偏好设定

The font preferences, highlighting, keys, and general preferences can be changed via Configure IDLE on the Option menu. Keys can be user defined; IDLE ships with four built-in key sets. In addition, a user can create a custom key set in the Configure IDLE dialog under the keys tab. 扩展

IDLE contains an extension facility. Preferences for extensions can be changed with Configure Extensions. See the beginning of config-extensions.def in the idlelib directory for further information. The default extensions are currently:

  • FormatParagraph

  • AutoExpand

  • ZoomHeight

  • ScriptBinding

  • CallTips

  • ParenMatch

  • AutoComplete

  • CodeContext

  • RstripExtension