traceback --- スタックトレースの表示または取得

ソースコード: Lib/traceback.py


このモジュールは Python プログラムのスタックトレースを抽出し、書式を整え、表示するための標準インターフェースを提供します。モジュールがスタックトレースを表示するとき、Python インタープリタの動作を正確に模倣します。インタープリタの"ラッパー"の場合のように、プログラムの制御の元でスタックトレースを表示したいと思ったときに役に立ちます。

The module uses traceback objects --- these are objects of type types.TracebackType, which are assigned to the __traceback__ field of BaseException instances.

参考

Module faulthandler

Used to dump Python tracebacks explicitly, on a fault, after a timeout, or on a user signal.

Module pdb

Interactive source code debugger for Python programs.

このモジュールには、以下の関数が定義されています:

traceback.print_tb(tb, limit=None, file=None)

Print up to limit stack trace entries from traceback object tb (starting from the caller's frame) if limit is positive. Otherwise, print the last abs(limit) entries. If limit is omitted or None, all entries are printed. If file is omitted or None, the output goes to sys.stderr; otherwise it should be an open file or file-like object to receive the output.

バージョン 3.5 で変更: 負の limit がサポートされました。

traceback.print_exception(exc, /, [value, tb, ]limit=None, file=None, chain=True)

Print exception information and stack trace entries from traceback object tb to file. This differs from print_tb() in the following ways:

  • tbNone でない場合ヘッダ Traceback (most recent call last): を出力します

  • it prints the exception type and value after the stack trace

  • type(value)SyntaxError であり、 value が適切な形式を持っていれば、そのエラーのおおよその位置を示すマークと共にシンタックスエラーが発生した行が表示されます。

Since Python 3.10, instead of passing value and tb, an exception object can be passed as the first argument. If value and tb are provided, the first argument is ignored in order to provide backwards compatibility.

The optional limit argument has the same meaning as for print_tb(). If chain is true (the default), then chained exceptions (the __cause__ or __context__ attributes of the exception) will be printed as well, like the interpreter itself does when printing an unhandled exception.

バージョン 3.5 で変更: 引数 etype は無視され、 value の型から推論されます。

バージョン 3.10 で変更: The etype parameter has been renamed to exc and is now positional-only.

traceback.print_exc(limit=None, file=None, chain=True)

print_exception(sys.exception(), limit, file, chain) の省略表現です。

traceback.print_last(limit=None, file=None, chain=True)

This is a shorthand for print_exception(sys.last_type, sys.last_value, sys.last_traceback, limit, file, chain). In general it will work only after an exception has reached an interactive prompt (see sys.last_type).

traceback.print_stack(f=None, limit=None, file=None)

Print up to limit stack trace entries (starting from the invocation point) if limit is positive. Otherwise, print the last abs(limit) entries. If limit is omitted or None, all entries are printed. The optional f argument can be used to specify an alternate stack frame to start. The optional file argument has the same meaning as for print_tb().

バージョン 3.5 で変更: 負の limit がサポートされました。

traceback.extract_tb(tb, limit=None)

Return a StackSummary object representing a list of "pre-processed" stack trace entries extracted from the traceback object tb. It is useful for alternate formatting of stack traces. The optional limit argument has the same meaning as for print_tb(). A "pre-processed" stack trace entry is a FrameSummary object containing attributes filename, lineno, name, and line representing the information that is usually printed for a stack trace.

traceback.extract_stack(f=None, limit=None)

Extract the raw traceback from the current stack frame. The return value has the same format as for extract_tb(). The optional f and limit arguments have the same meaning as for print_stack().

traceback.format_list(extracted_list)

extract_tb() または extract_stack() が返すタプルのリストまたは FrameSummary オブジェクトが与えられると、出力の準備を整えた文字列のリストを返します。結果として生じるリストの中の各文字列は、引数リストの中の同じインデックスの要素に対応します。各文字列は末尾に改行が付いています。さらに、ソーステキスト行が None でないそれらの要素に対しては、文字列は内部に改行を含んでいるかもしれません。

traceback.format_exception_only(exc, /[, value])

Format the exception part of a traceback using an exception value such as given by sys.last_value. The return value is a list of strings, each ending in a newline. The list contains the exception's message, which is normally a single string; however, for SyntaxError exceptions, it contains several lines that (when printed) display detailed information about where the syntax error occurred. Following the message, the list contains the exception's notes.

Since Python 3.10, instead of passing value, an exception object can be passed as the first argument. If value is provided, the first argument is ignored in order to provide backwards compatibility.

バージョン 3.10 で変更: The etype parameter has been renamed to exc and is now positional-only.

バージョン 3.11 で変更: The returned list now includes any notes attached to the exception.

traceback.format_exception(exc, /, [value, tb, ]limit=None, chain=True)

スタックトレースと例外情報を書式化します。引数は print_exception() の対応する引数と同じ意味を持ちます。戻り値は文字列のリストで、それぞれの文字列は改行で終わり、そのいくつかは内部に改行を含みます。これらの行が連結されて出力される場合は、厳密に print_exception() と同じテキストが出力されます。

バージョン 3.5 で変更: 引数 etype は無視され、 value の型から推論されます。

バージョン 3.10 で変更: This function's behavior and signature were modified to match print_exception().

traceback.format_exc(limit=None, chain=True)

これは、print_exc(limit) に似ていますが、ファイルに出力する代わりに文字列を返します。

traceback.format_tb(tb, limit=None)

format_list(extract_tb(tb, limit)) の省略表現です。

traceback.format_stack(f=None, limit=None)

format_list(extract_stack(f, limit)) の省略表現です。

traceback.clear_frames(tb)

Clears the local variables of all the stack frames in a traceback tb by calling the clear() method of each frame object.

バージョン 3.4 で追加.

traceback.walk_stack(f)

Walk a stack following f.f_back from the given frame, yielding the frame and line number for each frame. If f is None, the current stack is used. This helper is used with StackSummary.extract().

バージョン 3.5 で追加.

traceback.walk_tb(tb)

Walk a traceback following tb_next yielding the frame and line number for each frame. This helper is used with StackSummary.extract().

バージョン 3.5 で追加.

このモジュールは以下のクラスも定義しています:

TracebackException Objects

バージョン 3.5 で追加.

TracebackException objects are created from actual exceptions to capture data for later printing in a lightweight fashion.

class traceback.TracebackException(exc_type, exc_value, exc_traceback, *, limit=None, lookup_lines=True, capture_locals=False, compact=False, max_group_width=15, max_group_depth=10)

後のレンダリングのために例外をキャプチャします。 limitlookup_linescapture_localsStackSummary class のものです。

If compact is true, only data that is required by TracebackException's format() method is saved in the class attributes. In particular, the __context__ field is calculated only if __cause__ is None and __suppress_context__ is false.

局所変数がキャプチャされたとき、それらはトレースバックに表示されることに注意してください。

max_group_width and max_group_depth control the formatting of exception groups (see BaseExceptionGroup). The depth refers to the nesting level of the group, and the width refers to the size of a single exception group's exceptions array. The formatted output is truncated when either limit is exceeded.

バージョン 3.10 で変更: compact 引数が追加されました。

バージョン 3.11 で変更: Added the max_group_width and max_group_depth parameters.

__cause__

A TracebackException of the original __cause__.

__context__

A TracebackException of the original __context__.

exceptions

If self represents an ExceptionGroup, this field holds a list of TracebackException instances representing the nested exceptions. Otherwise it is None.

バージョン 3.11 で追加.

__suppress_context__

The __suppress_context__ value from the original exception.

__notes__

The __notes__ value from the original exception, or None if the exception does not have any notes. If it is not None is it formatted in the traceback after the exception string.

バージョン 3.11 で追加.

stack

トレースバックを表す StackSummary

exc_type

元々のトレースバックのクラス。

filename

構文エラー用 - エラーが発生したファイルの名前。

lineno

構文エラー用 - エラーが発生した行番号。

end_lineno

For syntax errors - the end line number where the error occurred. Can be None if not present.

バージョン 3.10 で追加.

text

構文エラー用 - エラーが発生したテクスト。

offset

構文エラー用 - エラーが発生したテクストへのオフセット。

end_offset

For syntax errors - the end offset into the text where the error occurred. Can be None if not present.

バージョン 3.10 で追加.

msg

構文エラー用 - コンパイラのエラーメッセージ。

classmethod from_exception(exc, *, limit=None, lookup_lines=True, capture_locals=False)

後のレンダリングのために例外をキャプチャします。 limitlookup_linescapture_localsStackSummary class のものです。

局所変数がキャプチャされたとき、それらはトレースバックに表示されることに注意してください。

print(*, file=None, chain=True)

Print to file (default sys.stderr) the exception information returned by format().

バージョン 3.11 で追加.

format(*, chain=True)

例外を書式化します。

If chain is not True, __cause__ and __context__ will not be formatted.

返り値は文字列のジェネレータで、それぞれ改行で終わりますが、内部に改行を持つものもあります。 print_exception() はこのメソッドのラッパで、単にファイルに出力します。

format_exception_only()

トレースバックの例外部を書式化します。

返り値は文字列のジェネレータで、それぞれ改行で終わります。

The generator emits the exception's message followed by its notes (if it has any). The exception message is normally a single string; however, for SyntaxError exceptions, it consists of several lines that (when printed) display detailed information about where the syntax error occurred.

バージョン 3.11 で変更: The exception's notes are now included in the output.

StackSummary Objects

バージョン 3.5 で追加.

StackSummary objects represent a call stack ready for formatting.

class traceback.StackSummary
classmethod extract(frame_gen, *, limit=None, lookup_lines=True, capture_locals=False)

Construct a StackSummary object from a frame generator (such as is returned by walk_stack() or walk_tb()).

If limit is supplied, only this many frames are taken from frame_gen. If lookup_lines is False, the returned FrameSummary objects will not have read their lines in yet, making the cost of creating the StackSummary cheaper (which may be valuable if it may not actually get formatted). If capture_locals is True the local variables in each FrameSummary are captured as object representations.

classmethod from_list(a_list)

Construct a StackSummary object from a supplied list of FrameSummary objects or old-style list of tuples. Each tuple should be a 4-tuple with filename, lineno, name, line as the elements.

format()

Returns a list of strings ready for printing. Each string in the resulting list corresponds to a single frame from the stack. Each string ends in a newline; the strings may contain internal newlines as well, for those items with source text lines.

For long sequences of the same frame and line, the first few repetitions are shown, followed by a summary line stating the exact number of further repetitions.

バージョン 3.6 で変更: Long sequences of repeated frames are now abbreviated.

format_frame_summary(frame_summary)

Returns a string for printing one of the frames involved in the stack. This method is called for each FrameSummary object to be printed by StackSummary.format(). If it returns None, the frame is omitted from the output.

バージョン 3.11 で追加.

FrameSummary Objects

バージョン 3.5 で追加.

A FrameSummary object represents a single frame in a traceback.

class traceback.FrameSummary(filename, lineno, name, lookup_line=True, locals=None, line=None)

Represents a single frame in the traceback or stack that is being formatted or printed. It may optionally have a stringified version of the frame's locals included in it. If lookup_line is False, the source code is not looked up until the FrameSummary has the line attribute accessed (which also happens when casting it to a tuple). line may be directly provided, and will prevent line lookups happening at all. locals is an optional local variable dictionary, and if supplied the variable representations are stored in the summary for later display.

FrameSummary instances have the following attributes:

filename

The filename of the source code for this frame. Equivalent to accessing f.f_code.co_filename on a frame object f.

lineno

The line number of the source code for this frame.

name

Equivalent to accessing f.f_code.co_name on a frame object f.

line

A string representing the source code for this frame, with leading and trailing whitespace stripped. If the source is not available, it is None.

トレースバックの例

この簡単な例では基本的な read-eval-print ループを実装しています。標準的な Python の対話インタープリタループに似ていますが、 Python のものより便利ではありません。インタープリタループのより完全な実装については、 code モジュールを参照してください。

import sys, traceback

def run_user_code(envdir):
    source = input(">>> ")
    try:
        exec(source, envdir)
    except Exception:
        print("Exception in user code:")
        print("-"*60)
        traceback.print_exc(file=sys.stdout)
        print("-"*60)

envdir = {}
while True:
    run_user_code(envdir)

次の例は例外とトレースバックの出力並びに形式が異なることを示します:

import sys, traceback

def lumberjack():
    bright_side_of_life()

def bright_side_of_life():
    return tuple()[0]

try:
    lumberjack()
except IndexError:
    exc = sys.exception()
    print("*** print_tb:")
    traceback.print_tb(exc.__traceback__, limit=1, file=sys.stdout)
    print("*** print_exception:")
    traceback.print_exception(exc, limit=2, file=sys.stdout)
    print("*** print_exc:")
    traceback.print_exc(limit=2, file=sys.stdout)
    print("*** format_exc, first and last line:")
    formatted_lines = traceback.format_exc().splitlines()
    print(formatted_lines[0])
    print(formatted_lines[-1])
    print("*** format_exception:")
    print(repr(traceback.format_exception(exc)))
    print("*** extract_tb:")
    print(repr(traceback.extract_tb(exc.__traceback__)))
    print("*** format_tb:")
    print(repr(traceback.format_tb(exc.__traceback__)))
    print("*** tb_lineno:", exc.__traceback__.tb_lineno)

この例の出力は次のようになります:

*** print_tb:
  File "<doctest...>", line 10, in <module>
    lumberjack()
*** print_exception:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<doctest...>", line 10, in <module>
    lumberjack()
  File "<doctest...>", line 4, in lumberjack
    bright_side_of_life()
IndexError: tuple index out of range
*** print_exc:
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<doctest...>", line 10, in <module>
    lumberjack()
  File "<doctest...>", line 4, in lumberjack
    bright_side_of_life()
IndexError: tuple index out of range
*** format_exc, first and last line:
Traceback (most recent call last):
IndexError: tuple index out of range
*** format_exception:
['Traceback (most recent call last):\n',
 '  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 10, in <module>\n    lumberjack()\n',
 '  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 4, in lumberjack\n    bright_side_of_life()\n',
 '  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 7, in bright_side_of_life\n    return tuple()[0]\n           ~~~~~~~^^^\n',
 'IndexError: tuple index out of range\n']
*** extract_tb:
[<FrameSummary file <doctest...>, line 10 in <module>>,
 <FrameSummary file <doctest...>, line 4 in lumberjack>,
 <FrameSummary file <doctest...>, line 7 in bright_side_of_life>]
*** format_tb:
['  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 10, in <module>\n    lumberjack()\n',
 '  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 4, in lumberjack\n    bright_side_of_life()\n',
 '  File "<doctest default[0]>", line 7, in bright_side_of_life\n    return tuple()[0]\n           ~~~~~~~^^^\n']
*** tb_lineno: 10

次の例は、スタックの print と format の違いを示しています:

>>> import traceback
>>> def another_function():
...     lumberstack()
...
>>> def lumberstack():
...     traceback.print_stack()
...     print(repr(traceback.extract_stack()))
...     print(repr(traceback.format_stack()))
...
>>> another_function()
  File "<doctest>", line 10, in <module>
    another_function()
  File "<doctest>", line 3, in another_function
    lumberstack()
  File "<doctest>", line 6, in lumberstack
    traceback.print_stack()
[('<doctest>', 10, '<module>', 'another_function()'),
 ('<doctest>', 3, 'another_function', 'lumberstack()'),
 ('<doctest>', 7, 'lumberstack', 'print(repr(traceback.extract_stack()))')]
['  File "<doctest>", line 10, in <module>\n    another_function()\n',
 '  File "<doctest>", line 3, in another_function\n    lumberstack()\n',
 '  File "<doctest>", line 8, in lumberstack\n    print(repr(traceback.format_stack()))\n']

最後の例は、残りの幾つかの関数のデモをします:

>>> import traceback
>>> traceback.format_list([('spam.py', 3, '<module>', 'spam.eggs()'),
...                        ('eggs.py', 42, 'eggs', 'return "bacon"')])
['  File "spam.py", line 3, in <module>\n    spam.eggs()\n',
 '  File "eggs.py", line 42, in eggs\n    return "bacon"\n']
>>> an_error = IndexError('tuple index out of range')
>>> traceback.format_exception_only(type(an_error), an_error)
['IndexError: tuple index out of range\n']