33.7. tokenize — Analyseur lexical de Python

Code source : Lib/tokenize.py

Le module tokenize fournit un analyseur lexical pour Python, implementé en Python. L’analyseur de ce module renvoie les commentaire sous forme de token, se qui le rend intéressant pour implementer des pretty-printers, typiquement pour faire de la coloration syntaxique.

Pour simplifier la gestion de flux de tokens, tous les tokens operator et delimiter, ainsi que les Ellipsis* sont renvoyés en utilisant le token générique OP. Le type exact peut être déterminé en vérifiant la propriété exact_type du named tuple renvoyé par tokenize.tokenize().

33.7.1. Analyse Lexicale

Le point d’entrée principal est un générateur :


Le générateur tokenize() prend un argument readline qui doit être un objet appelable exposant la meme interface que la méthode io.IOBase.readline() des objets fichiers. Chaque appel a la fonction doit renvoyer une ligne sous forme de bytes.

Le générateur fournit des 5-uplets contenants : le type du token, sa chaîne, un 2-uplet d’entiers (srow, scol) indiquant la ligne et la colonne où le token commence, un 2-uplet d’entiers (erow, ecol) indiquant la ligne et la colonne où il se termine, puis la ligne dans laquelle il a été trouvé. La ligne donnée (le dernier élément du tuple) est la ligne « logique », les continuation lines étant incluses. Le tuple est renvoyé sous forme de named tuple dont les noms sont : type string start end line.

The returned named tuple has an additional property named exact_type that contains the exact operator type for OP tokens. For all other token types exact_type equals the named tuple type field.

Modifié dans la version 3.1: Added support for named tuples.

Modifié dans la version 3.3: Added support for exact_type.

tokenize() determines the source encoding of the file by looking for a UTF-8 BOM or encoding cookie, according to PEP 263.

All constants from the token module are also exported from tokenize.

Another function is provided to reverse the tokenization process. This is useful for creating tools that tokenize a script, modify the token stream, and write back the modified script.


Converts tokens back into Python source code. The iterable must return sequences with at least two elements, the token type and the token string. Any additional sequence elements are ignored.

The reconstructed script is returned as a single string. The result is guaranteed to tokenize back to match the input so that the conversion is lossless and round-trips are assured. The guarantee applies only to the token type and token string as the spacing between tokens (column positions) may change.

It returns bytes, encoded using the ENCODING token, which is the first token sequence output by tokenize().

tokenize() needs to detect the encoding of source files it tokenizes. The function it uses to do this is available:


The detect_encoding() function is used to detect the encoding that should be used to decode a Python source file. It requires one argument, readline, in the same way as the tokenize() generator.

It will call readline a maximum of twice, and return the encoding used (as a string) and a list of any lines (not decoded from bytes) it has read in.

It detects the encoding from the presence of a UTF-8 BOM or an encoding cookie as specified in PEP 263. If both a BOM and a cookie are present, but disagree, a SyntaxError will be raised. Note that if the BOM is found, 'utf-8-sig' will be returned as an encoding.

If no encoding is specified, then the default of 'utf-8' will be returned.

Use open() to open Python source files: it uses detect_encoding() to detect the file encoding.


Open a file in read only mode using the encoding detected by detect_encoding().

Nouveau dans la version 3.2.

exception tokenize.TokenError

Raised when either a docstring or expression that may be split over several lines is not completed anywhere in the file, for example:

"""Beginning of

ou :


Note that unclosed single-quoted strings do not cause an error to be raised. They are tokenized as ERRORTOKEN, followed by the tokenization of their contents.

33.7.2. Command-Line Usage

Nouveau dans la version 3.3.

The tokenize module can be executed as a script from the command line. It is as simple as:

python -m tokenize [-e] [filename.py]

The following options are accepted:

-h, --help

show this help message and exit

-e, --exact

display token names using the exact type

If filename.py is specified its contents are tokenized to stdout. Otherwise, tokenization is performed on stdin.

33.7.3. Exemples

Example of a script rewriter that transforms float literals into Decimal objects:

from tokenize import tokenize, untokenize, NUMBER, STRING, NAME, OP
from io import BytesIO

def decistmt(s):
    """Substitute Decimals for floats in a string of statements.

    >>> from decimal import Decimal
    >>> s = 'print(+21.3e-5*-.1234/81.7)'
    >>> decistmt(s)
    "print (+Decimal ('21.3e-5')*-Decimal ('.1234')/Decimal ('81.7'))"

    The format of the exponent is inherited from the platform C library.
    Known cases are "e-007" (Windows) and "e-07" (not Windows).  Since
    we're only showing 12 digits, and the 13th isn't close to 5, the
    rest of the output should be platform-independent.

    >>> exec(s)  #doctest: +ELLIPSIS

    Output from calculations with Decimal should be identical across all

    >>> exec(decistmt(s))
    result = []
    g = tokenize(BytesIO(s.encode('utf-8')).readline)  # tokenize the string
    for toknum, tokval, _, _, _ in g:
        if toknum == NUMBER and '.' in tokval:  # replace NUMBER tokens
                (NAME, 'Decimal'),
                (OP, '('),
                (STRING, repr(tokval)),
                (OP, ')')
            result.append((toknum, tokval))
    return untokenize(result).decode('utf-8')

Example of tokenizing from the command line. The script:

def say_hello():
    print("Hello, World!")


will be tokenized to the following output where the first column is the range of the line/column coordinates where the token is found, the second column is the name of the token, and the final column is the value of the token (if any)

$ python -m tokenize hello.py
0,0-0,0:            ENCODING       'utf-8'
1,0-1,3:            NAME           'def'
1,4-1,13:           NAME           'say_hello'
1,13-1,14:          OP             '('
1,14-1,15:          OP             ')'
1,15-1,16:          OP             ':'
1,16-1,17:          NEWLINE        '\n'
2,0-2,4:            INDENT         '    '
2,4-2,9:            NAME           'print'
2,9-2,10:           OP             '('
2,10-2,25:          STRING         '"Hello, World!"'
2,25-2,26:          OP             ')'
2,26-2,27:          NEWLINE        '\n'
3,0-3,1:            NL             '\n'
4,0-4,0:            DEDENT         ''
4,0-4,9:            NAME           'say_hello'
4,9-4,10:           OP             '('
4,10-4,11:          OP             ')'
4,11-4,12:          NEWLINE        '\n'
5,0-5,0:            ENDMARKER      ''

The exact token type names can be displayed using the -e option:

$ python -m tokenize -e hello.py
0,0-0,0:            ENCODING       'utf-8'
1,0-1,3:            NAME           'def'
1,4-1,13:           NAME           'say_hello'
1,13-1,14:          LPAR           '('
1,14-1,15:          RPAR           ')'
1,15-1,16:          COLON          ':'
1,16-1,17:          NEWLINE        '\n'
2,0-2,4:            INDENT         '    '
2,4-2,9:            NAME           'print'
2,9-2,10:           LPAR           '('
2,10-2,25:          STRING         '"Hello, World!"'
2,25-2,26:          RPAR           ')'
2,26-2,27:          NEWLINE        '\n'
3,0-3,1:            NL             '\n'
4,0-4,0:            DEDENT         ''
4,0-4,9:            NAME           'say_hello'
4,9-4,10:           LPAR           '('
4,10-4,11:          RPAR           ')'
4,11-4,12:          NEWLINE        '\n'
5,0-5,0:            ENDMARKER      ''