Source code: Lib/zipfile.py
The ZIP file format is a common archive and compression standard. This module provides tools to create, read, write, append, and list a ZIP file. Any advanced use of this module will require an understanding of the format, as defined in PKZIP Application Note.
This module does not currently handle multi-disk ZIP files. It can handle ZIP files that use the ZIP64 extensions (that is ZIP files that are more than 4 GiB in size). It supports decryption of encrypted files in ZIP archives, but it currently cannot create an encrypted file. Decryption is extremely slow as it is implemented in native Python rather than C.
The module defines the following items:
The error raised for bad ZIP files.
New in version 3.2.
BadZipFile, for compatibility with older Python versions.
Deprecated since version 3.2.
The error raised when a ZIP file would require ZIP64 functionality but that has not been enabled.
The class for reading and writing ZIP files. See section ZipFile Objects for constructor details.
Class for creating ZIP archives containing Python libraries.
ZipInfo(filename='NoName', date_time=(1980, 1, 1, 0, 0, 0))¶
Class used to represent information about a member of an archive. Instances of this class are returned by the
ZipFileobjects. Most users of the
zipfilemodule will not need to create these, but only use those created by this module. filename should be the full name of the archive member, and date_time should be a tuple containing six fields which describe the time of the last modification to the file; the fields are described in section ZipInfo Objects.
Trueif filename is a valid ZIP file based on its magic number, otherwise returns
False. filename may be a file or file-like object too.
Changed in version 3.1: Support for file and file-like objects.
The numeric constant for an uncompressed archive member.
The numeric constant for the usual ZIP compression method. This requires the
The numeric constant for the BZIP2 compression method. This requires the
New in version 3.3.
The numeric constant for the LZMA compression method. This requires the
New in version 3.3.
The ZIP file format specification has included support for bzip2 compression since 2001, and for LZMA compression since 2006. However, some tools (including older Python releases) do not support these compression methods, and may either refuse to process the ZIP file altogether, or fail to extract individual files.
13.5.1. ZipFile Objects¶
ZipFile(file, mode='r', compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=True)¶
Open a ZIP file, where file can be either a path to a file (a string) or a file-like object. The mode parameter should be
'r'to read an existing file,
'w'to truncate and write a new file,
'a'to append to an existing file, or
'x'to exclusively create and write a new file. If mode is
'x'and file refers to an existing file, a
FileExistsErrorwill be raised. If mode is
'a'and file refers to an existing ZIP file, then additional files are added to it. If file does not refer to a ZIP file, then a new ZIP archive is appended to the file. This is meant for adding a ZIP archive to another file (such as
python.exe). If mode is
'a'and the file does not exist at all, it is created. If mode is
'a', the file should be seekable. compression is the ZIP compression method to use when writing the archive, and should be
ZIP_LZMA; unrecognized values will cause
NotImplementedErrorto be raised. If
ZIP_LZMAis specified but the corresponding module (
lzma) is not available,
RuntimeErroris raised. The default is
ZIP_STORED. If allowZip64 is
True(the default) zipfile will create ZIP files that use the ZIP64 extensions when the zipfile is larger than 2 GiB. If it is false
zipfilewill raise an exception when the ZIP file would require ZIP64 extensions.
If the file is created with mode
closedwithout adding any files to the archive, the appropriate ZIP structures for an empty archive will be written to the file.
with ZipFile('spam.zip', 'w') as myzip: myzip.write('eggs.txt')
New in version 3.2: Added the ability to use
ZipFileas a context manager.
Changed in version 3.4: ZIP64 extensions are enabled by default.
Changed in version 3.5: Added support for writing to unseekable streams. Added support for the
Changed in version 3.6: Previously, a plain
RuntimeErrorwas raised for unrecognized compression values.
Close the archive file. You must call
close()before exiting your program or essential records will not be written.
Return a list containing a
ZipInfoobject for each member of the archive. The objects are in the same order as their entries in the actual ZIP file on disk if an existing archive was opened.
Return a list of archive members by name.
open(name, mode='r', pwd=None, *, force_zip64=False)¶
Access a member of the archive as a binary file-like object. name can be either the name of a file within the archive or a
ZipInfoobject. The mode parameter, if included, must be
'r'(the default) or
'w'. pwd is the password used to decrypt encrypted ZIP files.
with ZipFile('spam.zip') as myzip: with myzip.open('eggs.txt') as myfile: print(myfile.read())
'r'the file-like object (
ZipExtFile) is read-only and provides the following methods:
__next__(). These objects can operate independently of the ZipFile.
mode='w', a writable file handle is returned, which supports the
write()method. While a writable file handle is open, attempting to read or write other files in the ZIP file will raise a
When writing a file, if the file size is not known in advance but may exceed 2 GiB, pass
force_zip64=Trueto ensure that the header format is capable of supporting large files. If the file size is known in advance, construct a
file_sizeset, and use that as the name parameter.
Changed in version 3.6:
open()can now be used to write files into the archive with the
extract(member, path=None, pwd=None)¶
Extract a member from the archive to the current working directory; member must be its full name or a
ZipInfoobject. Its file information is extracted as accurately as possible. path specifies a different directory to extract to. member can be a filename or a
ZipInfoobject. pwd is the password used for encrypted files.
Returns the normalized path created (a directory or new file).
If a member filename is an absolute path, a drive/UNC sharepoint and leading (back)slashes will be stripped, e.g.:
foo/baron Unix, and
foo\baron Windows. And all
".."components in a member filename will be removed, e.g.:
foo../ba..r. On Windows illegal characters (
*) replaced by underscore (
extractall(path=None, members=None, pwd=None)¶
Extract all members from the archive to the current working directory. path specifies a different directory to extract to. members is optional and must be a subset of the list returned by
namelist(). pwd is the password used for encrypted files.
Never extract archives from untrusted sources without prior inspection. It is possible that files are created outside of path, e.g. members that have absolute filenames starting with
"/"or filenames with two dots
"..". This module attempts to prevent that. See
Print a table of contents for the archive to
Set pwd as default password to extract encrypted files.
Return the bytes of the file name in the archive. name is the name of the file in the archive, or a
ZipInfoobject. The archive must be open for read or append. pwd is the password used for encrypted files and, if specified, it will override the default password set with
read()on a ZipFile that uses a compression method other than
ZIP_LZMAwill raise a
NotImplementedError. An error will also be raised if the corresponding compression module is not available.
Read all the files in the archive and check their CRC’s and file headers. Return the name of the first bad file, or else return
write(filename, arcname=None, compress_type=None)¶
Write the file named filename to the archive, giving it the archive name arcname (by default, this will be the same as filename, but without a drive letter and with leading path separators removed). If given, compress_type overrides the value given for the compression parameter to the constructor for the new entry. The archive must be open with mode
There is no official file name encoding for ZIP files. If you have unicode file names, you must convert them to byte strings in your desired encoding before passing them to
write(). WinZip interprets all file names as encoded in CP437, also known as DOS Latin.
Archive names should be relative to the archive root, that is, they should not start with a path separator.
arcnameis not given) contains a null byte, the name of the file in the archive will be truncated at the null byte.
writestr(zinfo_or_arcname, data[, compress_type])¶
Write the string data to the archive; zinfo_or_arcname is either the file name it will be given in the archive, or a
ZipInfoinstance. If it’s an instance, at least the filename, date, and time must be given. If it’s a name, the date and time is set to the current date and time. The archive must be opened with mode
If given, compress_type overrides the value given for the compression parameter to the constructor for the new entry, or in the zinfo_or_arcname (if that is a
When passing a
ZipInfoinstance as the zinfo_or_arcname parameter, the compression method used will be that specified in the compress_type member of the given
ZipInfoinstance. By default, the
ZipInfoconstructor sets this member to
Changed in version 3.2: The compress_type argument.
The following data attributes are also available:
The level of debug output to use. This may be set from
0(the default, no output) to
3(the most output). Debugging information is written to
13.5.2. PyZipFile Objects¶
PyZipFile(file, mode='r', compression=ZIP_STORED, allowZip64=True, optimize=-1)¶
New in version 3.2: The optimize parameter.
Changed in version 3.4: ZIP64 extensions are enabled by default.
Instances have one method in addition to those of
writepy(pathname, basename='', filterfunc=None)¶
Search for files
*.pyand add the corresponding file to the archive.
If the optimize parameter to
PyZipFilewas not given or
-1, the corresponding file is a
*.pycfile, compiling if necessary.
If pathname is a file, the filename must end with
.py, and just the (corresponding
*.py[co]) file is added at the top level (no path information). If pathname is a file that does not end with
RuntimeErrorwill be raised. If it is a directory, and the directory is not a package directory, then all the files
*.py[co]are added at the top level. If the directory is a package directory, then all
*.py[co]are added under the package name as a file path, and if any subdirectories are package directories, all of these are added recursively.
basename is intended for internal use only.
filterfunc, if given, must be a function taking a single string argument. It will be passed each path (including each individual full file path) before it is added to the archive. If filterfunc returns a false value, the path will not be added, and if it is a directory its contents will be ignored. For example, if our test files are all either in
testdirectories or start with the string
test_, we can use a filterfunc to exclude them:
>>> zf = PyZipFile('myprog.zip') >>> def notests(s): ... fn = os.path.basename(s) ... return (not (fn == 'test' or fn.startswith('test_'))) >>> zf.writepy('myprog', filterfunc=notests)
writepy()method makes archives with file names like this:
string.pyc # Top level name test/__init__.pyc # Package directory test/testall.pyc # Module test.testall test/bogus/__init__.pyc # Subpackage directory test/bogus/myfile.pyc # Submodule test.bogus.myfile
New in version 3.4: The filterfunc parameter.
13.5.3. ZipInfo Objects¶
There is one classmethod to make a
ZipInfo instance for a filesystem
ZipInfoinstance for a file on the filesystem, in preparation for adding it to a zip file.
filename should be the path to a file or directory on the filesystem.
If arcname is specified, it is used as the name within the archive. If arcname is not specified, the name will be the same as filename, but with any drive letter and leading path separators removed.
New in version 3.6.
Instances have the following methods and attributes:
Trueif this archive member is a directory.
This uses the entry’s name: directories should always end with
New in version 3.6.
Name of the file in the archive.
The time and date of the last modification to the archive member. This is a tuple of six values:
Year (>= 1980)
Day of month (one-based)
The ZIP file format does not support timestamps before 1980.
Type of compression for the archive member.
Comment for the individual archive member.
Expansion field data. The PKZIP Application Note contains some comments on the internal structure of the data contained in this string.
System which created ZIP archive.
PKZIP version which created ZIP archive.
PKZIP version needed to extract archive.
Must be zero.
ZIP flag bits.
Volume number of file header.
External file attributes.
Byte offset to the file header.
CRC-32 of the uncompressed file.
Size of the compressed data.
Size of the uncompressed file.
13.5.4. Command-Line Interface¶
zipfile module provides a simple command-line interface to interact
with ZIP archives.
If you want to create a new ZIP archive, specify its name after the
option and then list the filename(s) that should be included:
$ python -m zipfile -c monty.zip spam.txt eggs.txt
Passing a directory is also acceptable:
$ python -m zipfile -c monty.zip life-of-brian_1979/
If you want to extract a ZIP archive into the specified directory, use
$ python -m zipfile -e monty.zip target-dir/
For a list of the files in a ZIP archive, use the
$ python -m zipfile -l monty.zip