Number Protocol

int PyNumber_Check(PyObject *o)

Returns 1 if the object o provides numeric protocols, and false otherwise. This function always succeeds.

Changed in version 3.8: Returns 1 if o is an index integer.

PyObject* PyNumber_Add(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of adding o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 + o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Subtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of subtracting o2 from o1, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 - o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Multiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of multiplying o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 * o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_MatrixMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of matrix multiplication on o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 @ o2.

New in version 3.5.

PyObject* PyNumber_FloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Return the floor of o1 divided by o2, or NULL on failure. This is equivalent to the “classic” division of integers.

PyObject* PyNumber_TrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of o1 divided by o2, or NULL on failure. The return value is “approximate” because binary floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when passed two integers.

PyObject* PyNumber_Remainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the remainder of dividing o1 by o2, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 % o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Divmod(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

See the built-in function divmod(). Returns NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression divmod(o1, o2).

PyObject* PyNumber_Power(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
Return value: New reference.

See the built-in function pow(). Returns NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression pow(o1, o2, o3), where o3 is optional. If o3 is to be ignored, pass Py_None in its place (passing NULL for o3 would cause an illegal memory access).

PyObject* PyNumber_Negative(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the negation of o on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression -o.

PyObject* PyNumber_Positive(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns o on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression +o.

PyObject* PyNumber_Absolute(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the absolute value of o, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression abs(o).

PyObject* PyNumber_Invert(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the bitwise negation of o on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ~o.

PyObject* PyNumber_Lshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of left shifting o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 << o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Rshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of right shifting o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 >> o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_And(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise and” of o1 and o2 on success and NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 & o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Xor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise exclusive or” of o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 ^ o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Or(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise or” of o1 and o2 on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression o1 | o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAdd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of adding o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 += o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceSubtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of subtracting o2 from o1, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 -= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of multiplying o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 *= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMatrixMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of matrix multiplication on o1 and o2, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 @= o2.

New in version 3.5.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceFloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the mathematical floor of dividing o1 by o2, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 //= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceTrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of o1 divided by o2, or NULL on failure. The return value is “approximate” because binary floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when passed two integers. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRemainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the remainder of dividing o1 by o2, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 %= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlacePower(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3)
Return value: New reference.

See the built-in function pow(). Returns NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 **= o2 when o3 is Py_None, or an in-place variant of pow(o1, o2, o3) otherwise. If o3 is to be ignored, pass Py_None in its place (passing NULL for o3 would cause an illegal memory access).

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceLshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of left shifting o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 <<= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the result of right shifting o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 >>= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAnd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise and” of o1 and o2 on success and NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 &= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceXor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise exclusive or” of o1 by o2 on success, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 ^= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceOr(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the “bitwise or” of o1 and o2 on success, or NULL on failure. The operation is done in-place when o1 supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement o1 |= o2.

PyObject* PyNumber_Long(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the o converted to an integer object on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression int(o).

PyObject* PyNumber_Float(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the o converted to a float object on success, or NULL on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression float(o).

PyObject* PyNumber_Index(PyObject *o)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the o converted to a Python int on success or NULL with a TypeError exception raised on failure.

Changed in version 3.10: The result always has exact type int. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass of int.

PyObject* PyNumber_ToBase(PyObject *n, int base)
Return value: New reference.

Returns the integer n converted to base base as a string. The base argument must be one of 2, 8, 10, or 16. For base 2, 8, or 16, the returned string is prefixed with a base marker of '0b', '0o', or '0x', respectively. If n is not a Python int, it is converted with PyNumber_Index() first.

Py_ssize_t PyNumber_AsSsize_t(PyObject *o, PyObject *exc)

Returns o converted to a Py_ssize_t value if o can be interpreted as an integer. If the call fails, an exception is raised and -1 is returned.

If o can be converted to a Python int but the attempt to convert to a Py_ssize_t value would raise an OverflowError, then the exc argument is the type of exception that will be raised (usually IndexError or OverflowError). If exc is NULL, then the exception is cleared and the value is clipped to PY_SSIZE_T_MIN for a negative integer or PY_SSIZE_T_MAX for a positive integer.

int PyIndex_Check(PyObject *o)

Returns 1 if o is an index integer (has the nb_index slot of the tp_as_number structure filled in), and 0 otherwise. This function always succeeds.