:mod:`statistics` --- Mathematical statistics functions
=======================================================
.. module:: statistics
:synopsis: mathematical statistics functions
.. moduleauthor:: Steven D'Aprano
.. sectionauthor:: Steven D'Aprano
.. versionadded:: 3.4
**Source code:** :source:`Lib/statistics.py`
.. testsetup:: *
from statistics import *
__name__ = ''
--------------
This module provides functions for calculating mathematical statistics of
numeric (:class:`Real`-valued) data.
.. note::
Unless explicitly noted otherwise, these functions support :class:`int`,
:class:`float`, :class:`decimal.Decimal` and :class:`fractions.Fraction`.
Behaviour with other types (whether in the numeric tower or not) is
currently unsupported. Mixed types are also undefined and
implementation-dependent. If your input data consists of mixed types,
you may be able to use :func:`map` to ensure a consistent result, e.g.
``map(float, input_data)``.
Averages and measures of central location
-----------------------------------------
These functions calculate an average or typical value from a population
or sample.
======================= =============================================
:func:`mean` Arithmetic mean ("average") of data.
:func:`geometric_mean` Geometric mean of data.
:func:`harmonic_mean` Harmonic mean of data.
:func:`median` Median (middle value) of data.
:func:`median_low` Low median of data.
:func:`median_high` High median of data.
:func:`median_grouped` Median, or 50th percentile, of grouped data.
:func:`mode` Mode (most common value) of discrete data.
======================= =============================================
Measures of spread
------------------
These functions calculate a measure of how much the population or sample
tends to deviate from the typical or average values.
======================= =============================================
:func:`pstdev` Population standard deviation of data.
:func:`pvariance` Population variance of data.
:func:`stdev` Sample standard deviation of data.
:func:`variance` Sample variance of data.
======================= =============================================
Function details
----------------
Note: The functions do not require the data given to them to be sorted.
However, for reading convenience, most of the examples show sorted sequences.
.. function:: mean(data)
Return the sample arithmetic mean of *data*, a sequence or iterator of
real-valued numbers.
The arithmetic mean is the sum of the data divided by the number of data
points. It is commonly called "the average", although it is only one of many
different mathematical averages. It is a measure of the central location of
the data.
If *data* is empty, :exc:`StatisticsError` will be raised.
Some examples of use:
.. doctest::
>>> mean([1, 2, 3, 4, 4])
2.8
>>> mean([-1.0, 2.5, 3.25, 5.75])
2.625
>>> from fractions import Fraction as F
>>> mean([F(3, 7), F(1, 21), F(5, 3), F(1, 3)])
Fraction(13, 21)
>>> from decimal import Decimal as D
>>> mean([D("0.5"), D("0.75"), D("0.625"), D("0.375")])
Decimal('0.5625')
.. note::
The mean is strongly affected by outliers and is not a robust estimator
for central location: the mean is not necessarily a typical example of the
data points. For more robust, although less efficient, measures of
central location, see :func:`median` and :func:`mode`. (In this case,
"efficient" refers to statistical efficiency rather than computational
efficiency.)
The sample mean gives an unbiased estimate of the true population mean,
which means that, taken on average over all the possible samples,
``mean(sample)`` converges on the true mean of the entire population. If
*data* represents the entire population rather than a sample, then
``mean(data)`` is equivalent to calculating the true population mean μ.
.. function:: geometric_mean(data)
Return the geometric mean of *data*, a sequence or iterator of
real-valued numbers.
The geometric mean is the *n*-th root of the product of *n* data points.
It is a type of average, a measure of the central location of the data.
The geometric mean is appropriate when averaging quantities which
are multiplied together rather than added, for example growth rates.
Suppose an investment grows by 10% in the first year, falls by 5% in
the second, then grows by 12% in the third, what is the average rate
of growth over the three years?
.. doctest::
>>> geometric_mean([1.10, 0.95, 1.12])
1.0538483123382172
giving an average growth of 5.385%. Using the arithmetic mean will
give approximately 5.667%, which is too high.
:exc:`StatisticsError` is raised if *data* is empty, or any
element is less than zero.
.. versionadded:: 3.6
.. function:: harmonic_mean(data)
Return the harmonic mean of *data*, a sequence or iterator of
real-valued numbers.
The harmonic mean, sometimes called the subcontrary mean, is the
reciprocal of the arithmetic :func:`mean` of the reciprocals of the
data. For example, the harmonic mean of three values *a*, *b* and *c*
will be equivalent to ``3/(1/a + 1/b + 1/c)``.
The harmonic mean is a type of average, a measure of the central
location of the data. It is often appropriate when averaging quantities
which are rates or ratios, for example speeds. For example:
Suppose an investor purchases an equal value of shares in each of
three companies, with P/E (price/earning) ratios of 2.5, 3 and 10.
What is the average P/E ratio for the investor's portfolio?
.. doctest::
>>> harmonic_mean([2.5, 3, 10]) # For an equal investment portfolio.
3.6
Using the arithmetic mean would give an average of about 5.167, which
is too high.
:exc:`StatisticsError` is raised if *data* is empty, or any element
is less than zero.
.. versionadded:: 3.6
.. function:: median(data)
Return the median (middle value) of numeric data, using the common "mean of
middle two" method. If *data* is empty, :exc:`StatisticsError` is raised.
The median is a robust measure of central location, and is less affected by
the presence of outliers in your data. When the number of data points is
odd, the middle data point is returned:
.. doctest::
>>> median([1, 3, 5])
3
When the number of data points is even, the median is interpolated by taking
the average of the two middle values:
.. doctest::
>>> median([1, 3, 5, 7])
4.0
This is suited for when your data is discrete, and you don't mind that the
median may not be an actual data point.
.. seealso:: :func:`median_low`, :func:`median_high`, :func:`median_grouped`
.. function:: median_low(data)
Return the low median of numeric data. If *data* is empty,
:exc:`StatisticsError` is raised.
The low median is always a member of the data set. When the number of data
points is odd, the middle value is returned. When it is even, the smaller of
the two middle values is returned.
.. doctest::
>>> median_low([1, 3, 5])
3
>>> median_low([1, 3, 5, 7])
3
Use the low median when your data are discrete and you prefer the median to
be an actual data point rather than interpolated.
.. function:: median_high(data)
Return the high median of data. If *data* is empty, :exc:`StatisticsError`
is raised.
The high median is always a member of the data set. When the number of data
points is odd, the middle value is returned. When it is even, the larger of
the two middle values is returned.
.. doctest::
>>> median_high([1, 3, 5])
3
>>> median_high([1, 3, 5, 7])
5
Use the high median when your data are discrete and you prefer the median to
be an actual data point rather than interpolated.
.. function:: median_grouped(data, interval=1)
Return the median of grouped continuous data, calculated as the 50th
percentile, using interpolation. If *data* is empty, :exc:`StatisticsError`
is raised.
.. doctest::
>>> median_grouped([52, 52, 53, 54])
52.5
In the following example, the data are rounded, so that each value represents
the midpoint of data classes, e.g. 1 is the midpoint of the class 0.5-1.5, 2
is the midpoint of 1.5-2.5, 3 is the midpoint of 2.5-3.5, etc. With the data
given, the middle value falls somewhere in the class 3.5-4.5, and
interpolation is used to estimate it:
.. doctest::
>>> median_grouped([1, 2, 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5])
3.7
Optional argument *interval* represents the class interval, and defaults
to 1. Changing the class interval naturally will change the interpolation:
.. doctest::
>>> median_grouped([1, 3, 3, 5, 7], interval=1)
3.25
>>> median_grouped([1, 3, 3, 5, 7], interval=2)
3.5
This function does not check whether the data points are at least
*interval* apart.
.. impl-detail::
Under some circumstances, :func:`median_grouped` may coerce data points to
floats. This behaviour is likely to change in the future.
.. seealso::
* "Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences", Frederick J Gravetter and
Larry B Wallnau (8th Edition).
* Calculating the `median `_.
* The `SSMEDIAN
`_
function in the Gnome Gnumeric spreadsheet, including `this discussion
`_.
.. function:: mode(data)
Return the most common data point from discrete or nominal *data*. The mode
(when it exists) is the most typical value, and is a robust measure of
central location.
If *data* is empty, or if there is not exactly one most common value,
:exc:`StatisticsError` is raised.
``mode`` assumes discrete data, and returns a single value. This is the
standard treatment of the mode as commonly taught in schools:
.. doctest::
>>> mode([1, 1, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4])
3
The mode is unique in that it is the only statistic which also applies
to nominal (non-numeric) data:
.. doctest::
>>> mode(["red", "blue", "blue", "red", "green", "red", "red"])
'red'
.. function:: pstdev(data, mu=None)
Return the population standard deviation (the square root of the population
variance). See :func:`pvariance` for arguments and other details.
.. doctest::
>>> pstdev([1.5, 2.5, 2.5, 2.75, 3.25, 4.75])
0.986893273527251
.. function:: pvariance(data, mu=None)
Return the population variance of *data*, a non-empty iterable of real-valued
numbers. Variance, or second moment about the mean, is a measure of the
variability (spread or dispersion) of data. A large variance indicates that
the data is spread out; a small variance indicates it is clustered closely
around the mean.
If the optional second argument *mu* is given, it should be the mean of
*data*. If it is missing or ``None`` (the default), the mean is
automatically calculated.
Use this function to calculate the variance from the entire population. To
estimate the variance from a sample, the :func:`variance` function is usually
a better choice.
Raises :exc:`StatisticsError` if *data* is empty.
Examples:
.. doctest::
>>> data = [0.0, 0.25, 0.25, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75, 2.75, 3.25]
>>> pvariance(data)
1.25
If you have already calculated the mean of your data, you can pass it as the
optional second argument *mu* to avoid recalculation:
.. doctest::
>>> mu = mean(data)
>>> pvariance(data, mu)
1.25
This function does not attempt to verify that you have passed the actual mean
as *mu*. Using arbitrary values for *mu* may lead to invalid or impossible
results.
Decimals and Fractions are supported:
.. doctest::
>>> from decimal import Decimal as D
>>> pvariance([D("27.5"), D("30.25"), D("30.25"), D("34.5"), D("41.75")])
Decimal('24.815')
>>> from fractions import Fraction as F
>>> pvariance([F(1, 4), F(5, 4), F(1, 2)])
Fraction(13, 72)
.. note::
When called with the entire population, this gives the population variance
σ². When called on a sample instead, this is the biased sample variance
s², also known as variance with N degrees of freedom.
If you somehow know the true population mean μ, you may use this function
to calculate the variance of a sample, giving the known population mean as
the second argument. Provided the data points are representative
(e.g. independent and identically distributed), the result will be an
unbiased estimate of the population variance.
.. function:: stdev(data, xbar=None)
Return the sample standard deviation (the square root of the sample
variance). See :func:`variance` for arguments and other details.
.. doctest::
>>> stdev([1.5, 2.5, 2.5, 2.75, 3.25, 4.75])
1.0810874155219827
.. function:: variance(data, xbar=None)
Return the sample variance of *data*, an iterable of at least two real-valued
numbers. Variance, or second moment about the mean, is a measure of the
variability (spread or dispersion) of data. A large variance indicates that
the data is spread out; a small variance indicates it is clustered closely
around the mean.
If the optional second argument *xbar* is given, it should be the mean of
*data*. If it is missing or ``None`` (the default), the mean is
automatically calculated.
Use this function when your data is a sample from a population. To calculate
the variance from the entire population, see :func:`pvariance`.
Raises :exc:`StatisticsError` if *data* has fewer than two values.
Examples:
.. doctest::
>>> data = [2.75, 1.75, 1.25, 0.25, 0.5, 1.25, 3.5]
>>> variance(data)
1.3720238095238095
If you have already calculated the mean of your data, you can pass it as the
optional second argument *xbar* to avoid recalculation:
.. doctest::
>>> m = mean(data)
>>> variance(data, m)
1.3720238095238095
This function does not attempt to verify that you have passed the actual mean
as *xbar*. Using arbitrary values for *xbar* can lead to invalid or
impossible results.
Decimal and Fraction values are supported:
.. doctest::
>>> from decimal import Decimal as D
>>> variance([D("27.5"), D("30.25"), D("30.25"), D("34.5"), D("41.75")])
Decimal('31.01875')
>>> from fractions import Fraction as F
>>> variance([F(1, 6), F(1, 2), F(5, 3)])
Fraction(67, 108)
.. note::
This is the sample variance s² with Bessel's correction, also known as
variance with N-1 degrees of freedom. Provided that the data points are
representative (e.g. independent and identically distributed), the result
should be an unbiased estimate of the true population variance.
If you somehow know the actual population mean μ you should pass it to the
:func:`pvariance` function as the *mu* parameter to get the variance of a
sample.
Exceptions
----------
A single exception is defined:
.. exception:: StatisticsError
Subclass of :exc:`ValueError` for statistics-related exceptions.
..
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