2. Using Python on Unix platforms¶
2.1. Getting and installing the latest version of Python¶
2.1.1. On Linux¶
Python comes preinstalled on most Linux distributions, and is available as a package on all others. However there are certain features you might want to use that are not available on your distro’s package. You can easily compile the latest version of Python from source.
In the event that Python doesn’t come preinstalled and isn’t in the repositories as well, you can easily make packages for your own distro. Have a look at the following links:
for Debian users
for OpenSuse users
for Fedora users
for Slackware users
2.1.2. On FreeBSD and OpenBSD¶
FreeBSD users, to add the package use:
pkg install python3
OpenBSD users, to add the package use:
pkg_add -r python pkg_add ftp://ftp.openbsd.org/pub/OpenBSD/4.2/packages/<insert your architecture here>/python-<version>.tgz
For example i386 users get the 2.5.1 version of Python using:
2.1.3. On OpenSolaris¶
You can get Python from OpenCSW. Various versions
of Python are available and can be installed with e.g.
pkgutil -i python27.
2.2. Building Python¶
If you want to compile CPython yourself, first thing you should do is get the source. You can download either the latest release’s source or just grab a fresh clone. (If you want to contribute patches, you will need a clone.)
The build process consists of the usual commands:
./configure make make install
Configuration options and caveats for specific Unix platforms are extensively documented in the README.rst file in the root of the Python source tree.
make install can overwrite or masquerade the
make altinstall is therefore recommended instead of
since it only installs
To easily use Python scripts on Unix, you need to make them executable, e.g. with
$ chmod +x script
and put an appropriate Shebang line at the top of the script. A good choice is usually
which searches for the Python interpreter in the whole
some Unices may not have the env command, so you may need to hardcode
/usr/bin/python3 as the interpreter path.
To use shell commands in your Python scripts, look at the
2.5. Custom OpenSSL¶
To use your vendor’s OpenSSL configuration and system trust store, locate the directory with
openssl.cnffile or symlink in
/etc. On most distribution the file is either in
/etc/pki/tls. The directory should also contain a
cert.pemfile and/or a
$ find /etc/ -name openssl.cnf -printf "%h\n" /etc/ssl
Download, build, and install OpenSSL. Make sure you use
install_swtarget does not override
$ curl -O https://www.openssl.org/source/openssl-VERSION.tar.gz $ tar xzf openssl-VERSION $ pushd openssl-VERSION $ ./config \ --prefix=/usr/local/custom-openssl \ --libdir=lib \ --openssldir=/etc/ssl $ make -j1 depend $ make -j8 $ make install_sw $ popd
Build Python with custom OpenSSL (see the configure
$ pushd python-3.x.x $ ./configure -C \ --with-openssl=/usr/local/custom-openssl \ --with-openssl-rpath=auto \ --prefix=/usr/local/python-3.x.x $ make -j8 $ make altinstall
Patch releases of OpenSSL have a backwards compatible ABI. You don’t need to recompile Python to update OpenSSL. It’s sufficient to replace the custom OpenSSL installation with a newer version.