16.8. logging.config — Logging configuration

Source code: Lib/logging/config.py


This section describes the API for configuring the logging module.

16.8.1. Configuration functions

The following functions configure the logging module. They are located in the logging.config module. Their use is optional — you can configure the logging module using these functions or by making calls to the main API (defined in logging itself) and defining handlers which are declared either in logging or logging.handlers.

logging.config.dictConfig(config)

Takes the logging configuration from a dictionary. The contents of this dictionary are described in Configuration dictionary schema below.

If an error is encountered during configuration, this function will raise a ValueError, TypeError, AttributeError or ImportError with a suitably descriptive message. The following is a (possibly incomplete) list of conditions which will raise an error:

  • A level which is not a string or which is a string not corresponding to an actual logging level.
  • A propagate value which is not a boolean.
  • An id which does not have a corresponding destination.
  • A non-existent handler id found during an incremental call.
  • An invalid logger name.
  • Inability to resolve to an internal or external object.

Parsing is performed by the DictConfigurator class, whose constructor is passed the dictionary used for configuration, and has a configure() method. The logging.config module has a callable attribute dictConfigClass which is initially set to DictConfigurator. You can replace the value of dictConfigClass with a suitable implementation of your own.

dictConfig() calls dictConfigClass passing the specified dictionary, and then calls the configure() method on the returned object to put the configuration into effect:

def dictConfig(config):
    dictConfigClass(config).configure()

For example, a subclass of DictConfigurator could call DictConfigurator.__init__() in its own __init__(), then set up custom prefixes which would be usable in the subsequent configure() call. dictConfigClass would be bound to this new subclass, and then dictConfig() could be called exactly as in the default, uncustomized state.

New in version 3.2.

logging.config.fileConfig(fname, defaults=None, disable_existing_loggers=True)

Reads the logging configuration from a configparser-format file. The format of the file should be as described in Configuration file format. This function can be called several times from an application, allowing an end user to select from various pre-canned configurations (if the developer provides a mechanism to present the choices and load the chosen configuration).

Parameters:
  • fname – A filename, or a file-like object, or an instance derived from RawConfigParser. If a RawConfigParser-derived instance is passed, it is used as is. Otherwise, a Configparser is instantiated, and the configuration read by it from the object passed in fname. If that has a readline() method, it is assumed to be a file-like object and read using read_file(); otherwise, it is assumed to be a filename and passed to read().
  • defaults – Defaults to be passed to the ConfigParser can be specified in this argument.
  • disable_existing_loggers – If specified as False, loggers which exist when this call is made are left alone. The default is True because this enables old behaviour in a backward- compatible way. This behaviour is to disable any existing loggers unless they or their ancestors are explicitly named in the logging configuration.

Changed in version 3.4: An instance of a subclass of RawConfigParser is now accepted as a value for fname. This facilitates:

  • Use of a configuration file where logging configuration is just part of the overall application configuration.
  • Use of a configuration read from a file, and then modified by the using application (e.g. based on command-line parameters or other aspects of the runtime environment) before being passed to fileConfig.
logging.config.listen(port=DEFAULT_LOGGING_CONFIG_PORT, verify=None)

Starts up a socket server on the specified port, and listens for new configurations. If no port is specified, the module’s default DEFAULT_LOGGING_CONFIG_PORT is used. Logging configurations will be sent as a file suitable for processing by fileConfig(). Returns a Thread instance on which you can call start() to start the server, and which you can join() when appropriate. To stop the server, call stopListening().

The verify argument, if specified, should be a callable which should verify whether bytes received across the socket are valid and should be processed. This could be done by encrypting and/or signing what is sent across the socket, such that the verify callable can perform signature verification and/or decryption. The verify callable is called with a single argument - the bytes received across the socket - and should return the bytes to be processed, or None to indicate that the bytes should be discarded. The returned bytes could be the same as the passed in bytes (e.g. when only verification is done), or they could be completely different (perhaps if decryption were performed).

To send a configuration to the socket, read in the configuration file and send it to the socket as a string of bytes preceded by a four-byte length string packed in binary using struct.pack('>L', n).

Note

Because portions of the configuration are passed through eval(), use of this function may open its users to a security risk. While the function only binds to a socket on localhost, and so does not accept connections from remote machines, there are scenarios where untrusted code could be run under the account of the process which calls listen(). Specifically, if the process calling listen() runs on a multi-user machine where users cannot trust each other, then a malicious user could arrange to run essentially arbitrary code in a victim user’s process, simply by connecting to the victim’s listen() socket and sending a configuration which runs whatever code the attacker wants to have executed in the victim’s process. This is especially easy to do if the default port is used, but not hard even if a different port is used). To avoid the risk of this happening, use the verify argument to listen() to prevent unrecognised configurations from being applied.

Changed in version 3.4.: The verify argument was added.

logging.config.stopListening()

Stops the listening server which was created with a call to listen(). This is typically called before calling join() on the return value from listen().

16.8.2. Configuration dictionary schema

Describing a logging configuration requires listing the various objects to create and the connections between them; for example, you may create a handler named ‘console’ and then say that the logger named ‘startup’ will send its messages to the ‘console’ handler. These objects aren’t limited to those provided by the logging module because you might write your own formatter or handler class. The parameters to these classes may also need to include external objects such as sys.stderr. The syntax for describing these objects and connections is defined in Object connections below.

16.8.2.1. Dictionary Schema Details

The dictionary passed to dictConfig() must contain the following keys:

  • version - to be set to an integer value representing the schema version. The only valid value at present is 1, but having this key allows the schema to evolve while still preserving backwards compatibility.

All other keys are optional, but if present they will be interpreted as described below. In all cases below where a ‘configuring dict’ is mentioned, it will be checked for the special '()' key to see if a custom instantiation is required. If so, the mechanism described in User-defined objects below is used to create an instance; otherwise, the context is used to determine what to instantiate.

  • formatters - the corresponding value will be a dict in which each key is a formatter id and each value is a dict describing how to configure the corresponding Formatter instance.

    The configuring dict is searched for keys format and datefmt (with defaults of None) and these are used to construct a Formatter instance.

  • filters - the corresponding value will be a dict in which each key is a filter id and each value is a dict describing how to configure the corresponding Filter instance.

    The configuring dict is searched for the key name (defaulting to the empty string) and this is used to construct a logging.Filter instance.

  • handlers - the corresponding value will be a dict in which each key is a handler id and each value is a dict describing how to configure the corresponding Handler instance.

    The configuring dict is searched for the following keys:

    • class (mandatory). This is the fully qualified name of the handler class.
    • level (optional). The level of the handler.
    • formatter (optional). The id of the formatter for this handler.
    • filters (optional). A list of ids of the filters for this handler.

    All other keys are passed through as keyword arguments to the handler’s constructor. For example, given the snippet:

    handlers:
      console:
        class : logging.StreamHandler
        formatter: brief
        level   : INFO
        filters: [allow_foo]
        stream  : ext://sys.stdout
      file:
        class : logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler
        formatter: precise
        filename: logconfig.log
        maxBytes: 1024
        backupCount: 3
    

    the handler with id console is instantiated as a logging.StreamHandler, using sys.stdout as the underlying stream. The handler with id file is instantiated as a logging.handlers.RotatingFileHandler with the keyword arguments filename='logconfig.log', maxBytes=1024, backupCount=3.

  • loggers - the corresponding value will be a dict in which each key is a logger name and each value is a dict describing how to configure the corresponding Logger instance.

    The configuring dict is searched for the following keys:

    • level (optional). The level of the logger.
    • propagate (optional). The propagation setting of the logger.
    • filters (optional). A list of ids of the filters for this logger.
    • handlers (optional). A list of ids of the handlers for this logger.

    The specified loggers will be configured according to the level, propagation, filters and handlers specified.

  • root - this will be the configuration for the root logger. Processing of the configuration will be as for any logger, except that the propagate setting will not be applicable.

  • incremental - whether the configuration is to be interpreted as incremental to the existing configuration. This value defaults to False, which means that the specified configuration replaces the existing configuration with the same semantics as used by the existing fileConfig() API.

    If the specified value is True, the configuration is processed as described in the section on Incremental Configuration.

  • disable_existing_loggers - whether any existing loggers are to be disabled. This setting mirrors the parameter of the same name in fileConfig(). If absent, this parameter defaults to True. This value is ignored if incremental is True.

16.8.2.2. Incremental Configuration

It is difficult to provide complete flexibility for incremental configuration. For example, because objects such as filters and formatters are anonymous, once a configuration is set up, it is not possible to refer to such anonymous objects when augmenting a configuration.

Furthermore, there is not a compelling case for arbitrarily altering the object graph of loggers, handlers, filters, formatters at run-time, once a configuration is set up; the verbosity of loggers and handlers can be controlled just by setting levels (and, in the case of loggers, propagation flags). Changing the object graph arbitrarily in a safe way is problematic in a multi-threaded environment; while not impossible, the benefits are not worth the complexity it adds to the implementation.

Thus, when the incremental key of a configuration dict is present and is True, the system will completely ignore any formatters and filters entries, and process only the level settings in the handlers entries, and the level and propagate settings in the loggers and root entries.

Using a value in the configuration dict lets configurations to be sent over the wire as pickled dicts to a socket listener. Thus, the logging verbosity of a long-running application can be altered over time with no need to stop and restart the application.

16.8.2.3. Object connections

The schema describes a set of logging objects - loggers, handlers, formatters, filters - which are connected to each other in an object graph. Thus, the schema needs to represent connections between the objects. For example, say that, once configured, a particular logger has attached to it a particular handler. For the purposes of this discussion, we can say that the logger represents the source, and the handler the destination, of a connection between the two. Of course in the configured objects this is represented by the logger holding a reference to the handler. In the configuration dict, this is done by giving each destination object an id which identifies it unambiguously, and then using the id in the source object’s configuration to indicate that a connection exists between the source and the destination object with that id.

So, for example, consider the following YAML snippet:

formatters:
  brief:
    # configuration for formatter with id 'brief' goes here
  precise:
    # configuration for formatter with id 'precise' goes here
handlers:
  h1: #This is an id
   # configuration of handler with id 'h1' goes here
   formatter: brief
  h2: #This is another id
   # configuration of handler with id 'h2' goes here
   formatter: precise
loggers:
  foo.bar.baz:
    # other configuration for logger 'foo.bar.baz'
    handlers: [h1, h2]

(Note: YAML used here because it’s a little more readable than the equivalent Python source form for the dictionary.)

The ids for loggers are the logger names which would be used programmatically to obtain a reference to those loggers, e.g. foo.bar.baz. The ids for Formatters and Filters can be any string value (such as brief, precise above) and they are transient, in that they are only meaningful for processing the configuration dictionary and used to determine connections between objects, and are not persisted anywhere when the configuration call is complete.

The above snippet indicates that logger named foo.bar.baz should have two handlers attached to it, which are described by the handler ids h1 and h2. The formatter for h1 is that described by id brief, and the formatter for h2 is that described by id precise.

16.8.2.4. User-defined objects

The schema supports user-defined objects for handlers, filters and formatters. (Loggers do not need to have different types for different instances, so there is no support in this configuration schema for user-defined logger classes.)

Objects to be configured are described by dictionaries which detail their configuration. In some places, the logging system will be able to infer from the context how an object is to be instantiated, but when a user-defined object is to be instantiated, the system will not know how to do this. In order to provide complete flexibility for user-defined object instantiation, the user needs to provide a ‘factory’ - a callable which is called with a configuration dictionary and which returns the instantiated object. This is signalled by an absolute import path to the factory being made available under the special key '()'. Here’s a concrete example:

formatters:
  brief:
    format: '%(message)s'
  default:
    format: '%(asctime)s %(levelname)-8s %(name)-15s %(message)s'
    datefmt: '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'
  custom:
      (): my.package.customFormatterFactory
      bar: baz
      spam: 99.9
      answer: 42

The above YAML snippet defines three formatters. The first, with id brief, is a standard logging.Formatter instance with the specified format string. The second, with id default, has a longer format and also defines the time format explicitly, and will result in a logging.Formatter initialized with those two format strings. Shown in Python source form, the brief and default formatters have configuration sub-dictionaries:

{
  'format' : '%(message)s'
}

and:

{
  'format' : '%(asctime)s %(levelname)-8s %(name)-15s %(message)s',
  'datefmt' : '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'
}

respectively, and as these dictionaries do not contain the special key '()', the instantiation is inferred from the context: as a result, standard logging.Formatter instances are created. The configuration sub-dictionary for the third formatter, with id custom, is:

{
  '()' : 'my.package.customFormatterFactory',
  'bar' : 'baz',
  'spam' : 99.9,
  'answer' : 42
}

and this contains the special key '()', which means that user-defined instantiation is wanted. In this case, the specified factory callable will be used. If it is an actual callable it will be used directly - otherwise, if you specify a string (as in the example) the actual callable will be located using normal import mechanisms. The callable will be called with the remaining items in the configuration sub-dictionary as keyword arguments. In the above example, the formatter with id custom will be assumed to be returned by the call:

my.package.customFormatterFactory(bar='baz', spam=99.9, answer=42)

The key '()' has been used as the special key because it is not a valid keyword parameter name, and so will not clash with the names of the keyword arguments used in the call. The '()' also serves as a mnemonic that the corresponding value is a callable.

16.8.2.5. Access to external objects

There are times where a configuration needs to refer to objects external to the configuration, for example sys.stderr. If the configuration dict is constructed using Python code, this is straightforward, but a problem arises when the configuration is provided via a text file (e.g. JSON, YAML). In a text file, there is no standard way to distinguish sys.stderr from the literal string 'sys.stderr'. To facilitate this distinction, the configuration system looks for certain special prefixes in string values and treat them specially. For example, if the literal string 'ext://sys.stderr' is provided as a value in the configuration, then the ext:// will be stripped off and the remainder of the value processed using normal import mechanisms.

The handling of such prefixes is done in a way analogous to protocol handling: there is a generic mechanism to look for prefixes which match the regular expression ^(?P<prefix>[a-z]+)://(?P<suffix>.*)$ whereby, if the prefix is recognised, the suffix is processed in a prefix-dependent manner and the result of the processing replaces the string value. If the prefix is not recognised, then the string value will be left as-is.

16.8.2.6. Access to internal objects

As well as external objects, there is sometimes also a need to refer to objects in the configuration. This will be done implicitly by the configuration system for things that it knows about. For example, the string value 'DEBUG' for a level in a logger or handler will automatically be converted to the value logging.DEBUG, and the handlers, filters and formatter entries will take an object id and resolve to the appropriate destination object.

However, a more generic mechanism is needed for user-defined objects which are not known to the logging module. For example, consider logging.handlers.MemoryHandler, which takes a target argument which is another handler to delegate to. Since the system already knows about this class, then in the configuration, the given target just needs to be the object id of the relevant target handler, and the system will resolve to the handler from the id. If, however, a user defines a my.package.MyHandler which has an alternate handler, the configuration system would not know that the alternate referred to a handler. To cater for this, a generic resolution system allows the user to specify:

handlers:
  file:
    # configuration of file handler goes here

  custom:
    (): my.package.MyHandler
    alternate: cfg://handlers.file

The literal string 'cfg://handlers.file' will be resolved in an analogous way to strings with the ext:// prefix, but looking in the configuration itself rather than the import namespace. The mechanism allows access by dot or by index, in a similar way to that provided by str.format. Thus, given the following snippet:

handlers:
  email:
    class: logging.handlers.SMTPHandler
    mailhost: localhost
    fromaddr: my_app@domain.tld
    toaddrs:
      - support_team@domain.tld
      - dev_team@domain.tld
    subject: Houston, we have a problem.

in the configuration, the string 'cfg://handlers' would resolve to the dict with key handlers, the string 'cfg://handlers.email would resolve to the dict with key email in the handlers dict, and so on. The string 'cfg://handlers.email.toaddrs[1] would resolve to 'dev_team.domain.tld' and the string 'cfg://handlers.email.toaddrs[0]' would resolve to the value 'support_team@domain.tld'. The subject value could be accessed using either 'cfg://handlers.email.subject' or, equivalently, 'cfg://handlers.email[subject]'. The latter form only needs to be used if the key contains spaces or non-alphanumeric characters. If an index value consists only of decimal digits, access will be attempted using the corresponding integer value, falling back to the string value if needed.

Given a string cfg://handlers.myhandler.mykey.123, this will resolve to config_dict['handlers']['myhandler']['mykey']['123']. If the string is specified as cfg://handlers.myhandler.mykey[123], the system will attempt to retrieve the value from config_dict['handlers']['myhandler']['mykey'][123], and fall back to config_dict['handlers']['myhandler']['mykey']['123'] if that fails.

16.8.2.7. Import resolution and custom importers

Import resolution, by default, uses the builtin __import__() function to do its importing. You may want to replace this with your own importing mechanism: if so, you can replace the importer attribute of the DictConfigurator or its superclass, the BaseConfigurator class. However, you need to be careful because of the way functions are accessed from classes via descriptors. If you are using a Python callable to do your imports, and you want to define it at class level rather than instance level, you need to wrap it with staticmethod(). For example:

from importlib import import_module
from logging.config import BaseConfigurator

BaseConfigurator.importer = staticmethod(import_module)

You don’t need to wrap with staticmethod() if you’re setting the import callable on a configurator instance.

16.8.3. Configuration file format

The configuration file format understood by fileConfig() is based on configparser functionality. The file must contain sections called [loggers], [handlers] and [formatters] which identify by name the entities of each type which are defined in the file. For each such entity, there is a separate section which identifies how that entity is configured. Thus, for a logger named log01 in the [loggers] section, the relevant configuration details are held in a section [logger_log01]. Similarly, a handler called hand01 in the [handlers] section will have its configuration held in a section called [handler_hand01], while a formatter called form01 in the [formatters] section will have its configuration specified in a section called [formatter_form01]. The root logger configuration must be specified in a section called [logger_root].

Examples of these sections in the file are given below.

[loggers]
keys=root,log02,log03,log04,log05,log06,log07

[handlers]
keys=hand01,hand02,hand03,hand04,hand05,hand06,hand07,hand08,hand09

[formatters]
keys=form01,form02,form03,form04,form05,form06,form07,form08,form09

The root logger must specify a level and a list of handlers. An example of a root logger section is given below.

[logger_root]
level=NOTSET
handlers=hand01

The level entry can be one of DEBUG, INFO, WARNING, ERROR, CRITICAL or NOTSET. For the root logger only, NOTSET means that all messages will be logged. Level values are eval()uated in the context of the logging package’s namespace.

The handlers entry is a comma-separated list of handler names, which must appear in the [handlers] section. These names must appear in the [handlers] section and have corresponding sections in the configuration file.

For loggers other than the root logger, some additional information is required. This is illustrated by the following example.

[logger_parser]
level=DEBUG
handlers=hand01
propagate=1
qualname=compiler.parser

The level and handlers entries are interpreted as for the root logger, except that if a non-root logger’s level is specified as NOTSET, the system consults loggers higher up the hierarchy to determine the effective level of the logger. The propagate entry is set to 1 to indicate that messages must propagate to handlers higher up the logger hierarchy from this logger, or 0 to indicate that messages are not propagated to handlers up the hierarchy. The qualname entry is the hierarchical channel name of the logger, that is to say the name used by the application to get the logger.

Sections which specify handler configuration are exemplified by the following.

[handler_hand01]
class=StreamHandler
level=NOTSET
formatter=form01
args=(sys.stdout,)

The class entry indicates the handler’s class (as determined by eval() in the logging package’s namespace). The level is interpreted as for loggers, and NOTSET is taken to mean ‘log everything’.

The formatter entry indicates the key name of the formatter for this handler. If blank, a default formatter (logging._defaultFormatter) is used. If a name is specified, it must appear in the [formatters] section and have a corresponding section in the configuration file.

The args entry, when eval()uated in the context of the logging package’s namespace, is the list of arguments to the constructor for the handler class. Refer to the constructors for the relevant handlers, or to the examples below, to see how typical entries are constructed.

[handler_hand02]
class=FileHandler
level=DEBUG
formatter=form02
args=('python.log', 'w')

[handler_hand03]
class=handlers.SocketHandler
level=INFO
formatter=form03
args=('localhost', handlers.DEFAULT_TCP_LOGGING_PORT)

[handler_hand04]
class=handlers.DatagramHandler
level=WARN
formatter=form04
args=('localhost', handlers.DEFAULT_UDP_LOGGING_PORT)

[handler_hand05]
class=handlers.SysLogHandler
level=ERROR
formatter=form05
args=(('localhost', handlers.SYSLOG_UDP_PORT), handlers.SysLogHandler.LOG_USER)

[handler_hand06]
class=handlers.NTEventLogHandler
level=CRITICAL
formatter=form06
args=('Python Application', '', 'Application')

[handler_hand07]
class=handlers.SMTPHandler
level=WARN
formatter=form07
args=('localhost', 'from@abc', ['user1@abc', 'user2@xyz'], 'Logger Subject')

[handler_hand08]
class=handlers.MemoryHandler
level=NOTSET
formatter=form08
target=
args=(10, ERROR)

[handler_hand09]
class=handlers.HTTPHandler
level=NOTSET
formatter=form09
args=('localhost:9022', '/log', 'GET')

Sections which specify formatter configuration are typified by the following.

[formatter_form01]
format=F1 %(asctime)s %(levelname)s %(message)s
datefmt=
class=logging.Formatter

The format entry is the overall format string, and the datefmt entry is the strftime()-compatible date/time format string. If empty, the package substitutes ISO8601 format date/times, which is almost equivalent to specifying the date format string '%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S'. The ISO8601 format also specifies milliseconds, which are appended to the result of using the above format string, with a comma separator. An example time in ISO8601 format is 2003-01-23 00:29:50,411.

The class entry is optional. It indicates the name of the formatter’s class (as a dotted module and class name.) This option is useful for instantiating a Formatter subclass. Subclasses of Formatter can present exception tracebacks in an expanded or condensed format.

Note

Due to the use of eval() as described above, there are potential security risks which result from using the listen() to send and receive configurations via sockets. The risks are limited to where multiple users with no mutual trust run code on the same machine; see the listen() documentation for more information.

See also

Module logging
API reference for the logging module.
Module logging.handlers
Useful handlers included with the logging module.