# IDLE¶

Source code: Lib/idlelib/

IDLE is Python’s Integrated Development and Learning Environment.

IDLE has the following features:

• coded in 100% pure Python, using the tkinter GUI toolkit
• cross-platform: works mostly the same on Windows, Unix, and Mac OS X
• Python shell window (interactive interpreter) with colorizing of code input, output, and error messages
• multi-window text editor with multiple undo, Python colorizing, smart indent, call tips, auto completion, and other features
• search within any window, replace within editor windows, and search through multiple files (grep)
• debugger with persistent breakpoints, stepping, and viewing of global and local namespaces
• configuration, browsers, and other dialogs

In this section, ‘C’ refers to the Control key on Windows and Unix and the Command key on Mac OSX.

• Backspace deletes to the left; Del deletes to the right

• C-Backspace delete word left; C-Del delete word to the right

• Arrow keys and Page Up/Page Down to move around

• C-LeftArrow and C-RightArrow moves by words

• Home/End go to begin/end of line

• C-Home/C-End go to begin/end of file

• Some useful Emacs bindings are inherited from Tcl/Tk:

• C-a beginning of line
• C-e end of line
• C-k kill line (but doesn’t put it in clipboard)
• C-l center window around the insertion point
• C-b go backward one character without deleting (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)
• C-f go forward one character without deleting (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)
• C-p go up one line (usually you can also use the cursor key for this)
• C-d delete next character

Standard keybindings (like C-c to copy and C-v to paste) may work. Keybindings are selected in the Configure IDLE dialog.

### Automatic indentation¶

After a block-opening statement, the next line is indented by 4 spaces (in the Python Shell window by one tab). After certain keywords (break, return etc.) the next line is dedented. In leading indentation, Backspace deletes up to 4 spaces if they are there. Tab inserts spaces (in the Python Shell window one tab), number depends on Indent width. Currently, tabs are restricted to four spaces due to Tcl/Tk limitations.

### Completions¶

Completions are supplied for functions, classes, and attributes of classes, both built-in and user-defined. Completions are also provided for filenames.

The AutoCompleteWindow (ACW) will open after a predefined delay (default is two seconds) after a ‘.’ or (in a string) an os.sep is typed. If after one of those characters (plus zero or more other characters) a tab is typed the ACW will open immediately if a possible continuation is found.

If there is only one possible completion for the characters entered, a Tab will supply that completion without opening the ACW.

‘Show Completions’ will force open a completions window, by default the C-space will open a completions window. In an empty string, this will contain the files in the current directory. On a blank line, it will contain the built-in and user-defined functions and classes in the current namespaces, plus any modules imported. If some characters have been entered, the ACW will attempt to be more specific.

If a string of characters is typed, the ACW selection will jump to the entry most closely matching those characters. Entering a tab will cause the longest non-ambiguous match to be entered in the Editor window or Shell. Two tab in a row will supply the current ACW selection, as will return or a double click. Cursor keys, Page Up/Down, mouse selection, and the scroll wheel all operate on the ACW.

“Hidden” attributes can be accessed by typing the beginning of hidden name after a ‘.’, e.g. ‘_’. This allows access to modules with __all__ set, or to class-private attributes.

Completions and the ‘Expand Word’ facility can save a lot of typing!

Completions are currently limited to those in the namespaces. Names in an Editor window which are not via __main__ and sys.modules will not be found. Run the module once with your imports to correct this situation. Note that IDLE itself places quite a few modules in sys.modules, so much can be found by default, e.g. the re module.

If you don’t like the ACW popping up unbidden, simply make the delay longer or disable the extension.

### Calltips¶

A calltip is shown when one types ( after the name of an accessible function. A name expression may include dots and subscripts. A calltip remains until it is clicked, the cursor is moved out of the argument area, or ) is typed. When the cursor is in the argument part of a definition, the menu or shortcut display a calltip.

A calltip consists of the function signature and the first line of the docstring. For builtins without an accessible signature, the calltip consists of all lines up the fifth line or the first blank line. These details may change.

The set of accessible functions depends on what modules have been imported into the user process, including those imported by Idle itself, and what definitions have been run, all since the last restart.

For example, restart the Shell and enter itertools.count(. A calltip appears because Idle imports itertools into the user process for its own use. (This could change.) Enter turtle.write( and nothing appears. Idle does not import turtle. The menu or shortcut do nothing either. Enter import turtle and then turtle.write( will work.

In an editor, import statements have no effect until one runs the file. One might want to run a file after writing the import statements at the top, or immediately run an existing file before editing.

### Python Shell window¶

• C-c interrupts executing command

• C-d sends end-of-file; closes window if typed at a >>> prompt

• Alt-/ (Expand word) is also useful to reduce typing

Command history

• Alt-p retrieves previous command matching what you have typed. On OS X use C-p.
• Alt-n retrieves next. On OS X use C-n.
• Return while on any previous command retrieves that command

### Text colors¶

Idle defaults to black on white text, but colors text with special meanings. For the shell, these are shell output, shell error, user output, and user error. For Python code, at the shell prompt or in an editor, these are keywords, builtin class and function names, names following class and def, strings, and comments. For any text window, these are the cursor (when present), found text (when possible), and selected text.

Text coloring is done in the background, so uncolorized text is occasionally visible. To change the color scheme, use the Configure IDLE dialog Highlighting tab. The marking of debugger breakpoint lines in the editor and text in popups and dialogs is not user-configurable.

## Startup and code execution¶

Upon startup with the -s option, IDLE will execute the file referenced by the environment variables IDLESTARTUP or PYTHONSTARTUP. IDLE first checks for IDLESTARTUP; if IDLESTARTUP is present the file referenced is run. If IDLESTARTUP is not present, IDLE checks for PYTHONSTARTUP. Files referenced by these environment variables are convenient places to store functions that are used frequently from the IDLE shell, or for executing import statements to import common modules.

In addition, Tk also loads a startup file if it is present. Note that the Tk file is loaded unconditionally. This additional file is .Idle.py and is looked for in the user’s home directory. Statements in this file will be executed in the Tk namespace, so this file is not useful for importing functions to be used from IDLE’s Python shell.

### Command line usage¶

idle.py [-c command] [-d] [-e] [-h] [-i] [-r file] [-s] [-t title] [-] [arg] ...

-c command  run command in the shell window
-d          enable debugger and open shell window
-e          open editor window
-h          print help message with legal combinations and exit
-i          open shell window
-r file     run file in shell window
-s          run $IDLESTARTUP or$PYTHONSTARTUP first, in shell window
-t title    set title of shell window
-           run stdin in shell (- must be last option before args)


If there are arguments:

• If -, -c, or r is used, all arguments are placed in sys.argv[1:...] and sys.argv[0] is set to '', '-c', or '-r'. No editor window is opened, even if that is the default set in the Options dialog.
• Otherwise, arguments are files opened for editing and sys.argv reflects the arguments passed to IDLE itself.

### Startup failure¶

IDLE uses a socket to communicate between the IDLE GUI process and the user code execution process. A connection must be established whenever the Shell starts or restarts. (The latter is indicated by a divider line that says ‘RESTART’). If the user process fails to connect to the GUI process, it displays a Tk error box with a ‘cannot connect’ message that directs the user here. It then exits.

A common cause of failure is a user-written file with the same name as a standard library module, such as random.py and tkinter.py. When such a file is located in the same directory as a file that is about to be run, IDLE cannot import the stdlib file. The current fix is to rename the user file.

Though less common than in the past, an antivirus or firewall program may stop the connection. If the program cannot be taught to allow the connection, then it must be turned off for IDLE to work. It is safe to allow this internal connection because no data is visible on external ports. A similar problem is a network mis-configuration that blocks connections.

Python installation issues occasionally stop IDLE: multiple versions can clash, or a single installation might need admin access. If one undo the clash, or cannot or does not want to run as admin, it might be easiest to completely remove Python and start over.

A zombie pythonw.exe process could be a problem. On Windows, use Task Manager to detect and stop one. Sometimes a restart initiated by a program crash or Keyboard Interrupt (control-C) may fail to connect. Dismissing the error box or Restart Shell on the Shell menu may fix a temporary problem.

When IDLE first starts, it attempts to read user configuration files in ~/.idlerc/ (~ is one’s home directory). If there is a problem, an error message should be displayed. Leaving aside random disk glitches, this can be prevented by never editing the files by hand, using the configuration dialog, under Options, instead Options. Once it happens, the solution may be to delete one or more of the configuration files.

If IDLE quits with no message, and it was not started from a console, try starting from a console (python -m idlelib) and see if a message appears.

### IDLE-console differences¶

With rare exceptions, the result of executing Python code with IDLE is intended to be the same as executing the same code in a console window. However, the different interface and operation occasionally affect visible results. For instance, sys.modules starts with more entries.

IDLE also replaces sys.stdin, sys.stdout, and sys.stderr with objects that get input from and send output to the Shell window. When Shell has the focus, it controls the keyboard and screen. This is normally transparent, but functions that directly access the keyboard and screen will not work. If sys is reset with importlib.reload(sys), IDLE’s changes are lost and things like input, raw_input, and print will not work correctly.

With IDLE’s Shell, one enters, edits, and recalls complete statements. Some consoles only work with a single physical line at a time. IDLE uses exec to run each statement. As a result, '__builtins__' is always defined for each statement.

### Developing tkinter applications¶

IDLE is intentionally different from standard Python in order to facilitate development of tkinter programs. Enter import tkinter as tk; root = tk.Tk() in standard Python and nothing appears. Enter the same in IDLE and a tk window appears. In standard Python, one must also enter root.update() to see the window. IDLE does the equivalent in the background, about 20 times a second, which is about every 50 milleseconds. Next enter b = tk.Button(root, text='button'); b.pack(). Again, nothing visibly changes in standard Python until one enters root.update().

Most tkinter programs run root.mainloop(), which usually does not return until the tk app is destroyed. If the program is run with python -i or from an IDLE editor, a >>> shell prompt does not appear until mainloop() returns, at which time there is nothing left to interact with.

When running a tkinter program from an IDLE editor, one can comment out the mainloop call. One then gets a shell prompt immediately and can interact with the live application. One just has to remember to re-enable the mainloop call when running in standard Python.

### Running without a subprocess¶

By default, IDLE executes user code in a separate subprocess via a socket, which uses the internal loopback interface. This connection is not externally visible and no data is sent to or received from the Internet. If firewall software complains anyway, you can ignore it.

If the attempt to make the socket connection fails, Idle will notify you. Such failures are sometimes transient, but if persistent, the problem may be either a firewall blocking the connection or misconfiguration of a particular system. Until the problem is fixed, one can run Idle with the -n command line switch.

If IDLE is started with the -n command line switch it will run in a single process and will not create the subprocess which runs the RPC Python execution server. This can be useful if Python cannot create the subprocess or the RPC socket interface on your platform. However, in this mode user code is not isolated from IDLE itself. Also, the environment is not restarted when Run/Run Module (F5) is selected. If your code has been modified, you must reload() the affected modules and re-import any specific items (e.g. from foo import baz) if the changes are to take effect. For these reasons, it is preferable to run IDLE with the default subprocess if at all possible.

Deprecated since version 3.4.