operator
— Standard operators as functions¶
Source code: Lib/operator.py
The operator
module exports a set of efficient functions corresponding to
the intrinsic operators of Python. For example, operator.add(x, y)
is
equivalent to the expression x+y
. Many function names are those used for
special methods, without the double underscores. For backward compatibility,
many of these have a variant with the double underscores kept. The variants
without the double underscores are preferred for clarity.
The functions fall into categories that perform object comparisons, logical operations, mathematical operations and sequence operations.
The object comparison functions are useful for all objects, and are named after the rich comparison operators they support:
 operator.lt(a, b)¶
 operator.le(a, b)¶
 operator.eq(a, b)¶
 operator.ne(a, b)¶
 operator.ge(a, b)¶
 operator.gt(a, b)¶
 operator.__lt__(a, b)¶
 operator.__le__(a, b)¶
 operator.__eq__(a, b)¶
 operator.__ne__(a, b)¶
 operator.__ge__(a, b)¶
 operator.__gt__(a, b)¶
Perform “rich comparisons” between a and b. Specifically,
lt(a, b)
is equivalent toa < b
,le(a, b)
is equivalent toa <= b
,eq(a, b)
is equivalent toa == b
,ne(a, b)
is equivalent toa != b
,gt(a, b)
is equivalent toa > b
andge(a, b)
is equivalent toa >= b
. Note that these functions can return any value, which may or may not be interpretable as a Boolean value. See Comparisons for more information about rich comparisons.
The logical operations are also generally applicable to all objects, and support truth tests, identity tests, and boolean operations:
 operator.not_(obj)¶
 operator.__not__(obj)¶
Return the outcome of
not
obj. (Note that there is no__not__()
method for object instances; only the interpreter core defines this operation. The result is affected by the__bool__()
and__len__()
methods.)
 operator.truth(obj)¶
Return
True
if obj is true, andFalse
otherwise. This is equivalent to using thebool
constructor.
 operator.is_(a, b)¶
Return
a is b
. Tests object identity.
 operator.is_not(a, b)¶
Return
a is not b
. Tests object identity.
The mathematical and bitwise operations are the most numerous:
 operator.index(a)¶
 operator.__index__(a)¶
Return a converted to an integer. Equivalent to
a.__index__()
.Changed in version 3.10: The result always has exact type
int
. Previously, the result could have been an instance of a subclass ofint
.
 operator.inv(obj)¶
 operator.invert(obj)¶
 operator.__inv__(obj)¶
 operator.__invert__(obj)¶
Return the bitwise inverse of the number obj. This is equivalent to
~obj
.
 operator.truediv(a, b)¶
 operator.__truediv__(a, b)¶
Return
a / b
where 2/3 is .66 rather than 0. This is also known as “true” division.
Operations which work with sequences (some of them with mappings too) include:
 operator.contains(a, b)¶
 operator.__contains__(a, b)¶
Return the outcome of the test
b in a
. Note the reversed operands.
 operator.countOf(a, b)¶
Return the number of occurrences of b in a.
 operator.indexOf(a, b)¶
Return the index of the first of occurrence of b in a.
 operator.length_hint(obj, default=0)¶
Return an estimated length for the object obj. First try to return its actual length, then an estimate using
object.__length_hint__()
, and finally return the default value.New in version 3.4.
The following operation works with callables:
 operator.call(obj, /, *args, **kwargs)¶
 operator.__call__(obj, /, *args, **kwargs)¶
Return
obj(*args, **kwargs)
.New in version 3.11.
The operator
module also defines tools for generalized attribute and item
lookups. These are useful for making fast field extractors as arguments for
map()
, sorted()
, itertools.groupby()
, or other functions that
expect a function argument.
 operator.attrgetter(attr)¶
 operator.attrgetter(*attrs)
Return a callable object that fetches attr from its operand. If more than one attribute is requested, returns a tuple of attributes. The attribute names can also contain dots. For example:
After
f = attrgetter('name')
, the callf(b)
returnsb.name
.After
f = attrgetter('name', 'date')
, the callf(b)
returns(b.name, b.date)
.After
f = attrgetter('name.first', 'name.last')
, the callf(b)
returns(b.name.first, b.name.last)
.
Equivalent to:
def attrgetter(*items): if any(not isinstance(item, str) for item in items): raise TypeError('attribute name must be a string') if len(items) == 1: attr = items[0] def g(obj): return resolve_attr(obj, attr) else: def g(obj): return tuple(resolve_attr(obj, attr) for attr in items) return g def resolve_attr(obj, attr): for name in attr.split("."): obj = getattr(obj, name) return obj
 operator.itemgetter(item)¶
 operator.itemgetter(*items)
Return a callable object that fetches item from its operand using the operand’s
__getitem__()
method. If multiple items are specified, returns a tuple of lookup values. For example:After
f = itemgetter(2)
, the callf(r)
returnsr[2]
.After
g = itemgetter(2, 5, 3)
, the callg(r)
returns(r[2], r[5], r[3])
.
Equivalent to:
def itemgetter(*items): if len(items) == 1: item = items[0] def g(obj): return obj[item] else: def g(obj): return tuple(obj[item] for item in items) return g
The items can be any type accepted by the operand’s
__getitem__()
method. Dictionaries accept any hashable value. Lists, tuples, and strings accept an index or a slice:>>> itemgetter(1)('ABCDEFG') 'B' >>> itemgetter(1, 3, 5)('ABCDEFG') ('B', 'D', 'F') >>> itemgetter(slice(2, None))('ABCDEFG') 'CDEFG' >>> soldier = dict(rank='captain', name='dotterbart') >>> itemgetter('rank')(soldier) 'captain'
Example of using
itemgetter()
to retrieve specific fields from a tuple record:>>> inventory = [('apple', 3), ('banana', 2), ('pear', 5), ('orange', 1)] >>> getcount = itemgetter(1) >>> list(map(getcount, inventory)) [3, 2, 5, 1] >>> sorted(inventory, key=getcount) [('orange', 1), ('banana', 2), ('apple', 3), ('pear', 5)]
 operator.methodcaller(name, /, *args, **kwargs)¶
Return a callable object that calls the method name on its operand. If additional arguments and/or keyword arguments are given, they will be given to the method as well. For example:
After
f = methodcaller('name')
, the callf(b)
returnsb.name()
.After
f = methodcaller('name', 'foo', bar=1)
, the callf(b)
returnsb.name('foo', bar=1)
.
Equivalent to:
def methodcaller(name, /, *args, **kwargs): def caller(obj): return getattr(obj, name)(*args, **kwargs) return caller
Mapping Operators to Functions¶
This table shows how abstract operations correspond to operator symbols in the
Python syntax and the functions in the operator
module.
Operation 
Syntax 
Function 

Addition 


Concatenation 


Containment Test 


Division 


Division 


Bitwise And 


Bitwise Exclusive Or 


Bitwise Inversion 


Bitwise Or 


Exponentiation 


Identity 


Identity 


Indexed Assignment 


Indexed Deletion 


Indexing 


Left Shift 


Modulo 


Multiplication 


Matrix Multiplication 


Negation (Arithmetic) 


Negation (Logical) 


Positive 


Right Shift 


Slice Assignment 


Slice Deletion 


Slicing 


String Formatting 


Subtraction 


Truth Test 


Ordering 


Ordering 


Equality 


Difference 


Ordering 


Ordering 


Inplace Operators¶
Many operations have an “inplace” version. Listed below are functions
providing a more primitive access to inplace operators than the usual syntax
does; for example, the statement x += y
is equivalent to
x = operator.iadd(x, y)
. Another way to put it is to say that
z = operator.iadd(x, y)
is equivalent to the compound statement
z = x; z += y
.
In those examples, note that when an inplace method is called, the computation and assignment are performed in two separate steps. The inplace functions listed below only do the first step, calling the inplace method. The second step, assignment, is not handled.
For immutable targets such as strings, numbers, and tuples, the updated value is computed, but not assigned back to the input variable:
>>> a = 'hello'
>>> iadd(a, ' world')
'hello world'
>>> a
'hello'
For mutable targets such as lists and dictionaries, the inplace method will perform the update, so no subsequent assignment is necessary:
>>> s = ['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o']
>>> iadd(s, [' ', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd'])
['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', ' ', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd']
>>> s
['h', 'e', 'l', 'l', 'o', ' ', 'w', 'o', 'r', 'l', 'd']
 operator.iconcat(a, b)¶
 operator.__iconcat__(a, b)¶
a = iconcat(a, b)
is equivalent toa += b
for a and b sequences.
 operator.ifloordiv(a, b)¶
 operator.__ifloordiv__(a, b)¶
a = ifloordiv(a, b)
is equivalent toa //= b
.