Source code: Lib/hmac.py
This module implements the HMAC algorithm as described by RFC 2104.
- hmac.new(key, msg=None, digestmod='')¶
Return a new hmac object. key is a bytes or bytearray object giving the secret key. If msg is present, the method call
update(msg)is made. digestmod is the digest name, digest constructor or module for the HMAC object to use. It may be any name suitable to
hashlib.new(). Despite its argument position, it is required.
Changed in version 3.4: Parameter key can be a bytes or bytearray object. Parameter msg can be of any type supported by
hashlib. Parameter digestmod can be the name of a hash algorithm.
Deprecated since version 3.4, removed in version 3.8: MD5 as implicit default digest for digestmod is deprecated. The digestmod parameter is now required. Pass it as a keyword argument to avoid awkwardness when you do not have an initial msg.
- hmac.digest(key, msg, digest)¶
Return digest of msg for given secret key and digest. The function is equivalent to
HMAC(key, msg, digest).digest(), but uses an optimized C or inline implementation, which is faster for messages that fit into memory. The parameters key, msg, and digest have the same meaning as in
CPython implementation detail, the optimized C implementation is only used when digest is a string and name of a digest algorithm, which is supported by OpenSSL.
New in version 3.7.
An HMAC object has the following methods:
Update the hmac object with msg. Repeated calls are equivalent to a single call with the concatenation of all the arguments:
m.update(a); m.update(b)is equivalent to
m.update(a + b).
Changed in version 3.4: Parameter msg can be of any type supported by
Return the digest of the bytes passed to the
update()method so far. This bytes object will be the same length as the digest_size of the digest given to the constructor. It may contain non-ASCII bytes, including NUL bytes.
digest()except the digest is returned as a string twice the length containing only hexadecimal digits. This may be used to exchange the value safely in email or other non-binary environments.
Return a copy (“clone”) of the hmac object. This can be used to efficiently compute the digests of strings that share a common initial substring.
A hash object has the following attributes:
The size of the resulting HMAC digest in bytes.
The internal block size of the hash algorithm in bytes.
New in version 3.4.
The canonical name of this HMAC, always lowercase, e.g.
New in version 3.4.
Deprecated since version 3.9: The undocumented attributes
HMAC.outer are internal implementation details and will be removed in
This module also provides the following helper function:
- hmac.compare_digest(a, b)¶
a == b. This function uses an approach designed to prevent timing analysis by avoiding content-based short circuiting behaviour, making it appropriate for cryptography. a and b must both be of the same type: either
str(ASCII only, as e.g. returned by
HMAC.hexdigest()), or a bytes-like object.
If a and b are of different lengths, or if an error occurs, a timing attack could theoretically reveal information about the types and lengths of a and b—but not their values.
New in version 3.3.
Changed in version 3.10: The function uses OpenSSL’s
CRYPTO_memcmp()internally when available.
The Python module providing secure hash functions.