.. highlightlang:: c .. _number: Number Protocol =============== .. cfunction:: int PyNumber_Check(PyObject *o) Returns ``1`` if the object *o* provides numeric protocols, and false otherwise. This function always succeeds. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Add(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 + o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Subtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 - o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Multiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 * o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_FloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Return the floor of *o1* divided by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. This is equivalent to the "classic" division of integers. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_TrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The return value is "approximate" because binary floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when passed two integers. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Remainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 % o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Divmod(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) .. index:: builtin: divmod See the built-in function :func:`divmod`. Returns *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``divmod(o1, o2)``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Power(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3) .. index:: builtin: pow See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``pow(o1, o2, o3)``, where *o3* is optional. If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None` in its place (passing *NULL* for *o3* would cause an illegal memory access). .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Negative(PyObject *o) Returns the negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``-o``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Positive(PyObject *o) Returns *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``+o``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Absolute(PyObject *o) .. index:: builtin: abs Returns the absolute value of *o*, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``abs(o)``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Invert(PyObject *o) Returns the bitwise negation of *o* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``~o``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Lshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 << o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Rshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 >> o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_And(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 & o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Xor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 ^ o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Or(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``o1 | o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAdd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of adding *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 += o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceSubtract(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of subtracting *o2* from *o1*, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 -= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceMultiply(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of multiplying *o1* and *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 *= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceFloorDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the mathematical floor of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 //= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceTrueDivide(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Return a reasonable approximation for the mathematical value of *o1* divided by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The return value is "approximate" because binary floating point numbers are approximate; it is not possible to represent all real numbers in base two. This function can return a floating point value when passed two integers. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRemainder(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the remainder of dividing *o1* by *o2*, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 %= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlacePower(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2, PyObject *o3) .. index:: builtin: pow See the built-in function :func:`pow`. Returns *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 **= o2`` when o3 is :cdata:`Py_None`, or an in-place variant of ``pow(o1, o2, o3)`` otherwise. If *o3* is to be ignored, pass :cdata:`Py_None` in its place (passing *NULL* for *o3* would cause an illegal memory access). .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceLshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of left shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 <<= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceRshift(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the result of right shifting *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 >>= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceAnd(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise and" of *o1* and *o2* on success and *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 &= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceXor(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise exclusive or" of *o1* by *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 ^= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_InPlaceOr(PyObject *o1, PyObject *o2) Returns the "bitwise or" of *o1* and *o2* on success, or *NULL* on failure. The operation is done *in-place* when *o1* supports it. This is the equivalent of the Python statement ``o1 |= o2``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Int(PyObject *o) Returns the *o* converted to an integer object on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``int(o)``. .. note:: This function is defined in the transitional :file:`intobject.h` header file. It will be removed completely in Python 3.1. Use the :cfunc:`PyNumber_Long` function instead. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Long(PyObject *o) .. index:: builtin: int Returns the *o* converted to an integer object on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``int(o)``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Float(PyObject *o) .. index:: builtin: float Returns the *o* converted to a float object on success, or *NULL* on failure. This is the equivalent of the Python expression ``float(o)``. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_Index(PyObject *o) Returns the *o* converted to a Python int on success or *NULL* with a :exc:`TypeError` exception raised on failure. .. cfunction:: PyObject* PyNumber_ToBase(PyObject *n, int base) Returns the integer *n* converted to *base* as a string with a base marker of ``'0b'``, ``'0o'``, or ``'0x'`` if applicable. When *base* is not 2, 8, 10, or 16, the format is ``'x#num'`` where x is the base. If *n* is not an int object, it is converted with :cfunc:`PyNumber_Index` first. .. cfunction:: Py_ssize_t PyNumber_AsSsize_t(PyObject *o, PyObject *exc) Returns *o* converted to a Py_ssize_t value if *o* can be interpreted as an integer. If *o* can be converted to a Python int but the attempt to convert to a Py_ssize_t value would raise an :exc:`OverflowError`, then the *exc* argument is the type of exception that will be raised (usually :exc:`IndexError` or :exc:`OverflowError`). If *exc* is *NULL*, then the exception is cleared and the value is clipped to *PY_SSIZE_T_MIN* for a negative integer or *PY_SSIZE_T_MAX* for a positive integer. .. cfunction:: int PyIndex_Check(PyObject *o) Returns True if *o* is an index integer (has the nb_index slot of the tp_as_number structure filled in).