4. Creating a Source Distribution¶
As shown in section A Simple Example, you use the sdist command to create a source distribution. In the simplest case,
python setup.py sdist
(assuming you haven’t specified any sdist options in the setup script
or config file), sdist creates the archive of the default format for
the current platform. The default format is a gzip’ed tar file
.tar.gz) on Unix, and ZIP file on Windows.
You can specify as many formats as you like using the
option, for example:
python setup.py sdist --formats=gztar,zip
to create a gzipped tarball and a zip file. The available formats are:
||zip file (
||gzip’ed tar file
||bzip2’ed tar file
||compressed tar file
||tar file (
- default on Windows
- default on Unix
- requires either external zip utility or
zipfilemodule (part of the standard Python library since Python 1.6)
- requires the compress program.
When using any
tar format (
tar) under Unix, you can specify the
that will be set for each member of the archive.
For example, if you want all files of the archive to be owned by root:
python setup.py sdist --owner=root --group=root
4.1. Specifying the files to distribute¶
If you don’t supply an explicit list of files (or instructions on how to generate one), the sdist command puts a minimal default set into the source distribution:
- all Python source files implied by the
- all C source files mentioned in the
- scripts identified by the
scriptsoption See Installing Scripts.
- anything that looks like a test script:
test/test*.py(currently, the Distutils don’t do anything with test scripts except include them in source distributions, but in the future there will be a standard for testing Python module distributions)
setup.py(or whatever you called your setup script), and
- all files that matches the
package_datametadata. See Installing Package Data.
- all files that matches the
data_filesmetadata. See Installing Additional Files.
Sometimes this is enough, but usually you will want to specify additional files
to distribute. The typical way to do this is to write a manifest template,
MANIFEST.in by default. The manifest template is just a list of
instructions for how to generate your manifest file,
MANIFEST, which is
the exact list of files to include in your source distribution. The
sdist command processes this template and generates a manifest based
on its instructions and what it finds in the filesystem.
If you prefer to roll your own manifest file, the format is simple: one filename
per line, regular files (or symlinks to them) only. If you do supply your own
MANIFEST, you must specify everything: the default set of files
described above does not apply in this case.
Changed in version 2.7: An existing generated
MANIFEST will be regenerated without
sdist comparing its modification time to the one of
Changed in version 2.7.1:
MANIFEST files start with a comment indicating they are generated.
Files without this comment are not overwritten or removed.
Changed in version 2.7.3: sdist will read a
MANIFEST file if no
exists, like it did before 2.7.
See The MANIFEST.in template section for a syntax reference.
4.3. The MANIFEST.in template¶
MANIFEST.in file can be added in a project to define the list of
files to include in the distribution built by the sdist command.
When sdist is run, it will look for the
and interpret it to generate the
MANIFEST file that contains the
list of files that will be included in the package.
This mechanism can be used when the default list of files is not enough. (See Specifying the files to distribute).
The manifest template has one command per line, where each command specifies a set of files to include or exclude from the source distribution. For an example, let’s look at the Distutils’ own manifest template:
include *.txt recursive-include examples *.txt *.py prune examples/sample?/build
The meanings should be fairly clear: include all files in the distribution root
*.txt, all files anywhere under the
*.py, and exclude all directories matching
examples/sample?/build. All of this is done after the standard
include set, so you can exclude files from the standard set with explicit
instructions in the manifest template. (Or, you can use the
--no-defaults option to disable the standard set entirely.)
The order of commands in the manifest template matters: initially, we have the list of default files as described above, and each command in the template adds to or removes from that list of files. Once we have fully processed the manifest template, we remove files that should not be included in the source distribution:
- all files in the Distutils “build” tree (default
- all files in directories named
Now we have our complete list of files, which is written to the manifest for future reference, and then used to build the source distribution archive(s).
You can disable the default set of included files with the
--no-defaults option, and you can disable the standard exclude set
Following the Distutils’ own manifest template, let’s trace how the sdist command builds the list of files to include in the Distutils source distribution:
- include all Python source files in the
distutils/commandsubdirectories (because packages corresponding to those two directories were mentioned in the
packagesoption in the setup script—see section Writing the Setup Script)
*.txtin the distribution root (this will find
README.txta second time, but such redundancies are weeded out later)
- include anything matching
*.pyin the sub-tree under
- exclude all files in the sub-trees starting at directories matching
examples/sample?/build—this may exclude files included by the previous two steps, so it’s important that the
prunecommand in the manifest template comes after the
- exclude the entire
buildtree, and any
Just like in the setup script, file and directory names in the manifest template should always be slash-separated; the Distutils will take care of converting them to the standard representation on your platform. That way, the manifest template is portable across operating systems.
The manifest template commands are:
|include pat1 pat2 ...||include all files matching any of the listed patterns|
|exclude pat1 pat2 ...||exclude all files matching any of the listed patterns|
|recursive-include dir pat1 pat2 ...||include all files under dir matching any of the listed patterns|
|recursive-exclude dir pat1 pat2 ...||exclude all files under dir matching any of the listed patterns|
|global-include pat1 pat2 ...||include all files anywhere in the source tree matching — & any of the listed patterns|
|global-exclude pat1 pat2 ...||exclude all files anywhere in the source tree matching — & any of the listed patterns|
|prune dir||exclude all files under dir|
|graft dir||include all files under dir|
The patterns here are Unix-style “glob” patterns:
* matches any sequence of
regular filename characters,
? matches any single regular filename
[range] matches any of the characters in range (e.g.,
a-f0-9_.). The definition of “regular filename
character” is platform-specific: on Unix it is anything except slash; on Windows
anything except backslash or colon.