Python Module Index

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_
__builtin__ The module that provides the built-in namespace.
__future__ Future statement definitions
__main__ The environment where the top-level script is run.
_winreg (Windows) Routines and objects for manipulating the Windows registry.
 
a
abc Abstract base classes according to PEP 3119.
aepack (Mac)Deprecated: Conversion between Python variables and AppleEvent data containers.
aetools (Mac)Deprecated: Basic support for sending Apple Events
aetypes (Mac)Deprecated: Python representation of the Apple Event Object Model.
aifc Read and write audio files in AIFF or AIFC format.
AL (IRIX)Deprecated: Constants used with the al module.
al (IRIX)Deprecated: Audio functions on the SGI.
anydbm Generic interface to DBM-style database modules.
applesingle (Mac)Deprecated: Rudimentary decoder for AppleSingle format files.
argparse Command-line option and argument parsing library.
array Space efficient arrays of uniformly typed numeric values.
ast Abstract Syntax Tree classes and manipulation.
asynchat Support for asynchronous command/response protocols.
asyncore A base class for developing asynchronous socket handling services.
atexit Register and execute cleanup functions.
audioop Manipulate raw audio data.
autoGIL (Mac)Deprecated: Global Interpreter Lock handling in event loops.
 
b
base64 RFC 3548: Base16, Base32, Base64 Data Encodings
BaseHTTPServer Basic HTTP server (base class for SimpleHTTPServer and CGIHTTPServer).
BastionDeprecated: Providing restricted access to objects.
bdb Debugger framework.
binascii Tools for converting between binary and various ASCII-encoded binary representations.
binhex Encode and decode files in binhex4 format.
bisect Array bisection algorithms for binary searching.
bsddb Interface to Berkeley DB database library
buildtools (Mac)Deprecated: Helper module for BuildApplet, BuildApplication and macfreeze.
bz2 Interface to compression and decompression routines compatible with bzip2.
 
c
calendar Functions for working with calendars, including some emulation of the Unix cal program.
Carbon
    Carbon.AE (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Apple Events toolbox.
    Carbon.AH (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Apple Help manager.
    Carbon.App (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Appearance Manager.
    Carbon.Appearance (Mac)Deprecated: Constant definitions for the interface to the Appearance Manager.
    Carbon.CarbonEvents (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon Event Manager.
    Carbon.CarbonEvt (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon Event Manager.
    Carbon.CF (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Core Foundation.
    Carbon.CG (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to Core Graphics.
    Carbon.Cm (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Component Manager.
    Carbon.Components (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Component Manager.
    Carbon.ControlAccessor (Mac)Deprecated: Accessor functions for the interface to the Control Manager.
    Carbon.Controls (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Control Manager.
    Carbon.CoreFounation (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to CoreFoundation.
    Carbon.CoreGraphics (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to CoreGraphics.
    Carbon.Ctl (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Control Manager.
    Carbon.Dialogs (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Dialog Manager.
    Carbon.Dlg (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Dialog Manager.
    Carbon.Drag (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Drag and Drop Manager.
    Carbon.Dragconst (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Drag and Drop Manager.
    Carbon.Events (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the classic Event Manager.
    Carbon.Evt (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the classic Event Manager.
    Carbon.File (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the File Manager.
    Carbon.Files (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the File Manager.
    Carbon.Fm (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Font Manager.
    Carbon.Folder (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Folder Manager.
    Carbon.Folders (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Folder Manager.
    Carbon.Fonts (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Font Manager.
    Carbon.Help (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon Help Manager.
    Carbon.IBCarbon (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon InterfaceBuilder support libraries.
    Carbon.IBCarbonRuntime (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon InterfaceBuilder support libraries.
    Carbon.Icns (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon Icon Manager
    Carbon.Icons (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon Icon Manager
    Carbon.Launch (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon Launch Services.
    Carbon.LaunchServices (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon Launch Services.
    Carbon.List (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the List Manager.
    Carbon.Lists (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the List Manager.
    Carbon.MacHelp (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon Help Manager.
    Carbon.MediaDescr (Mac)Deprecated: Parsers and generators for Quicktime Media descriptors
    Carbon.Menu (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Menu Manager.
    Carbon.Menus (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Menu Manager.
    Carbon.Mlte (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the MultiLingual Text Editor.
    Carbon.OSA (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Carbon OSA Library.
    Carbon.OSAconst (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Carbon OSA Library.
    Carbon.Qd (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the QuickDraw toolbox.
    Carbon.Qdoffs (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the QuickDraw Offscreen APIs.
    Carbon.QDOffscreen (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the QuickDraw Offscreen APIs.
    Carbon.Qt (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the QuickTime toolbox.
    Carbon.QuickDraw (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the QuickDraw toolbox.
    Carbon.QuickTime (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the QuickTime toolbox.
    Carbon.Res (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Resource Manager and Handles.
    Carbon.Resources (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Resource Manager and Handles.
    Carbon.Scrap (Mac)Deprecated: The Scrap Manager provides basic services for implementing cut & paste and clipboard operations.
    Carbon.Snd (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Sound Manager.
    Carbon.Sound (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Sound Manager.
    Carbon.TE (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to TextEdit.
    Carbon.TextEdit (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to TextEdit.
    Carbon.Win (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the Window Manager.
    Carbon.Windows (Mac)Deprecated: Constants for the interface to the Window Manager.
cd (IRIX)Deprecated: Interface to the CD-ROM on Silicon Graphics systems.
cfmfile (Mac)Deprecated: Code Fragment Resource module.
cgi Helpers for running Python scripts via the Common Gateway Interface.
CGIHTTPServer This module provides a request handler for HTTP servers which can run CGI scripts.
cgitb Configurable traceback handler for CGI scripts.
chunk Module to read IFF chunks.
cmath Mathematical functions for complex numbers.
cmd Build line-oriented command interpreters.
code Facilities to implement read-eval-print loops.
codecs Encode and decode data and streams.
codeop Compile (possibly incomplete) Python code.
collections High-performance datatypes
ColorPicker (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to the standard color selection dialog.
colorsys Conversion functions between RGB and other color systems.
commands (Unix)Deprecated: Utility functions for running external commands.
compileall Tools for byte-compiling all Python source files in a directory tree.
compilerDeprecated: Python code compiler written in Python.
    compiler.ast
    compiler.visitor
ConfigParser Configuration file parser.
contextlib Utilities for with-statement contexts.
Cookie Support for HTTP state management (cookies).
cookielib Classes for automatic handling of HTTP cookies.
copy Shallow and deep copy operations.
copy_reg Register pickle support functions.
cPickle Faster version of pickle, but not subclassable.
cProfile
crypt (Unix) The crypt() function used to check Unix passwords.
cStringIO Faster version of StringIO, but not subclassable.
csv Write and read tabular data to and from delimited files.
ctypes A foreign function library for Python.
curses (Unix) An interface to the curses library, providing portable terminal handling.
    curses.ascii Constants and set-membership functions for ASCII characters.
    curses.panel A panel stack extension that adds depth to curses windows.
    curses.textpad Emacs-like input editing in a curses window.
 
d
datetime Basic date and time types.
dbhash DBM-style interface to the BSD database library.
dbm (Unix) The standard "database" interface, based on ndbm.
decimal Implementation of the General Decimal Arithmetic Specification.
DEVICE (IRIX)Deprecated: Constants used with the gl module.
difflib Helpers for computing differences between objects.
dircacheDeprecated: Return directory listing, with cache mechanism.
dis Disassembler for Python bytecode.
distutils Support for building and installing Python modules into an existing Python installation.
    distutils.archive_util Utility functions for creating archive files (tarballs, zip files, ...)
    distutils.bcppcompiler
    distutils.ccompiler Abstract CCompiler class
    distutils.cmd This module provides the abstract base class Command. This class is subclassed by the modules in the distutils.command subpackage.
    distutils.command This subpackage contains one module for each standard Distutils command.
    distutils.command.bdist Build a binary installer for a package
    distutils.command.bdist_dumb Build a "dumb" installer - a simple archive of files
    distutils.command.bdist_msi Build a binary distribution as a Windows MSI file
    distutils.command.bdist_packager Abstract base class for packagers
    distutils.command.bdist_rpm Build a binary distribution as a Redhat RPM and SRPM
    distutils.command.bdist_wininst Build a Windows installer
    distutils.command.build Build all files of a package
    distutils.command.build_clib Build any C libraries in a package
    distutils.command.build_ext Build any extensions in a package
    distutils.command.build_py Build the .py/.pyc files of a package
    distutils.command.build_scripts Build the scripts of a package
    distutils.command.check Check the metadata of a package
    distutils.command.clean Clean a package build area
    distutils.command.config Perform package configuration
    distutils.command.install Install a package
    distutils.command.install_data Install data files from a package
    distutils.command.install_headers Install C/C++ header files from a package
    distutils.command.install_lib Install library files from a package
    distutils.command.install_scripts Install script files from a package
    distutils.command.register Register a module with the Python Package Index
    distutils.command.sdist Build a source distribution
    distutils.core The core Distutils functionality
    distutils.cygwinccompiler
    distutils.debug Provides the debug flag for distutils
    distutils.dep_util Utility functions for simple dependency checking
    distutils.dir_util Utility functions for operating on directories and directory trees
    distutils.dist Provides the Distribution class, which represents the module distribution being built/installed/distributed
    distutils.emxccompiler OS/2 EMX Compiler support
    distutils.errors Provides standard distutils exceptions
    distutils.extension Provides the Extension class, used to describe C/C++ extension modules in setup scripts
    distutils.fancy_getopt Additional getopt functionality
    distutils.file_util Utility functions for operating on single files
    distutils.filelist The FileList class, used for poking about the file system and building lists of files.
    distutils.log A simple logging mechanism, 282-style
    distutils.msvccompiler Microsoft Compiler
    distutils.spawn Provides the spawn() function
    distutils.sysconfig Low-level access to configuration information of the Python interpreter.
    distutils.text_file provides the TextFile class, a simple interface to text files
    distutils.unixccompiler UNIX C Compiler
    distutils.util Miscellaneous other utility functions
    distutils.version implements classes that represent module version numbers.
dl (Unix)Deprecated: Call C functions in shared objects.
doctest Test pieces of code within docstrings.
DocXMLRPCServer Self-documenting XML-RPC server implementation.
dumbdbm Portable implementation of the simple DBM interface.
dummy_thread Drop-in replacement for the thread module.
dummy_threading Drop-in replacement for the threading module.
 
e
EasyDialogs (Mac)Deprecated: Basic Macintosh dialogs.
email Package supporting the parsing, manipulating, and generating email messages, including MIME documents.
    email.charset Character Sets
    email.encoders Encoders for email message payloads.
    email.errors The exception classes used by the email package.
    email.generator Generate flat text email messages from a message structure.
    email.header Representing non-ASCII headers
    email.iterators Iterate over a message object tree.
    email.message The base class representing email messages.
    email.mime Build MIME messages.
    email.parser Parse flat text email messages to produce a message object structure.
    email.utils Miscellaneous email package utilities.
encodings
    encodings.idna Internationalized Domain Names implementation
    encodings.utf_8_sig UTF-8 codec with BOM signature
errno Standard errno system symbols.
exceptions Standard exception classes.
 
f
fcntl (Unix) The fcntl() and ioctl() system calls.
filecmp Compare files efficiently.
fileinput Loop over standard input or a list of files.
findertools (Mac) Wrappers around the finder's Apple Events interface.
FL (IRIX)Deprecated: Constants used with the fl module.
fl (IRIX)Deprecated: FORMS library for applications with graphical user interfaces.
flp (IRIX)Deprecated: Functions for loading stored FORMS designs.
fm (IRIX)Deprecated: Font Manager interface for SGI workstations.
fnmatch Unix shell style filename pattern matching.
formatter Generic output formatter and device interface.
fpectl (Unix) Provide control for floating point exception handling.
fpformatDeprecated: General floating point formatting functions.
fractions Rational numbers.
FrameWork (Mac)Deprecated: Interactive application framework.
ftplib FTP protocol client (requires sockets).
functools Higher-order functions and operations on callable objects.
future_builtins
 
g
gc Interface to the cycle-detecting garbage collector.
gdbm (Unix) GNU's reinterpretation of dbm.
gensuitemodule (Mac) Create a stub package from an OSA dictionary
getopt Portable parser for command line options; support both short and long option names.
getpass Portable reading of passwords and retrieval of the userid.
gettext Multilingual internationalization services.
gl (IRIX)Deprecated: Functions from the Silicon Graphics Graphics Library.
GL (IRIX)Deprecated: Constants used with the gl module.
glob Unix shell style pathname pattern expansion.
grp (Unix) The group database (getgrnam() and friends).
gzip Interfaces for gzip compression and decompression using file objects.
 
h
hashlib Secure hash and message digest algorithms.
heapq Heap queue algorithm (a.k.a. priority queue).
hmac Keyed-Hashing for Message Authentication (HMAC) implementation for Python.
hotshot High performance logging profiler, mostly written in C.
    hotshot.stats Statistical analysis for Hotshot
htmlentitydefs Definitions of HTML general entities.
htmllibDeprecated: A parser for HTML documents.
HTMLParser A simple parser that can handle HTML and XHTML.
httplib HTTP and HTTPS protocol client (requires sockets).
 
i
ic (Mac)Deprecated: Access to the Mac OS X Internet Config.
icopen (Mac)Deprecated: Internet Config replacement for open().
imageopDeprecated: Manipulate raw image data.
imaplib IMAP4 protocol client (requires sockets).
imgfile (IRIX)Deprecated: Support for SGI imglib files.
imghdr Determine the type of image contained in a file or byte stream.
imp Access the implementation of the import statement.
importlib Convenience wrappers for __import__
imputilDeprecated: Manage and augment the import process.
inspect Extract information and source code from live objects.
io Core tools for working with streams.
itertools Functions creating iterators for efficient looping.
 
j
jpeg (IRIX)Deprecated: Read and write image files in compressed JPEG format.
json Encode and decode the JSON format.
 
k
keyword Test whether a string is a keyword in Python.
 
l
lib2to3 the 2to3 library
linecache This module provides random access to individual lines from text files.
locale Internationalization services.
logging Flexible event logging system for applications.
    logging.config Configuration of the logging module.
    logging.handlers Handlers for the logging module.
 
m
macerrors (Mac)Deprecated: Constant definitions for many Mac OS error codes.
MacOS (Mac)Deprecated: Access to Mac OS-specific interpreter features.
macostools (Mac)Deprecated: Convenience routines for file manipulation.
macpath Mac OS 9 path manipulation functions.
macresource (Mac)Deprecated: Locate script resources.
mailbox Manipulate mailboxes in various formats
mailcap Mailcap file handling.
marshal Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back (with different constraints).
math Mathematical functions (sin() etc.).
md5Deprecated: RSA's MD5 message digest algorithm.
mhlibDeprecated: Manipulate MH mailboxes from Python.
mimetoolsDeprecated: Tools for parsing MIME-style message bodies.
mimetypes Mapping of filename extensions to MIME types.
MimeWriterDeprecated: Write MIME format files.
mimifyDeprecated: Mimification and unmimification of mail messages.
MiniAEFrame (Mac) Support to act as an Open Scripting Architecture (OSA) server ("Apple Events").
mmap Interface to memory-mapped files for Unix and Windows.
modulefinder Find modules used by a script.
msilib (Windows) Creation of Microsoft Installer files, and CAB files.
msvcrt (Windows) Miscellaneous useful routines from the MS VC++ runtime.
multifileDeprecated: Support for reading files which contain distinct parts, such as some MIME data.
multiprocessing Process-based "threading" interface.
    multiprocessing.connection API for dealing with sockets.
    multiprocessing.dummy Dumb wrapper around threading.
    multiprocessing.managers Share data between process with shared objects.
    multiprocessing.pool Create pools of processes.
    multiprocessing.sharedctypes Allocate ctypes objects from shared memory.
mutexDeprecated: Lock and queue for mutual exclusion.
 
n
Nav (Mac)Deprecated: Interface to Navigation Services.
netrc Loading of .netrc files.
newDeprecated: Interface to the creation of runtime implementation objects.
nis (Unix) Interface to Sun's NIS (Yellow Pages) library.
nntplib NNTP protocol client (requires sockets).
numbers Numeric abstract base classes (Complex, Real, Integral, etc.).
 
o
operator Functions corresponding to the standard operators.
optparseDeprecated: Command-line option parsing library.
os Miscellaneous operating system interfaces.
    os.path Operations on pathnames.
ossaudiodev (Linux, FreeBSD) Access to OSS-compatible audio devices.
 
p
parser Access parse trees for Python source code.
pdb The Python debugger for interactive interpreters.
pickle Convert Python objects to streams of bytes and back.
pickletools Contains extensive comments about the pickle protocols and pickle-machine opcodes, as well as some useful functions.
pipes (Unix) A Python interface to Unix shell pipelines.
PixMapWrapper (Mac)Deprecated: Wrapper for PixMap objects.
pkgutil Utilities for the import system.
platform Retrieves as much platform identifying data as possible.
plistlib Generate and parse Mac OS X plist files.
popen2Deprecated: Subprocesses with accessible standard I/O streams.
poplib POP3 protocol client (requires sockets).
posix (Unix) The most common POSIX system calls (normally used via module os).
posixfile (Unix)Deprecated: A file-like object with support for locking.
pprint Data pretty printer.
profile Python source profiler.
pstats Statistics object for use with the profiler.
pty (Linux) Pseudo-Terminal Handling for Linux.
pwd (Unix) The password database (getpwnam() and friends).
py_compile Generate byte-code files from Python source files.
pyclbr Supports information extraction for a Python class browser.
pydoc Documentation generator and online help system.
 
q
Queue A synchronized queue class.
quopri Encode and decode files using the MIME quoted-printable encoding.
 
r
random Generate pseudo-random numbers with various common distributions.
re Regular expression operations.
readline (Unix) GNU readline support for Python.
repr Alternate repr() implementation with size limits.
resource (Unix) An interface to provide resource usage information on the current process.
rexecDeprecated: Basic restricted execution framework.
rfc822Deprecated: Parse 2822 style mail messages.
rlcompleter Python identifier completion, suitable for the GNU readline library.
robotparser Loads a robots.txt file and answers questions about fetchability of other URLs.
runpy Locate and run Python modules without importing them first.
 
s
sched General purpose event scheduler.
ScrolledText (Tk) Text widget with a vertical scroll bar.
select Wait for I/O completion on multiple streams.
setsDeprecated: Implementation of sets of unique elements.
sgmllibDeprecated: Only as much of an SGML parser as needed to parse HTML.
shaDeprecated: NIST's secure hash algorithm, SHA.
shelve Python object persistence.
shlex Simple lexical analysis for Unix shell-like languages.
shutil High-level file operations, including copying.
signal Set handlers for asynchronous events.
SimpleHTTPServer This module provides a basic request handler for HTTP servers.
SimpleXMLRPCServer Basic XML-RPC server implementation.
site Module responsible for site-specific configuration.
smtpd A SMTP server implementation in Python.
smtplib SMTP protocol client (requires sockets).
sndhdr Determine type of a sound file.
socket Low-level networking interface.
SocketServer A framework for network servers.
spwd (Unix) The shadow password database (getspnam() and friends).
sqlite3 A DB-API 2.0 implementation using SQLite 3.x.
ssl TLS/SSL wrapper for socket objects
stat Utilities for interpreting the results of os.stat(), os.lstat() and os.fstat().
statvfsDeprecated: Constants for interpreting the result of os.statvfs().
string Common string operations.
StringIO Read and write strings as if they were files.
stringprep String preparation, as per RFC 3453
struct Interpret strings as packed binary data.
subprocess Subprocess management.
sunau Provide an interface to the Sun AU sound format.
sunaudiodev (SunOS)Deprecated: Access to Sun audio hardware.
SUNAUDIODEV (SunOS)Deprecated: Constants for use with sunaudiodev.
symbol Constants representing internal nodes of the parse tree.
symtable Interface to the compiler's internal symbol tables.
sys Access system-specific parameters and functions.
sysconfig Python's configuration information
syslog (Unix) An interface to the Unix syslog library routines.
 
t
tabnanny Tool for detecting white space related problems in Python source files in a directory tree.
tarfile Read and write tar-format archive files.
telnetlib Telnet client class.
tempfile Generate temporary files and directories.
termios (Unix) POSIX style tty control.
test Regression tests package containing the testing suite for Python.
    test.test_support Support for Python regression tests.
textwrap Text wrapping and filling
thread Create multiple threads of control within one interpreter.
threading Higher-level threading interface.
time Time access and conversions.
timeit Measure the execution time of small code snippets.
Tix Tk Extension Widgets for Tkinter
Tkinter Interface to Tcl/Tk for graphical user interfaces
token Constants representing terminal nodes of the parse tree.
tokenize Lexical scanner for Python source code.
trace Trace or track Python statement execution.
traceback Print or retrieve a stack traceback.
ttk Tk themed widget set
tty (Unix) Utility functions that perform common terminal control operations.
turtle Turtle graphics for Tk
types Names for built-in types.
 
u
unicodedata Access the Unicode Database.
unittest Unit testing framework for Python.
urllib Open an arbitrary network resource by URL (requires sockets).
urllib2 Next generation URL opening library.
urlparse Parse URLs into or assemble them from components.
userDeprecated: A standard way to reference user-specific modules.
UserDict Class wrapper for dictionary objects.
UserList Class wrapper for list objects.
UserString Class wrapper for string objects.
uu Encode and decode files in uuencode format.
uuid UUID objects (universally unique identifiers) according to RFC 4122
 
v
videoreader (Mac)Deprecated: Read QuickTime movies frame by frame for further processing.
 
w
W (Mac)Deprecated: Widgets for the Mac, built on top of FrameWork.
warnings Issue warning messages and control their disposition.
wave Provide an interface to the WAV sound format.
weakref Support for weak references and weak dictionaries.
webbrowser Easy-to-use controller for Web browsers.
whichdb Guess which DBM-style module created a given database.
winsound (Windows) Access to the sound-playing machinery for Windows.
wsgiref WSGI Utilities and Reference Implementation.
    wsgiref.handlers WSGI server/gateway base classes.
    wsgiref.headers WSGI response header tools.
    wsgiref.simple_server A simple WSGI HTTP server.
    wsgiref.util WSGI environment utilities.
    wsgiref.validate WSGI conformance checker.
 
x
xdrlib Encoders and decoders for the External Data Representation (XDR).
xml Package containing XML processing modules
    xml.dom Document Object Model API for Python.
    xml.dom.minidom Minimal Document Object Model (DOM) implementation.
    xml.dom.pulldom Support for building partial DOM trees from SAX events.
    xml.etree.ElementTree Implementation of the ElementTree API.
    xml.parsers.expat An interface to the Expat non-validating XML parser.
    xml.sax Package containing SAX2 base classes and convenience functions.
    xml.sax.handler Base classes for SAX event handlers.
    xml.sax.saxutils Convenience functions and classes for use with SAX.
    xml.sax.xmlreader Interface which SAX-compliant XML parsers must implement.
xmlrpclib XML-RPC client access.
 
z
zipfile Read and write ZIP-format archive files.
zipimport support for importing Python modules from ZIP archives.
zlib Low-level interface to compression and decompression routines compatible with gzip.