28.1. code — Interpreter base classes
The code module provides facilities to implement read-eval-print loops in
Python. Two classes and convenience functions are included which can be used to
build applications which provide an interactive interpreter prompt.
- This class deals with parsing and interpreter state (the user’s namespace); it
does not deal with input buffering or prompting or input file naming (the
filename is always passed in explicitly). The optional locals argument
specifies the dictionary in which code will be executed; it defaults to a newly
created dictionary with key '__name__' set to '__console__' and key
'__doc__' set to None.
class code.InteractiveConsole(locals=None, filename="<console>")
- Closely emulate the behavior of the interactive Python interpreter. This class
builds on InteractiveInterpreter and adds prompting using the familiar
sys.ps1 and sys.ps2, and input buffering.
code.interact(banner=None, readfunc=None, local=None)
- Convenience function to run a read-eval-print loop. This creates a new instance
of InteractiveConsole and sets readfunc to be used as the
raw_input() method, if provided. If local is provided, it is passed to
the InteractiveConsole constructor for use as the default namespace for
the interpreter loop. The interact() method of the instance is then run
with banner passed as the banner to use, if provided. The console object is
discarded after use.
code.compile_command(source, filename="<input>", symbol="single")
This function is useful for programs that want to emulate Python’s interpreter
main loop (a.k.a. the read-eval-print loop). The tricky part is to determine
when the user has entered an incomplete command that can be completed by
entering more text (as opposed to a complete command or a syntax error). This
function almost always makes the same decision as the real interpreter main
source is the source string; filename is the optional filename from which
source was read, defaulting to '<input>'; and symbol is the optional
grammar start symbol, which should be either 'single' (the default) or
Returns a code object (the same as compile(source, filename, symbol)) if the
command is complete and valid; None if the command is incomplete; raises
SyntaxError if the command is complete and contains a syntax error, or
raises OverflowError or ValueError if the command contains an
28.1.1. Interactive Interpreter Objects
InteractiveInterpreter.runsource(source, filename="<input>", symbol="single")
Compile and run some source in the interpreter. Arguments are the same as for
compile_command(); the default for filename is '<input>', and for
symbol is 'single'. One several things can happen:
The return value can be used to decide whether to use sys.ps1 or sys.ps2
to prompt the next line.
Execute a code object. When an exception occurs, showtraceback() is called
to display a traceback. All exceptions are caught except SystemExit,
which is allowed to propagate.
A note about KeyboardInterrupt: this exception may occur elsewhere in
this code, and may not always be caught. The caller should be prepared to deal
- Display the syntax error that just occurred. This does not display a stack
trace because there isn’t one for syntax errors. If filename is given, it is
stuffed into the exception instead of the default filename provided by Python’s
parser, because it always uses '<string>' when reading from a string. The
output is written by the write() method.
- Display the exception that just occurred. We remove the first stack item
because it is within the interpreter object implementation. The output is
written by the write() method.
- Write a string to the standard error stream (sys.stderr). Derived classes
should override this to provide the appropriate output handling as needed.
28.1.2. Interactive Console Objects
The InteractiveConsole class is a subclass of
InteractiveInterpreter, and so offers all the methods of the
interpreter objects as well as the following additions.
- Closely emulate the interactive Python console. The optional banner argument
specify the banner to print before the first interaction; by default it prints a
banner similar to the one printed by the standard Python interpreter, followed
by the class name of the console object in parentheses (so as not to confuse
this with the real interpreter – since it’s so close!).
- Push a line of source text to the interpreter. The line should not have a
trailing newline; it may have internal newlines. The line is appended to a
buffer and the interpreter’s runsource() method is called with the
concatenated contents of the buffer as source. If this indicates that the
command was executed or invalid, the buffer is reset; otherwise, the command is
incomplete, and the buffer is left as it was after the line was appended. The
return value is True if more input is required, False if the line was
dealt with in some way (this is the same as runsource()).
- Remove any unhandled source text from the input buffer.
- Write a prompt and read a line. The returned line does not include the trailing
newline. When the user enters the EOF key sequence, EOFError is raised.
The base implementation reads from sys.stdin; a subclass may replace this
with a different implementation.