Initialize the Python interpreter. In an application embedding Python, this should be called before using any other Python/C API functions; with the exception of Py_SetProgramName(), PyEval_InitThreads(), PyEval_ReleaseLock(), and PyEval_AcquireLock(). This initializes the table of loaded modules (sys.modules), and creates the fundamental modules __builtin__, __main__ and sys. It also initializes the module search path (sys.path). It does not set sys.argv; use PySys_SetArgvEx() for that. This is a no-op when called for a second time (without calling Py_Finalize() first). There is no return value; it is a fatal error if the initialization fails.
This function works like Py_Initialize() if initsigs is 1. If initsigs is 0, it skips initialization registration of signal handlers, which might be useful when Python is embedded.
New in version 2.4.
Undo all initializations made by Py_Initialize() and subsequent use of Python/C API functions, and destroy all sub-interpreters (see Py_NewInterpreter() below) that were created and not yet destroyed since the last call to Py_Initialize(). Ideally, this frees all memory allocated by the Python interpreter. This is a no-op when called for a second time (without calling Py_Initialize() again first). There is no return value; errors during finalization are ignored.
This function is provided for a number of reasons. An embedding application might want to restart Python without having to restart the application itself. An application that has loaded the Python interpreter from a dynamically loadable library (or DLL) might want to free all memory allocated by Python before unloading the DLL. During a hunt for memory leaks in an application a developer might want to free all memory allocated by Python before exiting from the application.
Bugs and caveats: The destruction of modules and objects in modules is done in random order; this may cause destructors (__del__() methods) to fail when they depend on other objects (even functions) or modules. Dynamically loaded extension modules loaded by Python are not unloaded. Small amounts of memory allocated by the Python interpreter may not be freed (if you find a leak, please report it). Memory tied up in circular references between objects is not freed. Some memory allocated by extension modules may not be freed. Some extensions may not work properly if their initialization routine is called more than once; this can happen if an application calls Py_Initialize() and Py_Finalize() more than once.
Create a new sub-interpreter. This is an (almost) totally separate environment for the execution of Python code. In particular, the new interpreter has separate, independent versions of all imported modules, including the fundamental modules __builtin__, __main__ and sys. The table of loaded modules (sys.modules) and the module search path (sys.path) are also separate. The new environment has no sys.argv variable. It has new standard I/O stream file objects sys.stdin, sys.stdout and sys.stderr (however these refer to the same underlying FILE structures in the C library).
The return value points to the first thread state created in the new sub-interpreter. This thread state is made in the current thread state. Note that no actual thread is created; see the discussion of thread states below. If creation of the new interpreter is unsuccessful, NULL is returned; no exception is set since the exception state is stored in the current thread state and there may not be a current thread state. (Like all other Python/C API functions, the global interpreter lock must be held before calling this function and is still held when it returns; however, unlike most other Python/C API functions, there needn’t be a current thread state on entry.)
Extension modules are shared between (sub-)interpreters as follows: the first time a particular extension is imported, it is initialized normally, and a (shallow) copy of its module’s dictionary is squirreled away. When the same extension is imported by another (sub-)interpreter, a new module is initialized and filled with the contents of this copy; the extension’s init function is not called. Note that this is different from what happens when an extension is imported after the interpreter has been completely re-initialized by calling Py_Finalize() and Py_Initialize(); in that case, the extension’s initmodule function is called again.
Bugs and caveats: Because sub-interpreters (and the main interpreter) are part of the same process, the insulation between them isn’t perfect — for example, using low-level file operations like os.close() they can (accidentally or maliciously) affect each other’s open files. Because of the way extensions are shared between (sub-)interpreters, some extensions may not work properly; this is especially likely when the extension makes use of (static) global variables, or when the extension manipulates its module’s dictionary after its initialization. It is possible to insert objects created in one sub-interpreter into a namespace of another sub-interpreter; this should be done with great care to avoid sharing user-defined functions, methods, instances or classes between sub-interpreters, since import operations executed by such objects may affect the wrong (sub-)interpreter’s dictionary of loaded modules. (XXX This is a hard-to-fix bug that will be addressed in a future release.)
Also note that the use of this functionality is incompatible with extension modules such as PyObjC and ctypes that use the PyGILState_*() APIs (and this is inherent in the way the PyGILState_*() functions work). Simple things may work, but confusing behavior will always be near.
Destroy the (sub-)interpreter represented by the given thread state. The given thread state must be the current thread state. See the discussion of thread states below. When the call returns, the current thread state is NULL. All thread states associated with this interpreter are destroyed. (The global interpreter lock must be held before calling this function and is still held when it returns.) Py_Finalize() will destroy all sub-interpreters that haven’t been explicitly destroyed at that point.
This function should be called before Py_Initialize() is called for the first time, if it is called at all. It tells the interpreter the value of the argv argument to the main() function of the program. This is used by Py_GetPath() and some other functions below to find the Python run-time libraries relative to the interpreter executable. The default value is 'python'. The argument should point to a zero-terminated character string in static storage whose contents will not change for the duration of the program’s execution. No code in the Python interpreter will change the contents of this storage.
Return the program name set with Py_SetProgramName(), or the default. The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value.
Return the exec-prefix for installed platform-dependent files. This is derived through a number of complicated rules from the program name set with Py_SetProgramName() and some environment variables; for example, if the program name is '/usr/local/bin/python', the exec-prefix is '/usr/local'. The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. This corresponds to the exec_prefix variable in the top-level Makefile and the --exec-prefix argument to the configure script at build time. The value is available to Python code as sys.exec_prefix. It is only useful on Unix.
Background: The exec-prefix differs from the prefix when platform dependent files (such as executables and shared libraries) are installed in a different directory tree. In a typical installation, platform dependent files may be installed in the /usr/local/plat subtree while platform independent may be installed in /usr/local.
Generally speaking, a platform is a combination of hardware and software families, e.g. Sparc machines running the Solaris 2.x operating system are considered the same platform, but Intel machines running Solaris 2.x are another platform, and Intel machines running Linux are yet another platform. Different major revisions of the same operating system generally also form different platforms. Non-Unix operating systems are a different story; the installation strategies on those systems are so different that the prefix and exec-prefix are meaningless, and set to the empty string. Note that compiled Python bytecode files are platform independent (but not independent from the Python version by which they were compiled!).
System administrators will know how to configure the mount or automount programs to share /usr/local between platforms while having /usr/local/plat be a different filesystem for each platform.
Return the full program name of the Python executable; this is computed as a side-effect of deriving the default module search path from the program name (set by Py_SetProgramName() above). The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as sys.executable.
Return the default module search path; this is computed from the program name (set by Py_SetProgramName() above) and some environment variables. The returned string consists of a series of directory names separated by a platform dependent delimiter character. The delimiter character is ':' on Unix and Mac OS X, ';' on Windows. The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The list sys.path is initialized with this value on interpreter startup; it can be (and usually is) modified later to change the search path for loading modules.
Return the version of this Python interpreter. This is a string that looks something like
"1.5 (#67, Dec 31 1997, 22:34:28) [GCC 22.214.171.124]"
The first word (up to the first space character) is the current Python version; the first three characters are the major and minor version separated by a period. The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as sys.version.
Return the platform identifier for the current platform. On Unix, this is formed from the “official” name of the operating system, converted to lower case, followed by the major revision number; e.g., for Solaris 2.x, which is also known as SunOS 5.x, the value is 'sunos5'. On Mac OS X, it is 'darwin'. On Windows, it is 'win'. The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as sys.platform.
Return the official copyright string for the current Python version, for example
'Copyright 1991-1995 Stichting Mathematisch Centrum, Amsterdam'
The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as sys.copyright.
Return an indication of the compiler used to build the current Python version, in square brackets, for example:
The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as part of the variable sys.version.
Return information about the sequence number and build date and time of the current Python interpreter instance, for example
"#67, Aug 1 1997, 22:34:28"
The returned string points into static storage; the caller should not modify its value. The value is available to Python code as part of the variable sys.version.
Set sys.argv based on argc and argv. These parameters are similar to those passed to the program’s main() function with the difference that the first entry should refer to the script file to be executed rather than the executable hosting the Python interpreter. If there isn’t a script that will be run, the first entry in argv can be an empty string. If this function fails to initialize sys.argv, a fatal condition is signalled using Py_FatalError().
If updatepath is zero, this is all the function does. If updatepath is non-zero, the function also modifies sys.path according to the following algorithm:
It is recommended that applications embedding the Python interpreter for purposes other than executing a single script pass 0 as updatepath, and update sys.path themselves if desired. See CVE-2008-5983.
PyRun_SimpleString("import sys; sys.path.pop(0)\n");
New in version 2.6.6.
The Python interpreter is not fully thread safe. In order to support multi-threaded Python programs, there’s a global lock, called the global interpreter lock or GIL, that must be held by the current thread before it can safely access Python objects. Without the lock, even the simplest operations could cause problems in a multi-threaded program: for example, when two threads simultaneously increment the reference count of the same object, the reference count could end up being incremented only once instead of twice.
Therefore, the rule exists that only the thread that has acquired the global interpreter lock may operate on Python objects or call Python/C API functions. In order to support multi-threaded Python programs, the interpreter regularly releases and reacquires the lock — by default, every 100 bytecode instructions (this can be changed with sys.setcheckinterval()). The lock is also released and reacquired around potentially blocking I/O operations like reading or writing a file, so that other threads can run while the thread that requests the I/O is waiting for the I/O operation to complete.
The Python interpreter needs to keep some bookkeeping information separate per thread — for this it uses a data structure called PyThreadState. There’s one global variable, however: the pointer to the current PyThreadState structure. Before the addition of thread-local storage (TLS) the current thread state had to be manipulated explicitly.
This is easy enough in most cases. Most code manipulating the global interpreter lock has the following simple structure:
Save the thread state in a local variable. Release the global interpreter lock. ...Do some blocking I/O operation... Reacquire the global interpreter lock. Restore the thread state from the local variable.
This is so common that a pair of macros exists to simplify it:
Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS ...Do some blocking I/O operation... Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS
The Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS macro opens a new block and declares a hidden local variable; the Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS macro closes the block. Another advantage of using these two macros is that when Python is compiled without thread support, they are defined empty, thus saving the thread state and GIL manipulations.
When thread support is enabled, the block above expands to the following code:
PyThreadState *_save; _save = PyEval_SaveThread(); ...Do some blocking I/O operation... PyEval_RestoreThread(_save);
Using even lower level primitives, we can get roughly the same effect as follows:
PyThreadState *_save; _save = PyThreadState_Swap(NULL); PyEval_ReleaseLock(); ...Do some blocking I/O operation... PyEval_AcquireLock(); PyThreadState_Swap(_save);
There are some subtle differences; in particular, PyEval_RestoreThread() saves and restores the value of the global variable errno, since the lock manipulation does not guarantee that errno is left alone. Also, when thread support is disabled, PyEval_SaveThread() and PyEval_RestoreThread() don’t manipulate the GIL; in this case, PyEval_ReleaseLock() and PyEval_AcquireLock() are not available. This is done so that dynamically loaded extensions compiled with thread support enabled can be loaded by an interpreter that was compiled with disabled thread support.
The global interpreter lock is used to protect the pointer to the current thread state. When releasing the lock and saving the thread state, the current thread state pointer must be retrieved before the lock is released (since another thread could immediately acquire the lock and store its own thread state in the global variable). Conversely, when acquiring the lock and restoring the thread state, the lock must be acquired before storing the thread state pointer.
It is important to note that when threads are created from C, they don’t have the global interpreter lock, nor is there a thread state data structure for them. Such threads must bootstrap themselves into existence, by first creating a thread state data structure, then acquiring the lock, and finally storing their thread state pointer, before they can start using the Python/C API. When they are done, they should reset the thread state pointer, release the lock, and finally free their thread state data structure.
Beginning with version 2.3, threads can now take advantage of the PyGILState_*() functions to do all of the above automatically. The typical idiom for calling into Python from a C thread is now:
PyGILState_STATE gstate; gstate = PyGILState_Ensure(); /* Perform Python actions here. */ result = CallSomeFunction(); /* evaluate result */ /* Release the thread. No Python API allowed beyond this point. */ PyGILState_Release(gstate);
Note that the PyGILState_*() functions assume there is only one global interpreter (created automatically by Py_Initialize()). Python still supports the creation of additional interpreters (using Py_NewInterpreter()), but mixing multiple interpreters and the PyGILState_*() API is unsupported.
Another important thing to note about threads is their behaviour in the face of the C fork() call. On most systems with fork(), after a process forks only the thread that issued the fork will exist. That also means any locks held by other threads will never be released. Python solves this for os.fork() by acquiring the locks it uses internally before the fork, and releasing them afterwards. In addition, it resets any Lock Objects in the child. When extending or embedding Python, there is no way to inform Python of additional (non-Python) locks that need to be acquired before or reset after a fork. OS facilities such as posix_atfork() would need to be used to accomplish the same thing. Additionally, when extending or embedding Python, calling fork() directly rather than through os.fork() (and returning to or calling into Python) may result in a deadlock by one of Python’s internal locks being held by a thread that is defunct after the fork. PyOS_AfterFork() tries to reset the necessary locks, but is not always able to.
This data structure represents the state shared by a number of cooperating threads. Threads belonging to the same interpreter share their module administration and a few other internal items. There are no public members in this structure.
Threads belonging to different interpreters initially share nothing, except process state like available memory, open file descriptors and such. The global interpreter lock is also shared by all threads, regardless of to which interpreter they belong.
Initialize and acquire the global interpreter lock. It should be called in the main thread before creating a second thread or engaging in any other thread operations such as PyEval_ReleaseLock() or PyEval_ReleaseThread(tstate). It is not needed before calling PyEval_SaveThread() or PyEval_RestoreThread().
This is a no-op when called for a second time. It is safe to call this function before calling Py_Initialize().
When only the main thread exists, no GIL operations are needed. This is a common situation (most Python programs do not use threads), and the lock operations slow the interpreter down a bit. Therefore, the lock is not created initially. This situation is equivalent to having acquired the lock: when there is only a single thread, all object accesses are safe. Therefore, when this function initializes the global interpreter lock, it also acquires it. Before the Python thread module creates a new thread, knowing that either it has the lock or the lock hasn’t been created yet, it calls PyEval_InitThreads(). When this call returns, it is guaranteed that the lock has been created and that the calling thread has acquired it.
It is not safe to call this function when it is unknown which thread (if any) currently has the global interpreter lock.
This function is not available when thread support is disabled at compile time.
Returns a non-zero value if PyEval_InitThreads() has been called. This function can be called without holding the GIL, and therefore can be used to avoid calls to the locking API when running single-threaded. This function is not available when thread support is disabled at compile time.
New in version 2.4.
The following macros are normally used without a trailing semicolon; look for example usage in the Python source distribution.
All of the following functions are only available when thread support is enabled at compile time, and must be called only when the global interpreter lock has been created.
Return a dictionary in which extensions can store thread-specific state information. Each extension should use a unique key to use to store state in the dictionary. It is okay to call this function when no current thread state is available. If this function returns NULL, no exception has been raised and the caller should assume no current thread state is available.
Changed in version 2.3: Previously this could only be called when a current thread is active, and NULL meant that an exception was raised.
Asynchronously raise an exception in a thread. The id argument is the thread id of the target thread; exc is the exception object to be raised. This function does not steal any references to exc. To prevent naive misuse, you must write your own C extension to call this. Must be called with the GIL held. Returns the number of thread states modified; this is normally one, but will be zero if the thread id isn’t found. If exc is NULL, the pending exception (if any) for the thread is cleared. This raises no exceptions.
New in version 2.3.
Ensure that the current thread is ready to call the Python C API regardless of the current state of Python, or of the global interpreter lock. This may be called as many times as desired by a thread as long as each call is matched with a call to PyGILState_Release(). In general, other thread-related APIs may be used between PyGILState_Ensure() and PyGILState_Release() calls as long as the thread state is restored to its previous state before the Release(). For example, normal usage of the Py_BEGIN_ALLOW_THREADS and Py_END_ALLOW_THREADS macros is acceptable.
The return value is an opaque “handle” to the thread state when PyGILState_Ensure() was called, and must be passed to PyGILState_Release() to ensure Python is left in the same state. Even though recursive calls are allowed, these handles cannot be shared - each unique call to PyGILState_Ensure() must save the handle for its call to PyGILState_Release().
When the function returns, the current thread will hold the GIL. Failure is a fatal error.
New in version 2.3.
Release any resources previously acquired. After this call, Python’s state will be the same as it was prior to the corresponding PyGILState_Ensure() call (but generally this state will be unknown to the caller, hence the use of the GILState API.)
New in version 2.3.
A mechanism is provided to make asynchronous notifications to the main interpreter thread. These notifications take the form of a function pointer and a void argument.
Every check interval, when the global interpreter lock is released and reacquired, Python will also call any such provided functions. This can be used for example by asynchronous IO handlers. The notification can be scheduled from a worker thread and the actual call than made at the earliest convenience by the main thread where it has possession of the global interpreter lock and can perform any Python API calls.
Post a notification to the Python main thread. If successful, func will be called with the argument arg at the earliest convenience. func will be called having the global interpreter lock held and can thus use the full Python API and can take any action such as setting object attributes to signal IO completion. It must return 0 on success, or -1 signalling an exception. The notification function won’t be interrupted to perform another asynchronous notification recursively, but it can still be interrupted to switch threads if the global interpreter lock is released, for example, if it calls back into Python code.
This function returns 0 on success in which case the notification has been scheduled. Otherwise, for example if the notification buffer is full, it returns -1 without setting any exception.
This function can be called on any thread, be it a Python thread or some other system thread. If it is a Python thread, it doesn’t matter if it holds the global interpreter lock or not.
New in version 2.7.
The Python interpreter provides some low-level support for attaching profiling and execution tracing facilities. These are used for profiling, debugging, and coverage analysis tools.
Starting with Python 2.2, the implementation of this facility was substantially revised, and an interface from C was added. This C interface allows the profiling or tracing code to avoid the overhead of calling through Python-level callable objects, making a direct C function call instead. The essential attributes of the facility have not changed; the interface allows trace functions to be installed per-thread, and the basic events reported to the trace function are the same as had been reported to the Python-level trace functions in previous versions.
The type of the trace function registered using PyEval_SetProfile() and PyEval_SetTrace(). The first parameter is the object passed to the registration function as obj, frame is the frame object to which the event pertains, what is one of the constants PyTrace_CALL, PyTrace_EXCEPTION, PyTrace_LINE, PyTrace_RETURN, PyTrace_C_CALL, PyTrace_C_EXCEPTION, or PyTrace_C_RETURN, and arg depends on the value of what:
|Value of what||Meaning of arg|
|PyTrace_EXCEPTION||Exception information as returned by sys.exc_info().|
|PyTrace_RETURN||Value being returned to the caller.|
|PyTrace_C_CALL||Name of function being called.|
Return a tuple of function call counts. There are constants defined for the positions within the tuple:
PCALL_FAST_FUNCTION means no argument tuple needs to be created. PCALL_FASTER_FUNCTION means that the fast-path frame setup code is used.
If there is a method call where the call can be optimized by changing the argument tuple and calling the function directly, it gets recorded twice.
This function is only present if Python is compiled with CALL_PROFILE defined.
These functions are only intended to be used by advanced debugging tools.
Return the interpreter state object at the head of the list of all such objects.
New in version 2.2.
Return the next interpreter state object after interp from the list of all such objects.
New in version 2.2.
Return the a pointer to the first PyThreadState object in the list of threads associated with the interpreter interp.
New in version 2.2.