This module provides various time-related functions. It is always available.
An explanation of some terminology and conventions is in order.
localtime(), or as accpted by
mktime()is a tuple of 9 integers: year (e.g. 1993), month (1-12), day (1-31), hour (0-23), minute (0-59), second (0-59), weekday (0-6, monday is 0), Julian day (1-366) and daylight savings flag (-1, 0 or 1). Note that unlike the C structure, the month value is a range of 1-12, not 0-11. A year value of < 100 will typically be silently converted to 1900 + year value. A -1 argument as daylight savings flag, passed to
mktime()will usually result in the correct daylight savings state to be filled in.
The module defines the following functions and data items:
localtime()to a 24-character string of the following form:
'Sun Jun 20 23:21:05 1993'. Note: unlike the C function of the same name, there is no trailing newline.
ctime(t)is equivalent to
gmtimebut converts to local time. The dst flag is set to 1 when DST applies to the given time.
localtime. Its argument is the full 9-tuple (since the dst flag is needed -- pass -1 as the dst flag if it is unknown) which expresses the time in local time, not UTC. It returns a floating point number, for compatibility with
time.time(). If the input value can't be represented as a valid time, OverflowError is raised.
localtime()to a string as specified by the format argument.
The following directives, shown without the optional field width and precision specification, are replaced by the indicated characters:
|%a||Locale's abbreviated weekday name.|
|%A||Locale's full weekday name.|
|%b||Locale's abbreviated month name.|
|%B||Locale's full month name.|
|%c||Locale's appropriate date and time representation.|
|%d||Day of the month as a decimal number [01,31].|
|%E||Locale's combined Emperor/Era name and year.|
|%H||Hour (24-hour clock) as a decimal number [00,23].|
|%I||Hour (12-hour clock) as a decimal number [01,12].|
|%j||Day of the year as a decimal number [001,366].|
|%m||Month as a decimal number [01,12].|
|%M||Minute as a decimal number [00,59].|
|%N||Locale's Emperor/Era name.|
|%o||Locale's Emperor/Era year.|
|%p||Locale's equivalent of either AM or PM.|
|%S||Second as a decimal number [00,61].|
|%U||Week number of the year (Sunday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [00,53]. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.|
|%w||Weekday as a decimal number [0(Sunday),6].|
|%W||Week number of the year (Monday as the first day of the week) as a decimal number [00,53]. All days in a new year preceding the first Sunday are considered to be in week 0.|
|%x||Locale's appropriate date representation.|
|%X||Locale's appropriate time representation.|
|%y||Year without century as a decimal number [00,99].|
|%Y||Year with century as a decimal number.|
|%Z||Time zone name (or by no characters if no time zone exists).|
An optional field width and precision specification can immediately
follow the initial % of a directive in the following order:
|[-|0]w||the decimal digit string w specifies a minimum field width in which the result of the conversion is right- or left-justified. It is right-justified (with space padding) by default. If the optional flag `-' is specified, it is left-justified with space padding on the right. If the optional flag `0' is specified, it is right-justified and padded with zeros on the left.|
|.p||the decimal digit string p specifies the minimum number of digits to appear for the d, H, I, j, m, M, o, S, U, w, W, y and Y directives, and the maximum number of characters to be used from the a, A, b, B, c, D, E, F, h, n, N, p, r, t, T, x, X, z, Z, and the first case, if a directive supplies fewer digits than specified by the precision, it will be expanded with leading zeros. In the second case, if a directive supplies more characters than specified by the precision, excess characters will truncated on the right.|
If no field width or precision is specified for a d, H, I, m, M, S, U, W, y, or j directive, a default of .2 is used for all but j for which .3 is used.