Although Python’s extensive standard library covers many programming needs, there often comes a time when you need to add new functionality to your Python installation in the form of third-party modules. This might be necessary to support your own programming, or to support an application that you want to use and that happens to be written in Python.
In the past, there was little support for adding third-party modules to an existing Python installation. With the introduction of the Python Distribution Utilities (Distutils for short) in Python 2.0, this changed. However, not all problems were solved; end-users had to rely on easy_install or pip to download third-party modules from PyPI, uninstall distributions or do other maintenance operations. Packaging is a more complete replacement for Distutils, in the standard library, with a backport named Distutils2 available for older Python versions.
This document is aimed primarily at people who need to install third-party Python modules: end-users and system administrators who just need to get some Python application running, and existing Python programmers who want to add new goodies to their toolbox. You don’t need to know Python to read this document; there will be some brief forays into using Python’s interactive mode to explore your installation, but that’s it. If you’re looking for information on how to distribute your own Python modules so that others may use them, see the Distributing Python Projects manual.
In the best case, someone will have prepared a special version of the module distribution you want to install that is targeted specifically at your platform and can be installed just like any other software on your platform. For example, the module’s developer might make an executable installer available for Windows users, an RPM package for users of RPM-based Linux systems (Red Hat, SuSE, Mandrake, and many others), a Debian package for users of Debian and derivative systems, and so forth.
In that case, you would use the standard system tools to download and install the specific installer for your platform and its dependencies.
Of course, things will not always be that easy. You might be interested in a module whose distribution doesn’t have an easy-to-use installer for your platform. In that case, you’ll have to start with the source distribution released by the module’s author/maintainer. Installing from a source distribution is not too hard, as long as the modules are packaged in the standard way. The bulk of this document addresses the building and installing of modules from standard source distributions.
If you download a source distribution of a module, it will be obvious whether it was packaged and distributed using Distutils. First, the distribution’s name and version number will be featured prominently in the name of the downloaded archive, e.g. foo-1.0.tar.gz or widget-0.9.7.zip. Next, the archive will unpack into a similarly-named directory: foo-1.0 or widget-0.9.7. Additionally, the distribution may contain a setup.cfg file and a file named README.txt —or possibly just README— explaining that building and installing the module distribution is a simple matter of issuing the following command at your shell’s prompt:
python setup.py install
Third-party projects have extended Distutils to work around its limitations or add functionality. After some years of near-inactivity in Distutils, a new maintainer has started to standardize good ideas in PEPs and implement them in a new, improved version of Distutils, called Distutils2 or Packaging.
The rules described in the first paragraph above apply to Packaging-based projects too: a source distribution will have a name like widget-0.9.7.zip. One of the main differences with Distutils is that distributions no longer have a setup.py script; it used to cause a number of issues. Now there is a unique script installed with Python itself:
pysetup install widget-0.9.7.zip
Running this command is enough to build and install projects (Python modules or packages, scripts or whole applications), without even having to unpack the archive. It is also compatible with Distutils-based distributions.
Unless you have to perform non-standard installations or customize the build process, you can stop reading this manual —the above command is everything you need to get out of it.
With pysetup, you won’t even have to manually download a distribution before installing it; see Pysetup Tutorial.
As described in section The new standard: Packaging, building and installing a module distribution using Packaging usually comes down to one simple command:
pysetup run install_dist
This is a command that should be run in a terminal. On Windows, it is called a command prompt and found in Start ‣ Accessories; Powershell is a popular alternative.
The setup command is meant to be run from the root directory of the source distribution, i.e. the top-level subdirectory that the module source distribution unpacks into. For example, if you’ve just downloaded a module source distribution foo-1.0.tar.gz onto a Unix system, the normal steps to follow are these:
gunzip -c foo-1.0.tar.gz | tar xf - # unpacks into directory foo-1.0 cd foo-1.0 pysetup run install_dist
On Windows, you’d probably download foo-1.0.zip. If you downloaded the archive file to C:\Temp, then it would unpack into C:\Temp\foo-1.0. To actually unpack the archive, you can use either an archive manipulator with a graphical user interface (such as WinZip or 7-Zip) or a command-line tool (such as unzip, pkunzip or, again, 7z). Then, open a command prompt window and run:
cd c:\Temp\foo-1.0 pysetup run install_dist
Running pysetup run install_dist builds and installs all modules in one go. If you prefer to work incrementally —especially useful if you want to customize the build process, or if things are going wrong— you can use the setup script to do one thing at a time. This is a valuable tool when different users will perform separately the build and install steps. For example, you might want to build a module distribution and hand it off to a system administrator for installation (or do it yourself, but with super-user or admin privileges).
For example, to build everything in one step and then install everything in a second step, you aptly invoke two distinct Packaging commands:
pysetup run build pysetup run install_dist
If you do this, you will notice that invoking the install_dist command first runs the build command, which —in this case— quickly notices it can spare itself the work, since everything in the build directory is up-to-date.
You may often ignore this ability to divide the process in steps if all you do is installing modules downloaded from the Internet, but it’s very handy for more advanced tasks. If you find yourself in the need for distributing your own Python modules and extensions, though, you’ll most likely run many individual Packaging commands.
As implied above, the build command is responsible for collecting and placing the files to be installed into a build directory. By default, this is build, under the distribution root. If you’re excessively concerned with speed, or want to keep the source tree pristine, you can specify a different build directory with the --build-base option. For example:
pysetup run build --build-base /tmp/pybuild/foo-1.0
(Or you could do this permanently with a directive in your system or personal Packaging configuration file; see section Configuration files for Packaging.) In the usual case, however, all this is unnecessary.
The build tree’s default layout looks like so:
--- build/ --- lib/ or --- build/ --- lib.<plat>/ temp.<plat>/
where <plat> expands to a brief description of the current OS/hardware platform and Python version. The first form, with just a lib directory, is used for pure module distributions (module distributions that include only pure Python modules). If a module distribution contains any extensions (modules written in C/C++), then the second form, with two <plat> directories, is used. In that case, the temp.plat directory holds temporary files generated during the compile/link process which are not intended to be installed. In either case, the lib (or lib.plat) directory contains all Python modules (pure Python and extensions) to be installed.
In the future, more directories will be added to handle Python scripts, documentation, binary executables, and whatever else is required to install Python modules and applications.
After the build command is run (whether explicitly or by the install_dist command on your behalf), the work of the install_dist command is relatively simple: all it has to do is copy the contents of build/lib (or build/lib.plat) to the installation directory of your choice.
If you don’t choose an installation directory —i.e., if you just run pysetup run install_dist— then the install_dist command installs to the standard location for third-party Python modules. This location varies by platform and depending on how you built/installed Python itself. On Unix (and Mac OS X, which is also Unix-based), it also depends on whether the module distribution being installed is pure Python or contains extensions (“non-pure”):
|Platform||Standard installation location||Default value||Notes|
prefix and exec-prefix stand for the directories that Python is installed to, and where it finds its libraries at run-time. They are always the same under Windows, and very often the same under Unix and Mac OS X. You can find out what your Python installation uses for prefix and exec-prefix by running Python in interactive mode and typing a few simple commands.
To start the interactive Python interpreter, you need to follow a slightly different recipe for each platform. Under Unix, just type python at the shell prompt. Under Windows (assuming the Python executable is on your PATH, which is the usual case), you can choose Start ‣ Run, type python and press enter. Alternatively, you can simply execute python at a command prompt (Start ‣ Accessories) or in Powershell.
Once the interpreter is started, you type Python code at the prompt. For example, on my Linux system, I type the three Python statements shown below, and get the output as shown, to find out my prefix and exec-prefix:
Python 3.3 (r32:88445, Apr 2 2011, 10:43:54) Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import sys >>> sys.prefix '/usr' >>> sys.exec_prefix '/usr'
A few other placeholders are used in this document: X.Y stands for the version of Python, for example 3.2; abiflags will be replaced by the value of sys.abiflags or the empty string for platforms which don’t define ABI flags; distname will be replaced by the name of the module distribution being installed. Dots and capitalization are important in the paths; for example, a value that uses python3.2 on UNIX will typically use Python32 on Windows.
If you don’t want to install modules to the standard location, or if you don’t have permission to write there, then you need to read about alternate installations in section Alternate installation. If you want to customize your installation directories more heavily, see section Custom installation.
Often, it is necessary or desirable to install modules to a location other than the standard location for third-party Python modules. For example, on a Unix system you might not have permission to write to the standard third-party module directory. Or you might wish to try out a module before making it a standard part of your local Python installation. This is especially true when upgrading a distribution already present: you want to make sure your existing base of scripts still works with the new version before actually upgrading.
The Packaging install_dist command is designed to make installing module distributions to an alternate location simple and painless. The basic idea is that you supply a base directory for the installation, and the install_dist command picks a set of directories (called an installation scheme) under this base directory in which to install files. The details differ across platforms, so read whichever of the following sections applies to you.
Note that the various alternate installation schemes are mutually exclusive: you can pass --user, or --home, or --prefix and --exec-prefix, or --install-base and --install-platbase, but you can’t mix from these groups.
This scheme is designed to be the most convenient solution for users that don’t have write permission to the global site-packages directory or don’t want to install into it. It is enabled with a simple option:
pysetup run install_dist --user
Files will be installed into subdirectories of site.USER_BASE (written as userbase hereafter). This scheme installs pure Python modules and extension modules in the same location (also known as site.USER_SITE). Here are the values for UNIX, including non-framework builds on Mac OS X:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
Framework builds on Mac OS X use these paths:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
And here are the values used on Windows:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
The advantage of using this scheme compared to the other ones described below is that the user site-packages directory is under normal conditions always included in sys.path (see site for more information), which means that there is no additional step to perform after running pysetup to finalize the installation.
The build_ext command also has a --user option to add userbase/include to the compiler search path for header files and userbase/lib to the compiler search path for libraries as well as to the runtime search path for shared C libraries (rpath).
The idea behind the “home scheme” is that you build and maintain a personal stash of Python modules. This scheme’s name is derived from the concept of a “home” directory on Unix, since it’s not unusual for a Unix user to make their home directory have a layout similar to /usr/ or /usr/local/. In spite of its name’s origin, this scheme can be used by anyone, regardless of the operating system.
Installing a new module distribution in this way is as simple as
pysetup run install_dist --home <dir>
where you can supply any directory you like for the --home option. On Unix, lazy typists can just type a tilde (~); the install_dist command will expand this to your home directory:
pysetup run install_dist --home ~
The --home option defines the base directory for the installation. Under it, files are installed to the following directories:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
(Mentally replace slashes with backslashes if you’re on Windows.)
The “prefix scheme” is useful when you wish to use one Python installation to run the build command, but install modules into the third-party module directory of a different Python installation (or something that looks like a different Python installation). If this sounds a trifle unusual, it is —that’s why the user and home schemes come before. However, there are at least two known cases where the prefix scheme will be useful.
First, consider that many Linux distributions put Python in /usr, rather than the more traditional /usr/local. This is entirely appropriate, since in those cases Python is part of “the system” rather than a local add-on. However, if you are installing Python modules from source, you probably want them to go in /usr/local/lib/python2.X rather than /usr/lib/python2.X. This can be done with
pysetup run install_dist --prefix /usr/local
Another possibility is a network filesystem where the name used to write to a remote directory is different from the name used to read it: for example, the Python interpreter accessed as /usr/local/bin/python might search for modules in /usr/local/lib/python2.X, but those modules would have to be installed to, say, /mnt/@server/export/lib/python2.X. This could be done with
pysetup run install_dist --prefix=/mnt/@server/export
In either case, the --prefix option defines the installation base, and the --exec-prefix option defines the platform-specific installation base, which is used for platform-specific files. (Currently, this just means non-pure module distributions, but could be expanded to C libraries, binary executables, etc.) If --exec-prefix is not supplied, it defaults to --prefix. Files are installed as follows:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
There is no requirement that --prefix or --exec-prefix actually point to an alternate Python installation; if the directories listed above do not already exist, they are created at installation time.
Incidentally, the real reason the prefix scheme is important is simply that a standard Unix installation uses the prefix scheme, but with --prefix and --exec-prefix supplied by Python itself as sys.prefix and sys.exec_prefix. Thus, you might think you’ll never use the prefix scheme, but every time you run pysetup run install_dist without any other options, you’re using it.
Note that installing extensions to an alternate Python installation doesn’t have anything to do with how those extensions are built: in particular, extensions will be compiled using the Python header files (Python.h and friends) installed with the Python interpreter used to run the build command. It is therefore your responsibility to ensure compatibility between the interpreter intended to run extensions installed in this way and the interpreter used to build these same extensions. To avoid problems, it is best to make sure that the two interpreters are the same version of Python (possibly different builds, or possibly copies of the same build). (Of course, if your --prefix and --exec-prefix don’t even point to an alternate Python installation, this is immaterial.)
Windows has a different and vaguer notion of home directories than Unix, and since its standard Python installation is simpler, the --prefix option has traditionally been used to install additional packages to arbitrary locations.
pysetup run install_dist --prefix "\Temp\Python"
to install modules to the \Temp\Python directory on the current drive.
The installation base is defined by the --prefix option; the --exec-prefix option is not supported under Windows, which means that pure Python modules and extension modules are installed into the same location. Files are installed as follows:
|Type of file||Installation directory|
Sometimes, the alternate installation schemes described in section Alternate installation just don’t do what you want. You might want to tweak just one or two directories while keeping everything under the same base directory, or you might want to completely redefine the installation scheme. In either case, you’re creating a custom installation scheme.
To create a custom installation scheme, you start with one of the alternate schemes and override some of the installation directories used for the various types of files, using these options:
|Type of file||Override option|
These override options can be relative, absolute, or explicitly defined in terms of one of the installation base directories. (There are two installation base directories, and they are normally the same —they only differ when you use the Unix “prefix scheme” and supply different --prefix and --exec-prefix options; using --install-lib will override values computed or given for --install-purelib and --install-platlib, and is recommended for schemes that don’t make a difference between Python and extension modules.)
For example, say you’re installing a module distribution to your home directory under Unix, but you want scripts to go in ~/scripts rather than ~/bin. As you might expect, you can override this directory with the --install-scripts option and, in this case, it makes most sense to supply a relative path, which will be interpreted relative to the installation base directory (in our example, your home directory):
pysetup run install_dist --home ~ --install-scripts scripts
Another Unix example: suppose your Python installation was built and installed with a prefix of /usr/local/python. Thus, in a standard installation, scripts will wind up in /usr/local/python/bin. If you want them in /usr/local/bin instead, you would supply this absolute directory for the --install-scripts option:
pysetup run install_dist --install-scripts /usr/local/bin
This command performs an installation using the “prefix scheme”, where the prefix is whatever your Python interpreter was installed with —in this case, /usr/local/python.
If you maintain Python on Windows, you might want third-party modules to live in a subdirectory of prefix, rather than right in prefix itself. This is almost as easy as customizing the script installation directory —you just have to remember that there are two types of modules to worry about, Python and extension modules, which can conveniently be both controlled by one option:
pysetup run install_dist --install-lib Site
The specified installation directory is relative to prefix. Of course, you also have to ensure that this directory is in Python’s module search path, such as by putting a .pth file in a site directory (see site). See section Modifying Python’s search path to find out how to modify Python’s search path.
If you want to define an entire installation scheme, you just have to supply all of the installation directory options. Using relative paths is recommended here. For example, if you want to maintain all Python module-related files under python in your home directory, and you want a separate directory for each platform that you use your home directory from, you might define the following installation scheme:
pysetup run install_dist --home ~ \ --install-purelib python/lib \ --install-platlib python/'lib.$PLAT' \ --install-scripts python/scripts \ --install-data python/data
pysetup run install_dist --home ~/python \ --install-purelib lib \ --install-platlib 'lib.$PLAT' \ --install-scripts scripts \ --install-data data
$PLAT doesn’t need to be defined as an environment variable —it will also be expanded by Packaging as it parses your command line options, just as it does when parsing your configuration file(s). (More on that later.)
Obviously, specifying the entire installation scheme every time you install a new module distribution would be very tedious. To spare you all that work, you can store it in a Packaging configuration file instead (see section Configuration files for Packaging), like so:
[install_dist] install-base = $HOME install-purelib = python/lib install-platlib = python/lib.$PLAT install-scripts = python/scripts install-data = python/data
[install_dist] install-base = $HOME/python install-purelib = lib install-platlib = lib.$PLAT install-scripts = scripts install-data = data
Note that these two are not equivalent if you override their installation base directory when running the setup script. For example,
pysetup run install_dist --install-base /tmp
would install pure modules to /tmp/python/lib in the first case, and to /tmp/lib in the second case. (For the second case, you’d probably want to supply an installation base of /tmp/python.)
You may have noticed the use of $HOME and $PLAT in the sample configuration file. These are Packaging configuration variables, which bear a strong resemblance to environment variables. In fact, you can use environment variables in configuration files on platforms that have such a notion, but Packaging additionally defines a few extra variables that may not be in your environment, such as $PLAT. Of course, on systems that don’t have environment variables, such as Mac OS 9, the configuration variables supplied by the Packaging are the only ones you can use. See section Configuration files for Packaging for details.
When the Python interpreter executes an import statement, it searches for both Python code and extension modules along a search path. A default value for this path is configured into the Python binary when the interpreter is built. You can obtain the search path by importing the sys module and printing the value of sys.path.
$ python Python 2.2 (#11, Oct 3 2002, 13:31:27) [GCC 2.96 20000731 (Red Hat Linux 7.3 2.96-112)] on linux2 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>> import sys >>> sys.path ['', '/usr/local/lib/python2.3', '/usr/local/lib/python2.3/plat-linux2', '/usr/local/lib/python2.3/lib-tk', '/usr/local/lib/python2.3/lib-dynload', '/usr/local/lib/python2.3/site-packages'] >>>
The null string in sys.path represents the current working directory.
The expected convention for locally installed packages is to put them in the .../site-packages/ directory, but you may want to choose a different location for some reason. For example, if your site kept by convention all web server-related software under /www. Add-on Python modules might then belong in /www/python, and in order to import them, this directory would have to be added to sys.path. There are several ways to solve this problem.
The most convenient way is to add a path configuration file to a directory that’s already on Python’s path, usually to the .../site-packages/ directory. Path configuration files have an extension of .pth, and each line must contain a single path that will be appended to sys.path. (Because the new paths are appended to sys.path, modules in the added directories will not override standard modules. This means you can’t use this mechanism for installing fixed versions of standard modules.)
Paths can be absolute or relative, in which case they’re relative to the directory containing the .pth file. See the documentation of the site module for more information.
A slightly less convenient way is to edit the site.py file in Python’s standard library, and modify sys.path. site.py is automatically imported when the Python interpreter is executed, unless the -S switch is supplied to suppress this behaviour. So you could simply edit site.py and add two lines to it:
import sys sys.path.append('/www/python/')
However, if you reinstall the same major version of Python (perhaps when upgrading from 3.3 to 3.3.1, for example) site.py will be overwritten by the stock version. You’d have to remember that it was modified and save a copy before doing the installation.
Alternatively, there are two environment variables that can modify sys.path. PYTHONHOME sets an alternate value for the prefix of the Python installation. For example, if PYTHONHOME is set to /www/python, the search path will be set to ['', '/www/python/lib/pythonX.Y/', '/www/python/lib/pythonX.Y/plat-linux2', ...].
The PYTHONPATH variable can be set to a list of paths that will be added to the beginning of sys.path. For example, if PYTHONPATH is set to /www/python:/opt/py, the search path will begin with ['/www/python', '/opt/py']. (Note that directories must exist in order to be added to sys.path; the site module removes non-existent paths.)
Finally, sys.path is just a regular Python list, so any Python application can modify it by adding or removing entries.
As mentioned above, you can use configuration files to store personal or site preferences for any option supported by any Packaging command. Depending on your platform, you can use one of two or three possible configuration files. These files will be read before parsing the command-line, so they take precedence over default values. In turn, the command-line will override configuration files. Lastly, if there are multiple configuration files, values from files read earlier will be overridden by values from files read later.
The name and location of the configuration files vary slightly across platforms. On Unix and Mac OS X, these are the three configuration files listed in the order they are processed:
|Type of file||Location and filename||Notes|
Similarly, the configuration files on Windows —also listed in the order they are processed— are these:
|Type of file||Location and filename||Notes|
On all platforms, the personal file can be temporarily disabled by means of the –no-user-cfg option.
All Packaging configuration files share the same syntax. Options defined in them are grouped into sections, and each Packaging command gets its own section. Additionally, there’s a global section for options that affect every command. Sections consist of one or more lines containing a single option specified as option = value.
For example, here’s a complete configuration file that forces all commands to run quietly by default:
[global] verbose = 0
If this was the system configuration file, it would affect all processing of any Python module distribution by any user on the current system. If it was installed as your personal configuration file (on systems that support them), it would affect only module distributions processed by you. Lastly, if it was used as the setup.cfg for a particular module distribution, it would affect that distribution only.
If you wanted to, you could override the default “build base” directory and make the build* commands always forcibly rebuild all files with the following:
[build] build-base = blib force = 1
which corresponds to the command-line arguments:
pysetup run build --build-base blib --force
except that including the build command on the command-line means that command will be run. Including a particular command in configuration files has no such implication; it only means that if the command is run, the options for it in the configuration file will apply. (This is also true if you run other commands that derive values from it.)
You can find out the complete list of options for any command using the --help option, e.g.:
pysetup run build --help
and you can find out the complete list of global options by using --help without a command:
pysetup run --help
See also the “Reference” section of the “Distributing Python Modules” manual.
Whenever possible, Packaging tries to use the configuration information made available by the Python interpreter used to run pysetup. For example, the same compiler and linker flags used to compile Python will also be used for compiling extensions. Usually this will work well, but in complicated situations this might be inappropriate. This section discusses how to override the usual Packaging behaviour.
This subsection describes the necessary steps to use Packaging with the Borland C++ compiler version 5.5. First you have to know that Borland’s object file format (OMF) is different from the format used by the Python version you can download from the Python or ActiveState Web site. (Python is built with Microsoft Visual C++, which uses COFF as the object file format.) For this reason, you have to convert Python’s library python25.lib into the Borland format. You can do this as follows:
coff2omf python25.lib python25_bcpp.lib
The coff2omf program comes with the Borland compiler. The file python25.lib is in the Libs directory of your Python installation. If your extension uses other libraries (zlib, ...) you have to convert them too.
The converted files have to reside in the same directories as the normal libraries.
How does Packaging manage to use these libraries with their changed names? If the extension needs a library (eg. foo) Packaging checks first if it finds a library with suffix _bcpp (eg. foo_bcpp.lib) and then uses this library. In the case it doesn’t find such a special library it uses the default name (foo.lib.) 
To let Packaging compile your extension with Borland, C++ you now have to type:
pysetup run build --compiler bcpp
If you want to use the Borland C++ compiler as the default, you could specify this in your personal or system-wide configuration file for Packaging (see section Configuration files for Packaging.)
This section describes the necessary steps to use Packaging with the GNU C/C++ compilers in their Cygwin and MinGW distributions.  For a Python interpreter that was built with Cygwin, everything should work without any of these following steps.
Not all extensions can be built with MinGW or Cygwin, but many can. Extensions most likely to not work are those that use C++ or depend on Microsoft Visual C extensions.
To let Packaging compile your extension with Cygwin, you have to type:
pysetup run build --compiler=cygwin
and for Cygwin in no-cygwin mode  or for MinGW, type:
pysetup run build --compiler=mingw32
If you want to use any of these options/compilers as default, you should consider writing it in your personal or system-wide configuration file for Packaging (see section Configuration files for Packaging.)
The following instructions only apply if you’re using a version of Python inferior to 2.4.1 with a MinGW inferior to 3.0.0 (with binutils-2.13.90-20030111-1).
These compilers require some special libraries. This task is more complex than for Borland’s C++, because there is no program to convert the library. First you have to create a list of symbols which the Python DLL exports. (You can find a good program for this task at http://www.emmestech.com/software/pexports-0.43/download_pexports.html).
pexports python25.dll > python25.def
The location of an installed python25.dll will depend on the installation options and the version and language of Windows. In a “just for me” installation, it will appear in the root of the installation directory. In a shared installation, it will be located in the system directory.
Then you can create from these information an import library for gcc.
/cygwin/bin/dlltool --dllname python25.dll --def python25.def --output-lib libpython25.a
The resulting library has to be placed in the same directory as python25.lib. (Should be the libs directory under your Python installation directory.)
If your extension uses other libraries (zlib,...) you might have to convert them too. The converted files have to reside in the same directories as the normal libraries do.
|||This also means you could replace all existing COFF-libraries with OMF-libraries of the same name.|
|||Check http://sources.redhat.com/cygwin/ and http://www.mingw.org/ for more information.|
|||Then you have no POSIX emulation available, but you also don’t need cygwin1.dll.|